Presentation on theme: "Australian Aborigines Dja Dja Wurrung"— Presentation transcript:
1Australian Aborigines Dja Dja Wurrung By: Emily Henderson, Carly Smith, Lauren Spake, Alan Karnofsky, Courtney Harriott, Sierra Lloyd, and Katie Bowen
2History of Australian Aborigines “Australian aboriginal culture can claim to be the oldest continuous living culture on the planet”Recent archeological finds have found that there has been Aboriginal presence in Australia for at least 40,000 years. Some of the evidence dates to over 60,000 years old.The main belief of Aboriginal culture is 'oneness with nature'.Environment is the core of what Australian Aborigines hold sacred.Nature and landscape in this culture are of comparable importance to the bible in Christianity
3Settlement and Nomadic Lifestyle The first Australian aborigines settled and colonized what is now Papa New Guinea or IndonesiaTraditional aborigines lived a nomadic lifestyle, following seasons and opportunities for foodIt is said aborigines hunted large game to extinction in the outbackThis is possibly how they learned to take care of their natural resources and move to new hunting grounds before they destroyed all natural environment
4The Dja Dja Wurrung/ Jaara People Hunting and Gathering SocietyLocated along the Loddon, Campaspe, and Avoca Riverine region of central/western Victoria, Australia. Bendigo is the largest city in Dja Dja Wurrung countryThe society has been in existence since at least 1788This year is marked by when the first European settlers came to the regionIt is likely that they had lived there for sometime before but there are no existing records that specify the exact time period
6Population: Growth & Decline Total Population: 2,500Regions with Significant Populations: Bendigo is the largest city and other ones include Wedderburn, Castlemaine, St. Arnaud, Maryborough, Boort, Heathcote and Maldon.Also includes areas of the Loddon, Campaspe and Avoca Rivers in the Riverine region of central/western Victoria, Australia.
7Population: Growth & Decline In 1789 and 1825, evidence has shown that there was an epidemic of smallpox that would have killed a significant portion of the population.From the late 1830s on, the European settlers introduced numerous diseases to the Dja Dja Wurrung population, causing many deaths.Mortality rates also worsened during the gold rushes in 1851By December 1852 there were only about 142 people left (15 years before there was between one and two thousand)In 1864, they resettled elsewhere and at this time there were only 31 adults and 7 children.
8Population: Infant Birth & Mortality Rate Conflict between European settlers and Aborigines women over sexual relations which was mistaken as prostitutionAbduction and rape of these women was also very common and led to violenceThe widespread abuse of the women lead directly to an epidemic of venereal disease of syphilis and gonorrheaBy 1841, it was estimated that 90% of women were suffering from these diseases causing them to become infertile or to infect the newborns leading to a high infant mortality rate and a large decrease in birth rate.Birth control was obviously not an issue due to these factors even though rape was very common.
9Population: Immigration Europeans settled in Western Victoria in the 1830s and 1840sResistance by the Dja Dja Wurrung people led to conflictNumerous massacres from 1838 to 1846 in which many of the Dja Dja Wurrung people diedThis conflict with the Europeans caused two waves of settlement and dispossession: one in 1837 and one in 1845.Europeans regarded them as heathens and they could not be protected or testify against themselves in court so most of these massacre cases were dismissed.In 1864, the few remaining people at the crown land of Franklinford were forced to resettle at Coranderrk stationIn 2004, the crown land of Franklinford was reoccupied by an elderly Dja Dja Wurrung.
11DiplomacyUnwanted trespassers were subjected to being attacked with spearsHowever, when some foreigners passed through a ceremony was performedThe ceremony of Tanderrum (freedom of the bush)This allowed safe passage and temporary access/use of land and resources by foreign people.
