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TIME Trauma Informed Method of Engagement

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1 TIME Trauma Informed Method of Engagement
For Youth Advocacy Lessons in TIME

2 Presenters Eric Lulow, BSW Debra Cady, MSW, LCSW
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Public Health Advisor Alumnus of Foster Care Debra Cady, MSW, LCSW Adjunct Assistant Professor, Georgetown University

3 Getting to Know You Write down the following:
A traumatic experience that happened to you in your childhood/growing up. One of the worst things you ever did when you were a teenager/young adult. One of your most embarrassing moments in your childhood, adolescence or young adulthood. Things/people that helped you through these tough times. Eric Don’t participate in this exercise if it’s too much for you right now Please be silent… Audiences will be asked to write this down Who’s in the room.. Look for blue disc on the back of your name badge Write down on white paper

4 Agenda Introduction and History of the Trauma-informed Method of Engagement (TIME) model TIME Model – 4 Components TIME and Self-efficacy Debra © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

5 Youth Advocacy A youth or young adult advocate is a person who has lived experience in one or more child serving systems who use their personal stories as a mechanism to create messages for system change. Youth Advocacy places youth and young adults in a position of vulnerability as they face the thoughts, feelings, emotions, places, people and activities that are potential triggers to their trauma backgrounds. Debra

6 History of TIME RELATIONSHIP Establishing Trust and Rapport
PREPARATION Creating a safe state of readiness and expertise SUPPORT Assuring physical, emotional and professional needs are met REFLECTION Processing thoughts and feelings to build skills and promote healing Eric and Debra © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

7 Trauma-informed services (Harris & Fallot)
Take the trauma into account Avoid triggering trauma reactions and/or traumatizing the individual Adjust the behavior of counselors, other staff and the organization to support the individual’s coping capacity Allow survivors to manage their trauma symptoms successfully so that they are able to access, retain and benefit from the services Debra What are the Key Principles of a Trauma-informed Approach? A trauma-informed approach reflects the adoption of underlying principles rather than a specific set of procedures. These principles are generalizable across all settings, although language and application may be setting- or sector-specific. Basic principles of a trauma-informed approach include: Adapted from Harris, M. & Fallot, R. (2001). Using trauma theory to design service systems

8 Five Guiding Principles
Safety: Ensure physical and emotional safety and paying attention to discomfort or unease Trustworthiness: Maximize trust and establish clear and appropriate tasks and boundaries Choice: Maximize choices and control over the event Collaboration: Youth voices are elicited and validated, recognizing their strengths, respect for their lived experience and sharing the power Empowerment: Provide opportunities to enhance skills and confidence to further personal and professional development Debra Safety: throughout the organization, staff and the people they serve feel physically and psychologically safe; the physical setting is safe and interpersonal interactions promote a sense of safety. Trustworthiness and transparency: organizational operations and decisions are conducted with transparency and the goal of building and maintaining trust among staff, clients, and family members of people being served by the organization. Collaboration and mutuality: there is true partnering and leveling of power differences between staff and clients and among organizational staff from direct care staff to administrators; there is recognition that healing happens in relationships and in the meaningful sharing of power and decision-making. Empowerment: throughout the organization and among the clients served, individuals’ strengths are recognized, built on, and validated and new skills developed as necessary. Voice and choice: the organization aims to strengthen the staff’s, clients’, and family members’ experience of choice and recognize that every person’s experience is unique and requires an individualized approach. Peer support and mutual self-help: are integral to the organizational and service delivery approach and are understood as a key vehicle for building trust, establishing safety, and empowerment. Resilience and strengths based: a belief in resilience and in the ability of individuals, organizations, and communities to heal and promote recovery from trauma; builds on what clients, staff and communities have to offer rather than responding to their perceived deficits. Inclusiveness and shared purpose: the organization recognizes that everyone has a role to play in a trauma-informed approach; one does not have to be a therapist to be therapeutic. Cultural, historical, and gender issues: the organization addresses cultural, historical, and gender issues; the organization actively moves past cultural stereotypes and biases (e.g. based on race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, geography, etc.), offers gender responsive services, leverages the healing value of traditional cultural connections, and recognizes and addresses historical trauma. Change process: is conscious, intentional and ongoing; the organization strives to become a learning community, constantly responding to new knowledge and developments.

9 Trauma-informed Method of Engagement for Youth Advocacy (TIME)
This model is relationally-based and trauma-informed. Supportive adults and/or peer mentors are utilized to minimize the negative impact of re-experiencing trauma for young advocates through effective engagement, preparation and support strategies. Eric © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

10 Learning to Swim…it takes TIME
YEEEEEEEE!!! Eric Splash!!

11 Personal Information Confidential File Lulow, E Eric
Link back to first exercise – hand your list from the previous exercise. Unintended consequences in the most important areas youth and young adults Top 5 things young adults want to achieve when they are making the transition to adulthood! Dating - Relationships Employment Education Housing

