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Multiplier based blended learning paradigm for elderly people’s efficient adaptation to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Helena Blažun, PhD,

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Presentation on theme: "Multiplier based blended learning paradigm for elderly people’s efficient adaptation to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Helena Blažun, PhD,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Multiplier based blended learning paradigm for elderly people’s efficient adaptation to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Helena Blažun, PhD, PhD 1, Danica Železnik, PhD 2, Peter Kokol, PhD 3 1 University of Maribor, Center for International Cooperation, Slovenia 2 University College of Health Sciences, Slovenia 3 University of Maribor, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Slovenia

2 Demographic challenges and ICT The majority of elderly people are still quite ignorant about ICT; therefore we have to seek for the solutions how to motivate elderly to use ICT for their personal empowerment and higher quality of life (QOL); ICT can play a major role in dealing with demographic challenges, since the fact that ICT can positively affect elderly people’s QOL, in particularly can support elderly people’s daily living so that they can stay independent for longer, have better cognitive abilities and show a lower level of depression, stay healthier, active in their own community and socially included;

3 The European project PRIMER-ICT started in January 2009 and lasted for 24 months. The project was led by the Faculty of Health Sciences University of Maribor, Slovenia and included three partner institutions; Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Austria, University College Dublin, Ireland and University of Surrey, UK; The basic aim of the project was to educate elderly in ICT skills/practice using inter-generational and multi-sectoral approach of education where facilitators educated nursing and computer science students who later participated in the ICT education of multipliers and elderly. PRIMER-ICT project also aimed to contribute to the reduction of isolation of elderly people through the promotion of ICT; Project PRIMER – ICT: Promoting the improvement of ICT skills and well-being of the elderly by inter-generational and multi- sectoral education

4 Potential connection between positive experiences from ICT training courses gained by teachers and multipliers and their ability to affect elderly people’s willingness to learn ICT skills and motivate them for future participation in ICT training courses through organized motivational workshops; Training of elderly people in ICT skills/practice using an inter- generational and multi-sectoral approach to training and decreasing the degree of isolation of elderly people through the promotion of ICT in Slovenia, Austria, Ireland and the UK;

5 Conceptual background of the personalized teaching method (Figure 1) Source: Blažun, Saranto, & Vošner, 2013

6 The developed personalized teaching approach based on the blended learning paradigm and which combines a flexible e-learning method with traditional forms of learning, such as face-to-face learning; The multipliers were instructed by teachers who were ICT and nursing experts; therefore they acquired not only ICT knowledge and skills, but also knowledge on health, gerontological and social care; The role of the teachers was only to prepare the multipliers and they were never in direct contact with the elderly; moreover, the knowledge transfer between teachers and multipliers was always in one direction only; from teacher to multiplier; Conceptual background of the personalized teaching method

7 Communication between the multipliers and elderly people took place in both directions; multipliers became consultants, guides and resource providers of ICT knowledge, who provided structure to the work of the elderly and encouraged self-directed learning; In the long term, a highly motivated elderly person could even become a multiplier and transfer ICT knowledge and skills to another elderly person, thus becoming a real, evidence-based practice example; In the personalized teaching method, the training for the elderly people started two steps away from the actual ICT training courses designed for them; with educating the teachers and multipliers; Conceptual background of the personalized teaching method

8 ICT training courses for elderly people A total of 181 elderly people participated in the ICT training courses which were implemented in Slovenia, Austria, Ireland; however 146 elderly people participated in the evaluation of the ICT training courses. The majority of elderly people originated from the UK (38.4%), 28.8% from Ireland, and 16.4% each from Ireland and Austria; The ICT training courses commenced at different times throughout the four partner countries (from September to December 2010) and were delivered to groups of elderly people within the project partner countries, among these were elderly homes, community groups, care homes residents, people homes and a university premises;

9 The training courses for elderly people lasted five days and were led by multipliers who prepared written materials for elderly people, so that the participants could make notes. The maximum group size was 5–8 elderly participants who worked in mobile e-classrooms consisting of 5 - 8 portable computers; The content of the ICT training included basic information about the information and communication technology and other ICT equipment, logging in procedure, connecting with the Internet, introducing the participants with the PRIMER-ICT web page and portal, introduction of course materials, introduction to Moodle environment, get to know how to send email, searching the Internet for useful information, logging into the PRIMER-ICT portal; ICT training courses for elderly people

10 Research questions 1.How the ICT training courses influenced elderly people’s ICT knowledge and skills according to gender and age? 2.To what extend elderly people were able to enrich their life with the support of ICT according to gender and age? 3.How the elderly self-evaluated fear before and after the ICT training courses?

11 Elderly peoples’ experiences of ICT education To evaluate elderly people’s progress and to assure the quality of the ICT training courses, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of ICT training course; The questionnaire administered to elderly people for the evaluation at the beginning of the ICT training courses included open-ended (n=11), closed-ended (n=16) and open-close ended (n=1) questions. The first questionnaire included information about demographic data, such as age, gender, current living condition, as well as information about potential computer experiences, elderly people’s feeling about ICT course expectations, and their awareness about the PRIMER-ICT project; The second questionnaire administered to elderly people after the ICT training courses included open-ended (n=7), closed-ended (n=8) and open-close ended (n=2) questions; The second questionnaire included information about experiences from the ICT training course, potential computer anxiety, elderly’s expectations if ICT training course met their needs, and about elderly’s future motivation to use computers;

12 Results 181 participants attended the ICT training courses in the scope of the PRIMER – ICT project. 146 participants (24 from Austria, 56 from UK, 24 from Slovenia and 42 from Ireland) completed all answers before and after the ICT training course and these were included in the analysis; Figure 2: The participants’ distribution by country, gender and age.

