Presentation on theme: "REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. PRESENTED BY: MS"— Presentation transcript:
1REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. PRESENTED BY: MS REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. PRESENTED BY: MS.ROSEMARY MUGWE REGIONAL POLICY COORDINATOR IPAS AFRICA ALLIANCE.
2Definition of Reproductive Health Reproductive health is defined as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system at all stages of life.Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health, therefore, implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so." ( WHO)
3CHOICE- options, methods and Information ACCESS- Affordable, legal, convenient, barrier-freeQUALITY- safe, respectful, confidential, comprehensive, technologically appropriate
4RH includes: Family Planning STI prevention and management ( HIV included)Pregnancy related careUnwanted pregnancy and abortionPrevention and management of reproductive health cancersInfertility management
5Why the Youth? FactsHalf the world’s population is under the age of 25, more than 3 billion people. young people’s choices today will directly determine the well-being of people around the world for generations to come.At least 215 million women worldwide want to limit or space their births, but don’t have access to modern family planning methods. It is estimated that the unmet need for family planning is twice as great for young people.For young women ages 15 to 19 in low- and middle- income countries, complications from pregnancy are the leading cause of death. ( WHO)At least 215 million women worldwide want to limit or space their births, but don’t have access to modern family planning methods. UNFPA estimates that this unmet need for family planning is twice as great for young people. Lack of access to family planning and reproductive health services can have dire consequences. For young women ages 15 to 19 in low- and middle- income countries, complications from pregnancy are the leading cause of death. Unmet need for family planning will significantly increase as the world’s largest generation of young people enters into their reproductive years
6Cont.Adolescent girls are at the highest risk for maternal mortality. Each additional pregnancy increases a girl’s risk of maternal death. Maternal mortality was found to be twice as high for women aged 15–19 years compared to women aged 20–29 years.(WHO)Globally, 70 percent of women hospitalized with complications from an unsafe abortion are under the age of 20 (Plan 2007)About half of the global deaths from unsafe abortion are in young women ages 24 or younger (WHO 2004)Girls have lower contraceptive prevalence rate and experience higher incidences of sexual violence than their male peers or adult women. Young women are vulnerable to being lured to sexual intercourse and have a low bargaining power on condom use. They as such find themselves with unwanted pregnancies and due to stigma, peer pressure, restrictive laws they end up havin clandestine abortions which have dire consequences not to mention death.
7Cont.Eighty-two million girls in developing countries, ages 10 to 17, marry before their 18th birthday.Girls under the age of 16 are at increased risk for prolonged obstructed labor which often leads to fistula because the pelvis of a young girl is not yet fully developed for childbirth
8Cont.A study of 18 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Africa between 1993 and 2001 found that two out of five unmarried females aged 15–24 were sexually active.According to a 2008 UNAIDS report, 3.3 million youth in sub-Saharan Africa are living with AIDS and 76 percent of youth living with HIV/AIDS are female.WHO estimates that youth account for almost 60 percent of unsafe abortions performed in Africa.
9Cont.As of 2005, one-third of all women living with HIV are between the ages of 15 and 24. Of the over 1 billion youth (ages 15-24) worldwide, some 10 million are living with HIV. Every day, an estimated 6,000 youth are infected with the virus.In Africa, about 3 million girls are at risk for FGM annually.An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGC/FGM. Adverse obstetric outcomes.
10What do we know about RH? TEEN WEB STUDY findings. Adolescent SRH emerged on the global stage during the ICPD Cairo1994. Youth from around the globe voiced the barriers that prevent them from gaining access to Information and services that can help them from gaining access to information and services that can help them understand their sexuality and protect them from consequences of risky behavior.This international consesnsus served as an impetus for the TEN web project.Study sought to reach Nairobi youth through Internet technology(IT). It involved 1000 youth in five public schools.students did not see themselves as susceptible to HIV/AIDS and believed condom effectiveness in preventing HIV to be low.58% have at least one romantic relationship. Youth said they felt vulnerable to sexual coercion from persons of authority. One third of the sexualy active said that they had used a condom,43% said they had never used a condom.There was clear ignorance on emergency contraceptives, condom use, spread of STIs. This translates to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortionsSTIs,etc.
