Presentation on theme: "15 Key People of the Middle Ages. Joan of Arc French Peasant who lived from 1412-1431 Grew up when France was largely under the power of the English -The."— Presentation transcript:
15 Key People of the Middle Ages
Joan of Arc French Peasant who lived from Grew up when France was largely under the power of the English -The French people had no representation, no king, no power. -She grew to pity her country As a teenager, Joan began to hear voices of angels that told her “You can deliver the land from the English; Go to the relief of King Charles.” -Family tried to dissuade her, but others believed her visions She ended up leading the French army of about 5000 men in battle with England. -They were victorious and the French King was crowned in front of Joan in Rheims At 19, Joan was captured by the English, tried for sorcery, and burned at the stake.
Saint Thomas Aquinas An Italian Priest who lived from Was one of the Catholic Church’s foremost theologians and was well known for his belief that truth is known through “reason and faith.” -This was a very contemporary idea as the church believed that God was above any kind of reason of man. Created 5 components of God: God is simple, God is perfect, God is infinite, God is immutable, and God is one. As an older man, Thomas claimed to hear the voice of Jesus that said to him “What do you want in return for your good deeds?” to which he replied “Only you Lord.” Is still considered the most prominent theologian of the Catholic Church. Was made a Saint in the 1300s
William the Conquerer English ruler who is responsible for the construction of castles all over England Lived from Brought about a new form of war: Sieges Most famous castle is The Tower Of London which is still standing today
Hereward The Wake Inspiration for the character of Robin Hood Led the final rebellion against William the Conqueror. Birth and death are unknown Was considered the champion of ordinary people, and as a symbol of resistance to oppression Fought against unfair laws, taxes, and rulers.
Peter The Hermit Lived Was the leader of the first Crusade – The crusades were a series of military exploits in which the Christians sought to take over the holy city of Jerusalem which was in the hands of the Turks. – Christians were worried that the hostile Turks would not allow them to visit Jesus’s tomb and other holy places. Peter began recruiting people to fight for the holy city, and more than 100,000 men, women, and children joined him in the battle called “The People’s Crusade.” However, they were badly beaten. Peters retreated before the battle ended and returned to Constantinople.
Roger Bacon Lived Is responsible for foreseeing many modern inventions including steamboats and airplanes. Did not make any significant discoveries, but is attributed with creating the modern Scientific Method which includes the steps of Questioning, Hypothesis, Test, etc.
Eleanor of Aquitaine At age 15, Eleanor married King Louis VII of France. At 19, she rallied troops to join the crusades and surprised her husband, and country, by insisting that women be allowed to accompany the men to the battle and “tend to the wounded.” The involvement of women in the battle was criticized by many, but the women dressed in armor and carried weapons, although never participated in the actual battle. Her marriage to King Louis was eventually anulled, and at the age of 30, she married 20 year old Henry who later became the King of England. One of the only women in History to be Queen in two countries during her lifetime.
Louis IX, King of France Born in 1214, crowned King of France at the age of 12. Was responsible for many social advancements – Worked to write down laws so there would be no confusion – Advocated for trial by jury rather than trial by combat or trial by ordeal – Reformed the systems of taxation and the court system so that justice would be more easily attainable – Established a hospital for the poor, sick and blind Fought in two of the Crusades Died of Typhoid at the age of 56
Henry the VIII of England Was king of England in the lat 1400s Is best known for leading England in its separation from the Catholic church. – He established The Church of England as the sole religion of England – Turned the country to a Protestant nation, although it maintained many of the Catholic beliefs – Named himself the head of The Church of England Is also famous for having six wives, two of whom he had beheaded. He was distantly related to all of his wives. In addition to his wives, he kept a number of mistresses. He had three children with three of his wives, all of whom eventually took the throne.
Saint Francis of Assissi Was born to a wealthy Italian merchant family in Assisi. After having been captured and imprisoned in a local war, he had a series of spiritual “visits” which led him to reject all material goods and live/preach in poverty, working and begging for his food. He soon attracted a band of followers who came to be known as the Franciscans. The Franciscans undertook missionary work, aided the poor, and lived off of charity. The Franciscan Order continues today.
Hildegard of Bingen Lived from Entered a religious house for females at the age of 8, took her religious vows at 14, and became abbess (head of the house) at age 24. After becoming abbess, she began to write about her visions… “A great flash of light from heaven pierced my brain and…in that instant my mind was imbued with the meaning of the sacred books.” She wrote 3 books about her visions Gained fame as a mystic and prophetess – Kings, popes, emperors, dukes, bishops and others often sought her advice.
Pope Gregory VII Served as Pope from Is known for issuing a decree which explained the power and importance of the Pope. Parts of the decree stated, “10: That the Pope’s name along shall be spoken in churches. 11: That his name is the only name in the world…19: That he himself may be judged by no one….22: That the roman church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity…” He exerted his power and took pride in his position, using it for both the advancement of the Catholic church and the advancement of his own position. Was the first of many Popes to exert extreme power over society.
William De Fevre In 1261, a resident of Yorkshire, William was named an outlaw by the Sheriff of Nottingham for going against the king and rebelling when taxes and laws were put into action. He later escaped to Sherwood Forest, where he joined a band of outlawed citizens. Gained fame by robbing rich, high standing citizens to give to the poor. Became known as Robin of the Hood. Is remembered for treating the poor with great kindness and courtesy which was very rare in the middle ages…the poor were generally looked down upon.
Lady Godiva Lived from Is famous solely for her naked ride through the streets of Medieval Coventry. – All people were told to stay in their homes during her naked ride, and all did except for a man named Tom who could not resist looking at her…hence the term “Peeping Tom” Lady Godiva was married to a Danish Lord and believed strongly that people are genuinely good and pure. Her ride was meant to prove to her husband, and society, that the majority of people are pure and therefore would not look at her.
Richard the Lionheart Is actually Richard I, King of England from 1189 until his death By age 16, Richard was commanding his own army in defense of his father’s empire. He led the third Crusade for Jerusalem, against the Muslim leader Saladin. Well liked for his Christian devotion Although he only spoke French and spent very little time in England, he was named King after his father’s death. Was well-loved by his people, although made very few political/social changes.
Discussion What similarities do you see between these key figures? How are these people different than famous figures of today? Homework: Tonight, choose two of these people that interest you and research them further. By tomorrow, you need to have extensive knowledge about the two people you choose. (Hint: It will help if these two people have something in common…)