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Australian Aborigines Dja Dja Wurrung

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1 Australian Aborigines Dja Dja Wurrung
By: Emily Henderson, Carly Smith, Lauren Spake, Alan Karnofsky, Courtney Harriott, Sierra Lloyd, and Katie Bowen

2 History of Australian Aborigines
“Australian aboriginal culture can claim to be the oldest continuous living culture on the planet” Recent archeological finds have found that there has been Aboriginal presence in Australia for at least 40,000 years. Some of the evidence dates to over 60,000 years old. The main belief of Aboriginal culture is 'oneness with nature'. Environment is the core of what Australian Aborigines hold sacred. Nature and landscape in this culture are of comparable importance to the bible in Christianity

3 Settlement and Nomadic Lifestyle
The first Australian aborigines settled and colonized what is now Papa New Guinea or Indonesia Traditional aborigines lived a nomadic lifestyle, following seasons and opportunities for food It is said aborigines hunted large game to extinction in the outback This is possibly how they learned to take care of their natural resources and move to new hunting grounds before they destroyed all natural environment

4 The Dja Dja Wurrung/ Jaara People
Hunting and Gathering Society Located along the Loddon, Campaspe, and Avoca Riverine region of central/western Victoria, Australia. Bendigo is the largest city in Dja Dja Wurrung country The society has been in existence since at least 1788 This year is marked by when the first European settlers came to the region It is likely that they had lived there for sometime before but there are no existing records that specify the exact time period

5 Population

6 Population: Growth & Decline
Total Population: 2,500 Regions with Significant Populations: Bendigo is the largest city and other ones include Wedderburn, Castlemaine, St. Arnaud, Maryborough, Boort, Heathcote and Maldon. Also includes areas of the Loddon, Campaspe and Avoca Rivers in the Riverine region of central/western Victoria, Australia.

7 Population: Growth & Decline
In 1789 and 1825, evidence has shown that there was an epidemic of smallpox that would have killed a significant portion of the population. From the late 1830s on, the European settlers introduced numerous diseases to the Dja Dja Wurrung population, causing many deaths. Mortality rates also worsened during the gold rushes in 1851 By December 1852 there were only about 142 people left (15 years before there was between one and two thousand) In 1864, they resettled elsewhere and at this time there were only 31 adults and 7 children.

8 Population: Infant Birth & Mortality Rate
Conflict between European settlers and Aborigines women over sexual relations which was mistaken as prostitution Abduction and rape of these women was also very common and led to violence The widespread abuse of the women lead directly to an epidemic of venereal disease of syphilis and gonorrhea By 1841, it was estimated that 90% of women were suffering from these diseases causing them to become infertile or to infect the newborns leading to a high infant mortality rate and a large decrease in birth rate. Birth control was obviously not an issue due to these factors even though rape was very common.

9 Population: Immigration
Europeans settled in Western Victoria in the 1830s and 1840s Resistance by the Dja Dja Wurrung people led to conflict Numerous massacres from 1838 to 1846 in which many of the Dja Dja Wurrung people died This conflict with the Europeans caused two waves of settlement and dispossession: one in 1837 and one in 1845. Europeans regarded them as heathens and they could not be protected or testify against themselves in court so most of these massacre cases were dismissed. In 1864, the few remaining people at the crown land of Franklinford were forced to resettle at Coranderrk station In 2004, the crown land of Franklinford was reoccupied by an elderly Dja Dja Wurrung.

10 Polity & Conflict

11 Diplomacy Unwanted trespassers were subjected to being attacked with spears However, when some foreigners passed through a ceremony was performed The ceremony of Tanderrum (freedom of the bush) This allowed safe passage and temporary access/use of land and resources by foreign people.  