12Politics No set “ruler” or king in Dja Dja Wurrung clans Not structured in a hierarchyOlder men and women held the greatest authorityPeople worked in groups and shared leadershipIf there was an issue between clans then an informative council (consisting of elder men) would be put together to solve the conflictLegal System: explained through The DreamingEstablishes social, moral, and religious values, which were taught daily through the use of music, song, dance, and storytelling. If a law was broken, “The Dreaming” would seek revenge on you.Fear of The Dreaming
13Social Stratification Aboriginal society was not structured in a hierarchyPeople worked in groups and shared the leadershipWhen disagreements arose, a headman sorted it outThe headman position was passed down from father to son as they shared a link to a common ancestorIf there was an issue concerning the general community an informal council was formed and usually consisted of only menThe Kulin society was made up of 16 clans, each with their own headmanThe Jaara are one of these clans
14European Settlement Began in 1788 Thomas Mitchell was probably the first white man to be seen in Dja Dja wurrung countryEuropean settlement of western Victoria in the 1830s in 1840s was marked by resistanceLed to massive massacres as well as the emergence of new diseases brought by the Europeans which decimated the Aborigines’ populationBy 1940s almost all aborigine groups were assimilated into Australian urban society as low-paid workersIn 1976 and 1993 the government passed legislation returning a certain degree of aborigine autonomy and native title rightsHowever, their life expectancy and standard of living is not even comparable with the average Australian
16TechnologyThe Dja Dja Wurrung were a hunting and gathering society therefore technology consisted of man made items using natural resources for food gatheringEvidence through scarred trees shows that the Jaara fashioned canoes from the bark of trees so to go and raid duck and other birds nests along the Loddon RiverTree bark was also used to make shelters, shields, and coolamonsAlso it is likely that other weapons like spears and bow and arrows were used to hunt as well
17EconomyThe Dja Dja Wurrung clan was located near the Loddon, Avoca, and Campaspe riversThese rivers provided much of their food sourcesDiversity of foods: birds, other animals as well as plantsPlants were a mainstay because of so many different typesMyrmong, Cumbungi, WardooThese rivers were part of established trade networks set up by the Europeans which allowed goods and information to travel over substantial distancesTherefore, the Jaara was influenced by these routes as well as the Europeans themselves
18Victorian Gold RushThe emergence of gold exploration in 1851 heavily impacted the Dja Dja Wurrung as well as the rest of the worldBendigo was “center of the world” at the time due to many settlers aspirations to make it big off the gold rushThe gold rush placed more pressure on the Jaara10,000 diggers were occupying their native lands and turning sacred ground into gold digging sitesThe gold rush also caused a crisis in agricultural labor because so many squatters were hiring the Jaara as servantsIn the end many were forced to move north because they were against living on the margin of white society and the disrespectful thing like drinking and prostitution that resultedSome forced to resettle at Coranderrk Reserve
20Ideology Australian aboriginal mythology and Christianity Totemism System of belief in which humans are said to have kinship or a mystical relationship with a spirit-being, such as an animal or plantThe spiritual being is symbolized in a totem through which the people can show their respectSex TotemismCharacterized by the belief that a natural species is associated with each sexEg. Bat for men/ wren for womenBut they believe that a common life is shared by both men and women and natural speciesThe Jaara place a lot of emphasis on their cultural and religious beliefs, many of which overlap each otherThese beliefs govern relationships among people, marriage systems, and religious practices
21The Dreaming States that: There is a belief in powerful beings who arouse from the land to create people, plants, and animalsTotemism- the belief that there is a genealogical relationship between people and species of plants and animalsAspects of the Dreaming were passed on through the use of music, song, dance, and storytelling. This was a common belief system amongst many aborigine tribes
23KinshipThe Jaara People strongly believed in working together as a tribeElders of the tribe were held in high esteem and were very respectedThe elders were also the leaders more or lessThe Jaara used a different system for names, like when referring to your grandfather, in comparison to the names we use todayAunty/uncle: address for older people, to whom the speaker may not be related.Brother /sister : children of ones mother's sister and of father's brotherCousin-brother / cousin-sister: children of ones mother's sister and father's brotherCousin: any relative of one's own generation.Father and mother: any relative of one's parents' generation, such as uncles, aunts, and in-laws.Grandfather and grandmother: anyone of one's grandparents' generation. Grandfather can also refer to any respected elderly man, to whom the speaker may not be related.
