On average, Americans move once every 6 years. U.S. population is the most mobile in the world with over 5 million moving from 1 state to another every year. 35 million move within a state, county or community each year. Migration a key factor in the speed of diffusion of ideas and innovation. Our perception of distance and direction are often distorted-thus a sizable percentage of migrants return to their original home due to these distorted perceptions.
Migration: form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location Immigration: Migration to a new location Emigration: Migration from a location
Push Factors Pull Factors Major International Migration Patterns, Early 1990s Emigration and immigration Change in residence. Relative to origin and destination. A person emigrates from a place and immigrates to another place
Positive net migration: more people are immigrating than emigrating Negative net migration: more people are emigrating than immigrating
Forced Migration: migrants have no choice; they must leave Examples: African Slave Trade, Trail of Tears, Creation of India and Pakistan, Homelands in South Africa during apartheid, refugees, children of migrants
In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died.
West and East Pakistan were carved out of areas in India with Muslim majorities. Upon independence from Great Britain in 1947, it was decided that India would divide into two countries in an effort to resolve conflicts between Hindus and Muslims. India was created for Hindus and Pakistan for Muslims. Mass migrations (about 15 million people) of each religious group followed.
Periodic movement: short term (weeks or months) Examples: college, Florida for winter
Cyclic movement: daily movement Examples: work, school, shopping Commuter train in Soweto, South Africa
Nomadism: cyclical, yet irregular migration that follows the growth of vegetation (hunter- gatherers) Examples: Bushmen
Transhumance: seasonal movement of livestock Examples: pastoral farming (Mongolia, Central and Southwest Asia, Africa)
Voluntary Migration: migrants make the decision to move Examples: most migrations; push/pull factors
Reasons for Migrating 1. Most people migrate for economic reasons 2. Cultural and environmental factors also induce migration
What was distance decay? How do you think this affects the distance that most migrants will go?
As distance from a given location increases, understanding of that location decreases. People are more likely to settle in a closer place where they have more knowledge than a farther place where they understand little.
Distance of Migration 3. Most migrants relocate a short distance 4. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations (major economic activity)
Characteristics of Migrants 5. Most long distance migrants are male 6. Most long distance migrants are adult individuals rather than families with children
Unfavorable factors that contribute to the dissatisfaction of residents and push their emigration Examples: widespread unemployment, poverty, discrimination, political unrest, war, famine and/or drought, land shortage, overpopulation
Favorable factors that act as attractive forces, pulling migrants from other places Examples: employment opportunities; political and/or personal freedoms (speech; religion, right to vote, etc.); land; amenities (e.g. retirement) Important to note: Many people move based on excessively positive images and expectations (not always accurate).
A. Economic a.Push 1. Few job opportunities 2. Poverty b.Pull 1.Available jobs 2.Valuable natural resources 3.New industries
B. Cultural/Political a.Push 1. Slavery 2.Wars 3.Refugees 4.Political Instability 5.Dictatorship b.Pull 1.Democracy 2.Education 3.Careers Refugee: people who are forced to migrate and cannot return for fear of persecution IDP: Internally Displaced Person
As of 2005: ◦ 33 million refugees 12 million international refugees 21 million internal refugees
E. Intervening Opportunity a.Migrant settles in location that’s not their original destination usually because it’s closer 1.Economic opportunities 2.Environmental amenities
A.Internal Migration: permanent movement within the same country a.Interregional (between regions) b.Intraregional (within regions) B.International Migration: permanent movement from one country to another a.Forced b.Voluntary
Theory created by geographer Wilbur Zelinsky Examines migration patterns in each stage of DTM ◦ Stage One: high daily or seasonal mobility ◦ Stage Two: international migration (high unemployment/low development pushes people out of country); intraregional migration (people leave rural areas to look for jobs in cities) ◦ Stages Three/Four: destinations of people leaving Stage Two countries; intraregional migration (people leave cities for suburbs)
A.Gender a.In U.S. 55% were males until 1990s when it reversed and now 55% are females B.Family Status a.More young adults than children or elderly