Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 12 People and Their Needs"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 12 People and Their Needs People must be“emancipated from nature”“the negation of nature isthe way toward happiness”John Locke
2Section 12.1 A Portrait of Earth The Earth is a series of systems and connectionsEcosystems are affected by many factors:Climate (the interaction between ocean, air and land)Circulation (movement of air and water)Plate Tectonics (movement of the Earth’s land mass)
3Section 12.1 A portrait of Earth Earth can also be viewed in terms of matter and energy:For matter the Earth is a closed systemThis means only tiny amounts of matter leave or join the EarthFor energy the Earth is an open systemThis means that the Earth gets a huge amount of energy from the sun – some is released as heatAn open energy system allows large amounts of energy from the sun to be absorbed by the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere Earth. Then the Earth can radiate excess energy away from the planet as heat into the hydrosphere and atmosphere.The closed system of matter allows only a very tiny amount of matter (rock, soil) into the Earth three systems and an equally small amount out of the Earth.
4Earth Systems are Interconnected 2004 EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMIIN THE INDIAN OCEANPlate Tectonics
5Earth Systems are Interconnected Deep Ocean Zone Earthquakeand Tsunami - Japan 2011Plate Tectonics
6Section 12.1 The Gaia Hypothesis Proposed in 1972 by James Lovelock a British scientistStates: The Earth is a single, living organism that regulates itself to maintain life.James Lovelock proposed that we use the native people’s view of Earth as a way to take account of the whole planet and not just Earth’s individual systems or areas.
7Section 12.2 Human Societies Three Types of Human Societies:Hunter-gatherer – nomadic people that hunt and gather naturally growing food.Agricultural – grows crops, stay in one placeIndustrial – produces food and other products using machines - requires large amounts of energy and resourcesThe earliest way people survived as a group was to roam the land trying to find as much food as they could. When that area’s food was used up, they moved on to a new area looking for more food.
812.2 Hunter-Gatherer Society Nomadic – travel to where food can be found – never stay in one placeGather naturally growing plants and hunt for whatever animals they can findLow population numbersHave little or no impact on the environmentCan still be found in remote areas untouched by modern civilizationHunter-gatherers did not require much energy or resources from the Earth. Their population size was small due to the limits of available food supplies and the amount of time the people had to spend getting their food
912.2 Agricultural Society10,000 to 20,000 years ago people in Southeast Asia and Africa began to farmFor the first time, they planted crops and raised animals for foodThis caused two main changes:1. people settled in one place2. people found work within their society
1012.2 Agricultural The most important invention was the plow The plow helped people plant more and produce more food,More food meant more people Human population grewModern agriculture caused many environmental problems including:increase land and chemical use,soil depletion,water contamination,increase in food contamination
1112.2 Industrial SocietyThe human population faced change again in the late 1700’sProduction of food and everyday needs switched from skilled individuals to machinesMachines need much more energy and raw materials to produce productsMajor damage to the environment began with the use of machines
12Industrial Society Positive Scientists improved crops Medical discoveries allowed people to live longerMore food and medical advances allowed the human population to grow even moreNegativeIncreased use of energyIncreased use of natural resourcesIncreased populationRapid increase in environmental damageAir, land and water pollutionRaw materials are running out
13Characteristics of Human Societies Hunter-GathererAgriculturalIndustrialLifestyle/TechnologyUse page 192Table 12.1Resource UseTo completeThis chartEnvironment knowledgeHuman healthEnvironmental impactEnergy Use
1412.3 Sustainable Development Frontier EthicSustainable DevelopmentHumans are separate from Nature.1) Resources are unlimited and here for our use.2) Humans do not need to obey natural laws.Our success/failure is measured by our control over the natural world.Meets the current needs of society without limiting the way future generations meet their needs.1) Resources are limited and not all to be used exclusively by humans.2) Humans are part of the living Earth and must obey natural laws.3) Human success means living in harmony with nature.
15Sustainable Development Frontier EthicSustainable Ethic1) Earth’s resources is limited by size and content.2) Humans have carrying capacities and limiting factors that control our population just like any other organism.3) Each human measures their success differently with respect to their environment.Indefinite frontier ethic can not be successful.1) Materials needed to build societies are limited.2) Materials that can regenerate like wood or livestock are called renewable resources.3) Materials that can not regenerate like oil and minerals are called non- renewable resources.Successful societies will concentrate on using conservation and renewable resources.