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Presentation on theme: "IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN PSYCHOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:

Kaley Schur

2 Charles Darwin (History of Psychology)
Theory of natural selection influences the modern evolutionary perspective

3 William Wundt (History of Psychology)
First psych research laboratory in GERMANY; pioneered the term introspection; where subjects reported what was happening to them

4 William James (History of Psychology)
Prominent in establishing psychology in the US. He emphasized studying the purpose or function of behavior and mental processes

5 G Stanley Hall (History of Psychology)
First psych research laboratory in the US; first president of the American Psychological Association (APA); taught by William James

6 Mary Whiton Calkins (History of Psychology)
Taught by William James as well; Denied a Ph.D at Harvard due to sexism; established a psych lab at Wellesley and served as first female president of the APA

7 Margaret Floy Washburn (History of Psychology)
First American woman to get a Ph.D in psychology; best known for her experimental work in animal behavior

8 Sigmund Freud (History of Psychology)
Founded the psychoanalytic school of thought and developed the theory of defense mechanisms, particularly repression; believed childhood experiences influence adult personality; believed dreams provided a particular important insight into unconscious motives

9 John B. Watson (History of Psychology)
Behaviorist who believed the only thing worth is observable behavior.

10 Paul Broca (Biological Bases of Behavior)
Discovered speech production is located in the lower left frontal lobe; coined Broca’s area which revolutionized the understanding of speech production

11 Carl Wernicke (Biological Bases of Behavior)
Discovered that damage to the left temporal lobe caused deficits in language comprehension; coined Wernike’s area

12 Roger Sperry (Biological Bases of Behavior)
Best known for work on split brain patients; particularly that the right and left hemisphere have specialized functions

13 Michael Gazzaniga (Biological Bases of Behavior)
Continued Sperry’s work on split brain patients

14 Ernst Weber (Sensation and Perception)
Discovered just noticeable difference and Weber’s law

15 Gustav Fechner (Sensation and Perception)
Demonstrated that mental processes can be quantified

16 David Hubel (Sensation and Perception)
Discovered feature detectors- specialized neurons in the occipital lobe that have the ability to respond to specific features of an image

17 Torton Wiesel (Sensation and Perception)
Teamed with Hubel to expand the knowledge of sensory processing and perception

18 Ernest Hilgard (States of Consciousness)
Renowned for his research on hypnosis and pain control, created the term disassociation when it came to hypnosis

19 Ivan Pavlov (Learning)
Originally studied digestion and is famous for his pioneering work on classical conditioning

20 John Garcia (Learning)
Famous for pioneering work on taste aversion; his perspective supports the evolutionary perspective that being biologically prepared to quickly associate nausea with food or drink is adaptive

21 Robert Rescorla (Learning)
Research indicated that the CS must be a reliable signal that predicts of the UCS; furthered Pavlov’s research

22 Edward Thorndike (Learning)
Conducted the first systematic investigation of animal behavior and coined the term “law of effect” which simply stated that satisfying behaviors are more likely to be repeated and vice versa

23 BF Skinner (Learning) Like Watson, believed in observable behavior and came up with Operant Conditioning

24 Edward Tolman (Learning)
Known for his work on cognitive maps and mental representations; realized learning is more complex than Skinner believed

25 Wolfgang Kohler (Learning)
Studies included a Chimp named Sultan who had a banana outside of cage and a stick inside, realized that animal gains insight; and realized that that is the “aha moment”

26 Albert Bandura (Learning)
Famous bobo doll experiment; monkey see- monkey do; father of observation learning

27 George A. Miller (Cognition)
Magical 7 plus or minus 2 in STM (Working Memory)

28 Herman Ebinghaus (Cognition)
Father or memory research, known for the forgetting curve

29 Elizabeth Loftus (Cognition)
Known for misinformation effect; key in noting the weakness in eye witness testimony

30 Noam Chomsky (Cognition)
Renowned linguist that noted that children have an innate capacity to learn and produce speech; coined the term language acquisition device

31 Abraham Maslow (Motivation and Emotion)
Humanist who is known for his hierarchy of needs; believed highest level is “self actualization”

32 Stanley Schacter (Motivation and Emotion)
Known for the two- factor theory of emotion; where emotion depends of physical arousal and then cognitively labeling that arousal

33 Hans Selye (Motivation and Emotion)
Studied stress and coined “general adaption syndrome” (alarm reaction; resistance, exhaustion)

34 Alfred Kinsey (Motivation and Emotion)
Pioneering researcher on human sexuality

35 Mary Ainsworth (Developmental Psychologists)
Did research on the “strange situation” (relationship between infant and mothers) and came up with the terms secure and insecure attachment

36 Harry Harlow (Developmental Psychologists)
Famous for experiment on rhesus monkeys and found that touch plays a key role in developing healthy physical growth and normal socialization

37 Konrad Lorenz (Developmental Psychologists)
Studying animals and is known for his study on imprinting which is defined as learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject.