12 Eric Lulow © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC



15 TIME Overview RELATIONSHIP Establishing Trust and Rapport PREPARATION
Creating a safe state of readiness and expertise SUPPORT Assuring physical, emotional and professional needs are met REFLECTION Processing thoughts and feelings to build skills and promote healing Eric and Debra Understand the impact, Positive changes, minimizing the negative impact/re-traumatization, coping and learning from trauma and past life experiences, etc Youth and young adults need to have the full knowledge of what they are getting into. © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

Meet in a safe environ-ment Assess if immediate needs are met Learn about their interests and goals Find out what they are worried about Learn about their culture and values Find out who they consider family Learn about their social network Find shared experiences, common ground Learn about trauma triggers and coping Skills Develop a safety plan Set boundaries together At least one person has the relationship establish and can help to monitor the rest of the model, youth organization can be helpful. Establishing trust and rapport takes time. It is hard to determine how long this will take, depending on lots of factors, commonalities, personalities, etc. Might consider peer leadership retreats, shadowing advanced advocates “anchors” and working in a mentoring and/or support adult role. © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

17 Preparation Preparation No less than one month prior to the event
Describe the event/meeting, agenda and audience Study the topic and Identify hot issues Help develop messages and methods of delivery Provide strategic sharing training Practice delivery of the message with technology Practice Q/A and develop plan for tough questions Create a plan of action for trauma triggers Review every logistical detail of the event Travel to the meeting/event area, if possible Review dress code and Time to be there Provide trainings based on event type No less than one month prior to the event Offer trainings © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

18 Support Support Rehearse the speech or message(s) to be delivered Review logistical details, again Create a contingency plan Designate an adult support partner/peer mentor Assess environmental factors Review the safety plan Review and utilize non-verbal cues Provide ongoing encouragement and reassurance Implement safety plan, if necessary Assure basic debriefing occurs immediately following the meeting/event No later than 2 weeks before and again during the event. Change policies to support young people in this work. © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

19 Reflection Reflection
Debrief the event Provide acknowledge-ment Assess for discomfort and unease Implement coping strategies and safety plan Debrief the event more thoroughly Discuss strengths and areas for growth Make connections to relevant resources Create promotional strategies: cards, calendar, website and follow up Develop goals for personal and professional development Find additional advocacy and networking opportunities Immediately following the event and in the months following the event. **Debrief immediately should be professional, the emotional may or may not be separate, and may or may not over the next few months….(circles 1 and 5) – do we need to specify this? Additional opportunities should be based on personal and professional goals of young person © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

20 Self-Efficacy “The belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations” If you implement the TIME model for youth advocacy, you can help increase the self-efficacy of the individual. (Bandura, Albert; 1994)

21 Psychological Responses
Four Major Sources of Self-efficacy Mastery Experiences Social Modeling Social Persuasion Psychological Responses Eric and Debra Afford them Chances to: Practices skills in the past Seeing others master the skills Hearing positive reinforcement that they can do it The ability to regulate emotional responses when things don’t go well 1. Mastery Experiences "The most effective way of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences," Bandura explained. Performing a task successfully strengthens our sense of self-efficacy. However, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine and weaken self-efficacy. 2. Social Modeling Witnessing other people successfully completing a task is another important source of self-efficacy. According to Bandura, "Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers' beliefs that they too possess the capabilities master comparable activities to succeed." 3. Social Persuasion Bandura also asserted that people could be persuaded to believe that they have the skills and capabilities to succeed. Consider a time when someone said something positive and encouraging that helped you achieve a goal. Getting verbal encouragement from others helps people overcome self-doubt and instead focus on giving their best effort to the task at hand. 4. Psychological Responses Our own responses and emotional reactions to situations also play an important role in self-efficacy. Moods, emotional states, physical reactions, and stress levels can all impact how a person feels about their personal abilities in a particular situation. A person who becomes extremely nervous before speaking in public may develop a weak sense of self-efficacy in these situations. However, Bandura also notes "it is not the sheer intensity of emotional and physical reactions that is important but rather how they are perceived and interpreted." By learning how to minimize stress and elevate mood when facing difficult or challenging tasks, people can improve their sense of self-efficacy. Virtually all people can identify goals they want to accomplish, things they would like to change, and things they would like to achieve. However, most people also realize that putting these plans into action is not quite so simple. Bandura and others have found that an individual’s self-efficacy plays a major role in how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached. People with a strong sense of self-efficacy: View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments People with a weak sense of self-efficacy: Avoid challenging tasks Believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities Treba examples (Bandura, Albert; 1994)

22 Make time for TIME In your role, what will you
do differently, if anything, as a result of learning about this model? Eric Show a music clip or something inspiring!!! Leave on an upbeat moment, Chances ARE! © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

23 Training Resources National Resource Center on Youth Development Casey Family Programs National Federation of Families and Pathways RTC Youth M.O.V.E. National Youth Advocacy Training Webinar Series Youth M.O.V.E. National speech template Youth Voice in Policy Guide © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

24 Contact Information Eric Lulow, BSW Debra Cady, MSW, LCSW © Georgetown University 2012, Cady, DA & Lulow, EC

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