11Challenges faced by youth while accessing RH services The services are designed for the adult client and service providers are not trained in adolescent sexuality and youth-friendly SRH concepts;Many of the facilities’ working environments are not youth friendly, and services for adolescents are poorly publicized;Service provider attitudes and biases are a great barrier to youth services;Privacy and confidentiality are generally lacking;
12When we listen to young people, both by asking them and just by being present in their lives, we hear that young people prioritize respect, confidentiality, complete and accurate information, and in many cases the integration of sexual and reproductive health services with other resources they also need, like job training, or computer and internet access.Respect: Not judging them for being or wanting to become sexually active, exploring their sexuality, wanting or needing contraceptives, abortion care or pre-natal care, or having experienced sexual violence (read quote from page 1 of lit review). Respect also means honoring their right to informed consent to the fullest extent of the law, and always keeping the best interest of the young person above everything else.Confidentiality: privacy, reputation, violence, family honorIntegrating Services: Examples in South Africa (job training and sex ed.) and Argentina (job training and computer labs)
13Right to RH for the Youth Reproductive health rights are Human rights that appear in several International rights instruments, regional documents and national documents.They apply equally to the youth as to other adult men and women.
14WHO StrategyThe WHO Global reproductive health strategy was adopted in the 57th World HealthAssembly(WHAMDG5bICPDThe recognition by world leaders that increased attention to sexual and reproductive health is a prerequisite for achieving MDG 5 on improving maternal health, and also contributes significantly to reducing poverty and hunger (MDG 1), promoting gender equality and empowerment of women (MDG 3) and combating HIV and other diseases (MDG 6). The World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Reproductive Health and Research convened a technical consultation involving stakeholders from countries, regions and partner agencies to review strategies applied within countries for advancing universal access to sexual and reproductive health with a view to identifying strategic approaches to accelerate progress in achieving universal access.
15African Youth CharterArticle 16: Health2. State parties shall undertake to pursue the full implementation of this right and in particular shall take measures to:b). Secure the full involvement of youth in identifying their reproductive and health needs and designing programmes that respond to these needs with special attention to vulnerable and disadvantaged youth:c).Provide access to youth friendly reproductive health services including contraceptives, antenatal and post natal services:Back home, our regional, own made document acknowledges reproductive health.
16e). Institute comprehensive programs to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDs by providing education, information, communication and awareness creation as well as making protective measures and reproductive health services available;i). Institute comprehensive programmes including legislative steps to prevent unsafe abortion;Unsafe abortion is the easiest to prevent by ensuring that the youth are able to get quality RH services and access to safe abortion to the extent allowed by their national laws.To comply with international /regional human rights standards, SRH services have to be available, accessible, acceptable and of high quality.
17Countries that have ratified AYC Signature= 38Ratification = 24We need to have more countries ratify the AYC and domesticate it and have an action plan for implementation.
18Knowing your RH rights is empowering! The Right to LifeThe Right to Equality, and to be Free from all Forms of DiscriminationThe Right to PrivacyThe Right to Information and EducationThe Right to Choose Whether or Not to Marry and to Found and Plan a FamilyThe Right to Health Care and Health ProtectionThe Right to the Benefits of Scientific ProgressIn the field of RH, programs designed to improve RH are more successful when they promote the underlying rights
19RECOMENDATIONSGIMAC network should create awareness in all its networks on the importance of youth RH by disseminating information and in particular Art.16 of the Africa Youth CharterGIMAC network should lobby heads of states to ratify the African Youth Charter, domesticate it and put systems in place to ensure efficient implementation.Urge member states to harmonize Reproductive health national laws and policies with international and regional instruments.Sanitary towels now ZERO rated, no tax on them and govn’t has put a budget aside to buy and distribute sanitary towels to schools countrywide.
20We should lobby our Governments to put a budget in place for youth friendly quality reproductive health services .( best practice; sanitary towels in Kenya)Sanitary towels now ZERO rated, no tax on them and govn’t has put a budget aside to buy and distribute sanitary towels to schools countrywide
21Quote!YOUTH REQUIRE OUR BEST EFFORTS. THEY DESERVE OUR BEST EFFORTS. TODAY, THEY CHALLENGE US TO ENHANCE THEIR WELLBEING THROUGH ENACTING SOUND POLICIES, ENFORCING THE PRUDENT POLICIES THAT EXIST AND MOST OF ALL: LISTENING TO THEIR NASCENT WISDOM.( Hon Anyang’’Nyongo, Minster of Health in Kenya).