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C HAPTER 12: T HE E MPIRE AND THE PEOPLE Justin Fang.

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Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 12: T HE E MPIRE AND THE PEOPLE Justin Fang."— Presentation transcript:

1 C HAPTER 12: T HE E MPIRE AND THE PEOPLE Justin Fang

2 B ACKGROUND In recent years, the United States had begun to spread its influence around the continent by using the Monroe Doctrine as a justification. One such example was the Mexican- American War. The idea of United States expansion was an ideology among those in the upper class such as military men, politicians, and businessmen. The men who believed in expansionism were all connected to one another, even some had ties to President Theodore Roosevelt. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

3 E CONOMIC INTERESTS The United States turned its eyes upon Cuba when they began to fight their own revolution against Spain. The United States already had economic interest Cuban prior to the war. The U.S.S Maine was sunk in Havana harbor by a mysterious explosion. The explosion gave President McKinley a reason for the United States to go to war against Spain. Prior to the U.S intervention, the Teller Amendment was passed which stated that Cuba would remain independent, which was supported by anti- imperialists and business people. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

4 W AR AGAINST S PAIN Not everyone was for the war. In fact, there were many outspoken critics of the war who expressed themselves in newspaper articles and journals. The Spanish- American War lasted months after the United States emerged victorious. After the war had ended Secretary of State John Hay called it a “splendid little war.” The Americans took over the Cuban resources. United Fruit and the American Tobacco Company both invested resources after the war. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

5 A FTERMATH OF THE WAR Following the war, the U.S kept their word and did not annex Cuba, but Cuba was told the American army would not leave until the Platt Amendment passed. The Platt Amendment gave the U.S “the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty.” Both Americans and Cubans felt betrayed due to the passage of the Platt Amendment. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

6 A FTERMATH OF THE WAR CONT. Though the United States did not gain Cuba, the States did gain several other territories. The Hawaiian Islands were officially annexed during the July of Wake Island, Guam, and the Philippines became American territories after the United States paid $20 million for them. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

7 T ROUBLE BREWS IN THE P HILIPPINES President McKinley said to a group of ministers that the United States must Christianize them. The Filipinos revolted in February of The Filipinos were lead by Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo wanted the Philippines to be independent but with U.S protection. The United States rejected it. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

8 P HILIPPINE - A MERICAN W AR McKinley said the Filipino rebels fired first, but American soldiers later testified that they had actually fired first. During the years of the war, racism in the United States intensified. The Filipinos, brown- skinned, spoke a foreign language, and looked strange to soldiers. As a result of that, American soldiers were extremely brutal when dealing with the Filipinos. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

9 O PPOSITION OF THE WAR Many anti- imperialists were against the war and wrote articles against why they were against the war. One of those individuals was Mark Twain. Twain wrote,” We have pacified some thousands of islanders and buried them; destroyed their field; burned their villages, and turned their widows and orphans out-of-doors; furnished heartbreak to exile to some dozens of disagreeable patriots; subjugated the remaining ten millions by Benevolent Assimilation, which is the pious new name of the musket; we have acquired property in the three hundred concubines and other slaves of our business partner, the Sultan of Sulu, and hoisted our protecting flag over that swag.” Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

10 S UPPORT FOR THE W AR Even though brutality in the Philippines was well- documented, there were still people for the war. The Typographical Union was in favor of the war because if the Americans won, the English- language schools set up in the Philippines would help the printing market. Multiple business industries saw profits in the Philippines, so must businesses were in favor of the war. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

11 B LACK OPPOSITION TO THE WAR Henry M. Turner, a bishop of African Methodist Episcopal Church, called the war “an unholy war of conquest” and called the Filipinos “sable patriots.” Due to most African- Americans being against the war, there were only four black regiments that were on duty in the Philippines. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

12 B LACK AND F ILIPINO RELATIONS Most of the black soldiers got along with the native people and were angered by the white soldiers when they called the Filipinos niggers. A large number of black soldiers began to desert the Americans forces and joined the Filipino rebel army. One deserter wrote,” Our racial sympathies would naturally be with the Filipinos.” Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

13 T HE WAR AT HOME Following the war, black soldiers than returned home received mixed reactions from people. Willard Gatewood in Smoked Yankees and the Struggle for Empire wrote about how black soldiers encamped at Tampa, Florida ran into racist people. It is also documented in the book that the black soldiers were not rewarded with officers’ commissions and that white officers often commanded black regiments. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

14 C ONCLUSION OF THE WAR The war finally ended after 3 years when the United States emerging victorious. With the victory, debate at home began o shift away from whether or no the U.S should be fitting the war in the first place to whether or not the States should annex the Philippines. Source: Zinn, 2003; A People’s History of the United States

15 R EFERENCES Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: present. New York: HarperCollins, Print.


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