12 Politics No set “ruler” or king in Dja Dja Wurrung clans
Not structured in a hierarchy Older men and women held the greatest authority People worked in groups and shared leadership If there was an issue between clans then an informative council (consisting of elder men) would be put together to solve the conflict Legal System: explained through The Dreaming Establishes social, moral, and religious values, which were taught daily through the use of music, song, dance, and storytelling.  If a law was broken, “The Dreaming” would seek revenge on you. Fear of The Dreaming

13 Social Stratification
Aboriginal society was not structured in a hierarchy People worked in groups and shared the leadership When disagreements arose, a headman sorted it out The headman position was passed down from father to son as they shared a link to a common ancestor If there was an issue concerning the general community an informal council was formed and usually consisted of only men The Kulin society was made up of 16 clans, each with their own headman The Jaara are one of these clans

14 European Settlement Began in 1788
Thomas Mitchell was probably the first white man to be seen in Dja Dja wurrung country European settlement of western Victoria in the 1830s in 1840s was marked by resistance Led to massive massacres as well as the emergence of new diseases brought by the Europeans which decimated the Aborigines’ population By 1940s almost all aborigine groups were assimilated into Australian urban society as low-paid workers In 1976 and 1993 the government passed legislation returning a certain degree of aborigine autonomy and native title rights However, their life expectancy and standard of living is not even comparable with the average Australian

15 Technology & Economy

16 Technology The Dja Dja Wurrung were a hunting and gathering society therefore technology consisted of man made items using natural resources for food gathering Evidence through scarred trees shows that the Jaara fashioned canoes from the bark of trees so to go and raid duck and other birds nests along the Loddon River Tree bark was also used to make shelters, shields, and coolamons Also it is likely that other weapons like spears and bow and arrows were used to hunt as well

17 Economy The Dja Dja Wurrung clan was located near the Loddon, Avoca, and Campaspe rivers These rivers provided much of their food sources Diversity of foods: birds, other animals as well as plants Plants were a mainstay because of so many different types Myrmong, Cumbungi, Wardoo These rivers were part of established trade networks set up by the Europeans which allowed goods and information to travel over substantial distances Therefore, the Jaara was influenced by these routes as well as the Europeans themselves

18 Victorian Gold Rush The emergence of gold exploration in 1851 heavily impacted the Dja Dja Wurrung as well as the rest of the world Bendigo was “center of the world” at the time due to many settlers aspirations to make it big off the gold rush The gold rush placed more pressure on the Jaara 10,000 diggers were occupying their native lands and turning sacred ground into gold digging sites The gold rush also caused a crisis in agricultural labor because so many squatters were hiring the Jaara as servants In the end many were forced to move north because they were against living on the margin of white society and the disrespectful thing like drinking and prostitution that resulted Some forced to resettle at Coranderrk Reserve

19 Ideologies

20 Ideology Australian aboriginal mythology and Christianity Totemism
System of belief in which humans are said to have kinship or a mystical relationship with a spirit-being, such as an animal or plant The spiritual being is symbolized in a totem through which the people can show their respect Sex Totemism Characterized by the belief that a natural species is associated with each sex Eg. Bat for men/ wren for women But they believe that a common life is shared by both men and women and natural species The Jaara place a lot of emphasis on their cultural and religious beliefs, many of which overlap each other These beliefs govern relationships among people, marriage systems, and religious practices

21 The Dreaming States that:
There is a belief in powerful beings who arouse from the land to create people, plants, and animals Totemism- the belief that there is a genealogical relationship between people and species of plants and animals Aspects of the Dreaming were passed on through the use of music, song, dance, and storytelling.   This was a common belief system amongst many aborigine tribes

22 Kinship

23 Kinship The Jaara People strongly believed in working together as a tribe Elders of the tribe were held in high esteem and were very respected The elders were also the leaders more or less The Jaara used a different system for names, like when referring to your grandfather, in comparison to the names we use today Aunty/uncle: address for older people, to whom the speaker may not be related. Brother /sister : children of ones mother's sister and of father's brother Cousin-brother / cousin-sister: children of ones mother's sister and father's brother Cousin: any relative of one's own generation. Father and mother: any relative of one's parents' generation, such as uncles, aunts, and in-laws. Grandfather and grandmother: anyone of one's grandparents' generation. Grandfather can also refer to any respected elderly man, to whom the speaker may not be related.