24Kinship System Patrilineal System System in which one belongs to the father’s lineage; involves heritage of property, names/titles through the male lineThe Jaara people have two moieties: Bunjil, the eagle, and Waa, the crowMoieties are the division of society into groups based on decentThe moieties define how society relates to one another, practices religion, and sets up rules for marryingLanguage groupsThe Aboriginal society is broken into individual clans/ tribes within a societyFor example, the Dja Dja Wurrung is a specific language group within the Kulin society
25Marriage SystemA skin group is a section that is determined by the skin of a person's parents, and determine who a person is eligible to marryEvery member of society is assigned a skin group even if one is not of blood relation they are assigned a group based on which group they have spent the most time withThese groups define not only the rules for marriage but also how daily relations are to be handled within the clanFor example, some clan members can not talk to others as a sign of respect (often refers to elders) and if something must be relayed to a member that one could not approach a third party would have to mediateChildren are taught these rules so that when they become adults they will know how to handle situations
27Protectorate Station at Franklinford Founded by Edward Stone Parker to protect aborigines from oppression, violations on their land, and acts of crueltyThe Franklinford Common School:Built in mid 1860s as a mud hutLater used for children of settlers & renovated into brickRuled unfit for teachingForced to close in February 1848Children relocated to Coranderrk
28Education of the JaaraWere not believed to be capable of the same educational standards as the children of European settlersOnly taught the first half of primary-school curriculumPoorly trained teachers who did not know of the cultural and environmental differences between the Europeans and the AboriginesParents of Aborigine children were not supportive
29Change in EducationIn response to sociological research and enlightened public opinionproperly trained teacherspublic or independent schoolssame curriculum as other schoolsGoal: prepare children for association (assimilation)Taught English
30Change in Education Opportunities have greatly improved More Aborigines going to school and staying for longerMore universities, vocational trainingThe Jaara have a Catholic secondary school on their territory: The Catholic College Bendigo
32Women Restrictions Patriarchal System Married women were required to live with their husbands family.Relationships and obligations were structured around Kinship System.
33Women Families Usually Consisted of a man his wife/wives and children. Kinship system required that parents provide food for children and supplying their personal needs.Uncles and Aunts were responsible for children's punishment and education.
34Women Marriage - Aboriginalculture.com “A family group can be quite large, consisting of a man and his wives, the children from each wife, and sometimes his parents or in-laws. A man often had from two to four wives, ranging form one to more than ten”- Aboriginalculture.comAfter colonization men seemed to only have one wife.Ceremonies and exchange of goods.Bride and groom are required to purchase gifts and give one to every person that attends wedding.
35Questions1. Who was in charge of sorting out disagreements within the tribe?The WomenThe HeadmanThe EuropeansThe Chief2. The Jaara use a specific kinship system where one’s lineage is traced through the father’s line. What is this system called?Patrilineal SystemMatrilineal SystemAmbilineal SystemUnilineal System
36Questions3. Why did the Jaara people quit attending the Franklinford Common School?It burned down in a fire and was not rebuiltIt was converted into a church to be used by the European settlersThe school was forced to close because it was deemed unfit for teachingA nearby school was opened and they went there instead4. What was the main factor that led to the population decline of the Dja Dja Wurrung people?An epidemic of venereal disease causing women to become infertileEpidemics of smallpoxIntroduction of new diseases by European settlersGold rushesAll of the above
37Questions 5. What is the main belief of Aboriginal culture? Oneness with landOneness with your soulOneness with natureOneness with one’s tribeOneness with EuropeansAnswer Key:1. B2. A3. C4. E5. C
38Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dja_Dja_Wurrung Berndt, Catherine and Ronald. The Aboriginal Australians. Pitman Publishing, Victoria: 1983.The Australian Aborigines. The Department of Territories, Sydney: 1967.