13 Figure 3: The self-perceived improvement/decline of the ability to use computer compared by gender and age after the attendance on the ICT training course Results

14 Figure 4: The self-perceived improvement/decline of the perception that computer can enrich life compared by gender and age after they attended the ICT training course Results

15 Figure 5: The self-perceived reduction/increase of the fear about using computer compared by gender and age after they attended the ICT training course Results

16 Figure 6: The biplot of associations between demographic factors and participants perception regarding variables about computer use after they attended the ICT training course

17 Conclusion The results of this study prove that this innovative personalized teaching approach where each elderly person learns from multiplier (one-to-one teaching method) is useful from various perspectives namely: elderly people can learn according to their own wishes, needs, have constant support from multiplier, ICT training courses can be adjusted to elderly people’s potential age related problems, personal interests, etc; In this study mainly participated elderly people aged between 66 and 75 years, which mean that despite of their age they would still like to learn new things, and want to keep pace with technological progress and do not want to stay behind;

18 Acknowledgement Financial support for the PRIMER-ICT project was provided by the European Commission under Agreement number 2008-4279/001- 001, project number 143665-LLP-1-2008-1-SI-KA3-KA3MP. The authors of this article would like to thank all project partners for their support and contribution and their permission to publish the data collected during the project. Additionally, the contribution of the facilitators, teachers, multipliers and elderly participants to the evaluation process is much appreciated.

19 References 1.JPI. (n.d.). More Years, Better Lives. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from ICT for Ageing: A Social Necessity and an Economic Opportunity: necessity-and-an-economic-opportunity.Einstein, A. (1916). General Theory of Relativity. Annalen der Physik 49(7), pp. 769-822. 2.Blažun, H., Saranto, K., & Rissanen, S. (2012). Impact of computer training courses on reduction of loneliness of older people in Finland and Slovenia. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1202-1212. 3.McConatha, D., McConatha, J. T., & Dermigny, R. (1994). The use of interactive computer services to enhance the quality of life for long-term care residents. The Gerontologist, 34(4), 553–6. 4.Campbell, R. J. (2003). The Elderly and the Internet: A Case Study. Internet Journal of Health, 3(1). 5.Cody, M. J., Dunn, D., Hoppin, S., & Wendt, P. (1999). Silver Surfers: Training and evaluation internet use among older adult learners. Communication Education, 48(4), 269–86. 6.Gatto, S. L., & Tak, S. H. (2008). Computer, Internet, and E-mail use Among Older Adults: Benefits and barriers. Educational Gerontology, 34, 800-811. 7.Morris, A., & Brading, H. (2007). E-literacy and the grey digital divide: a review with recommendations. Journal of Information Literacy, 1(3), 13-28.

20 References 8.Blažun, H., Saranto, K., Rissanen, S., & Bobek, S. (2013). Elderly People and Information Communication Technology (ICT): Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities for Better Quality of Life. In M. Cruz-Cunha, I. M. Miranda, & P. Concalves, Handbook of Research on ICTs and Management Systems for Improving Efficiency in Healthcare and Social Care (pp. 396-415). Hershey: IGI Global. 9.Blažun, H., Saranto, K., & Vošner, J. (2013). Educating Teachers and Multipliers for Future Work with the Elderly and the Role of Motivational Workshops for the Elderly's Future Participation in ICT Training Courses. International Journal of Health Research and Innovation, 1(1), 25-46. 10.Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Maribor. PRIMER-ICT: Blended Learning Paradigm. Maribor, Slovenia 2010: May 11. 11.Berge Z. L. The Role of the Online Instructor/Facilitator. Facilitating Computer Conferencing: Recommendations From the Field 1995; 35, 1, 22-30. Retrieved October 17, 2012, from 12.The School of Nursing, Midwifery & Health Systems, University College Dublin. (2011). Implementation of the Blended Courses. Maribor: Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Maribor. 13.Irizarry C, Downing A, West D. Promoting modern technology and internet access for under-represented older populations. Journal of Technology in Human Services 2002; 19(4): 13–30.

21 References 14.Naumanen M, Tukiainen M. Guiding the elderly into the use of computers and Internet – lessons taught and learnt. IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Rio de Janeiro: CELDA; 2007. 19-27. 15.White H, McConnell E, Clipp E, Branch L, Sloane R, Pieper C, Box T. A randomized controlled trial of the psychosocial impact of providing internet training and access to older adults. Aging Mental Health 2002; 6(3): 213-221. 16.Silver, C. (2001). Older surfers. Canadian Social Trends, 63, 9-12. 17.Karavidas, M., Lim, N. K., & Katsikas, S. L. (2005). The effects of computers on older adult users. Computers in Human Behavior, 21(5), 697–711. 18.Danowski, J. A., & Sacks, W. (1980). Computer communication and the elderly. Experimental Aging Research, 6(2), 125–35. 19.Czaja, S. J., Guerrier, J. H., Nair, S. N., & Landauer, T. K. (1993). Computer communication as an aid to independence for older adults. Behaviour and Information Technology, 12(4), 197–207. 20.Osman, A., Poulson, D., & Nicolle, C. (2005). Introducing computers and the internet to older users: Findings from the Care OnLine project. Universal Access in the Information Society, 4(1), 16–23. 21.Soyeon, L., & Insoon, K. (2005). Everyday Life of Senior Women and the ICT. Women's Studies Forum, 21, 117.

22 Thank you for your attention! Contacts: Helena Blažun, PhD, PhD Danica Železnik, PhD Peter Kokol, PhD Email:

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