24 Kinship System Patrilineal System
System in which one belongs to the father’s lineage; involves heritage of property, names/titles through the male line The Jaara people have two moieties: Bunjil, the eagle, and Waa, the crow Moieties are the division of society into groups based on decent The moieties define how society relates to one another, practices religion, and sets up rules for marrying Language groups The Aboriginal society is broken into individual clans/ tribes within a society For example, the Dja Dja Wurrung is a specific language group within the Kulin society

25 Marriage System A skin group is a section that is determined by the skin of a person's parents, and determine who a person is eligible to marry Every member of society is assigned a skin group even if one is not of blood relation they are assigned a group based on which group they have spent the most time with These groups define not only the rules for marriage but also how daily relations are to be handled within the clan For example, some clan members can not talk to others as a sign of respect (often refers to elders) and if something must be relayed to a member that one could not approach a third party would have to mediate Children are taught these rules so that when they become adults they will know how to handle situations

26 Education

27 Protectorate Station at Franklinford
Founded by Edward Stone Parker to protect aborigines from oppression, violations on their land, and acts of cruelty The Franklinford Common School: Built in mid 1860s as a mud hut Later used for children of settlers & renovated into brick Ruled unfit for teaching Forced to close in February 1848 Children relocated to Coranderrk

28 Education of the Jaara Were not believed to be capable of the same educational standards as the children of European settlers Only taught the first half of primary-school curriculum Poorly trained teachers who did not know of the cultural and environmental differences between the Europeans and the Aborigines Parents of Aborigine children were not supportive

29 Change in Education In response to sociological research and enlightened public opinion properly trained teachers public or independent schools same curriculum as other schools Goal: prepare children for association (assimilation) Taught English

30 Change in Education Opportunities have greatly improved
More Aborigines going to school and staying for longer More universities, vocational training The Jaara have a Catholic secondary school on their territory: The Catholic College Bendigo

31 Status of Women

32 Women Restrictions Patriarchal System
Married women were required to live with their husbands family. Relationships and obligations were structured around Kinship System.

33 Women Families Usually Consisted of a man his wife/wives and children.
Kinship system required that parents provide food for children and supplying their personal needs. Uncles and Aunts were responsible for children's punishment and education.

34 Women Marriage -
“A family group can be quite large, consisting of a man and his wives, the children from each wife, and sometimes his parents or in-laws. A man often had from two to four wives, ranging form one to more than ten” - After colonization men seemed to only have one wife. Ceremonies and exchange of goods. Bride and groom are required to purchase gifts and give one to every person that attends wedding.

35 Questions 1. Who was in charge of sorting out disagreements within the tribe? The Women The Headman The Europeans The Chief 2. The Jaara use a specific kinship system where one’s lineage is traced through the father’s line. What is this system called? Patrilineal System Matrilineal System Ambilineal System Unilineal System

36 Questions 3. Why did the Jaara people quit attending the Franklinford Common School? It burned down in a fire and was not rebuilt It was converted into a church to be used by the European settlers The school was forced to close because it was deemed unfit for teaching A nearby school was opened and they went there instead 4. What was the main factor that led to the population decline of the Dja Dja Wurrung people? An epidemic of venereal disease causing women to become infertile Epidemics of smallpox Introduction of new diseases by European settlers Gold rushes All of the above

37 Questions 5. What is the main belief of Aboriginal culture?
Oneness with land Oneness with your soul Oneness with nature Oneness with one’s tribe Oneness with Europeans Answer Key: 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. E 5. C

38 Bibliography
Berndt, Catherine and Ronald. The Aboriginal Australians. Pitman Publishing, Victoria: 1983. The Australian Aborigines. The Department of Territories, Sydney: 1967.

39 Bibliography

40 Bibliography

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