38 Jean Piaget (Developmental Psychologists)
Focused on cognitive development differs throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence to understand the world (Small People Can’t Fight)

39 Lev Vygotsky (Developmental Psychologists)
Famous for his belief that children learn their cultures habits of mind through a process called internalization or inner speech

40 Diana Baumrind (Developmental Psychologists)
Known for her work on parenting styles (permissive; authoritative; authoritarian)

41 Erik Erikson (Developmental Psychologists)
Coined the term psychosocial stages of development and was interested in how adolescence go through role confusion to form identity

42 Lawrence Kohlberg (Developmental Psychologists)
Used hypothetical moral dilemmas to study moral reasoning (Pre conventional- Conventional- Post Conventional

43 Alfred Adler (Personality)
Best known for critiquing Kohlberg’s theory since all participant were male- argued woman tend to focus on caring and compassion- tend and befriend

44 Carl Jung (Personality)
Neo- Freudian; who pioneered the use of psychiatry in both social work and early childhood education- urged patients to through words such as self-determination and courage to alter their interpretations of life events

45 Carl Rogers (Personality)
Neo Freudian who developed the concept of the collective unconscious; believed that the collective unconscious includes shared human experiences that are embodied in myths and cultural archetypes

46 Paul Costa & Robert McCrea (Personality)
Went against Freud’s pessimistic view of human nature and believed people are innately good and are motivated to achieve their full potential or self actualize

47 Francis Galton (Testing and Individual Differences)
Came up with the Five Factor Model of Personality (CANOE) Conscientiousness; Agreeableness; Neuroticism, Extroversion, and Openness

48 Charles Spearman (Testing and Individual Differences)
Proposed that intelligence is a single, underlying factor, which he coined general intelligence of the g factor

49 Robert Sternberg (Testing and Individual Differences)
Known for the triachic model that distinguishes analytic, practical, and creative intelligences

50 Howard Gardner (Testing and Individual Differences)
Disagreed with Spearman, and proposed multiple intelligences that include linguistic, logic-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.

51 Alfred Binet (Testing and Individual Differences)
Invented first usable intelligence test that noted the distinction between a child’s mental and chronological ages

52 Lewis Terman (Testing and Individual Differences)
Best known as the inventor of the Stanford- Binet IQ test; simply divided mental age by chronological age and multiplied by a 100

53 David Wechsler (Testing and Individual Differences)
Instead of Terman’s approach, Wechsler determined how far a person’s score deviates from a bell shaped normal distribution of scores. Most intelligence tests use this system

54 Dorothea Dix (Treatment of Abnormal Behavior)
Reformer who documented how poor and deplorable conditions were for the insane poor. Helped persuade state legislatures to create the first generation of American mental hospitals.

55 Albert Ellis (Treatment of Abnormal Behavior)
Known for rational- emotive therapy where he helped his client’s dispute irrational beliefs and replace them with rational interpretations of events.

56 Aaron Beck (Treatment of Abnormal Behavior)
Father of cognitive therapy- his theories are used to treat clinical depression

57 Mary Cover Jones (Treatment of Abnormal Behavior)
Conducted pioneering research in applying behavioral techniques to therapy “known as the mother of behavior therapy”

58 Joseph Wolpe (Treatment of Abnormal Behavior)
Furthered Jone’s work by inventing systematic desensitization- where he taught his patients to relax deeply and he then created situations that would cause anxiety by working with minor ones and then with more top level anxiety producing situations.

59 Leon Festinger (Social Psychology)
Best known for his work on cognitive dissonance- realized most people change attitude when their attitudes and actions are inconsistent

60 Philip Zimbardo (Social Psychology)
Known for the Stanford Prison study- showed the power of deindividuation

61 Solomon Asch (Social Psychology)
Known for line experiment that showed the powers of normative social influence

62 Stanley Milgram (Social Psychology)
Famous for “shock study” that showed that humans tend to be very obedient to authority


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