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By: Kellie Tetrick, M.A. Ed.. Welcome! (Background and why we are learning about this?) Who is Ruby Payne? She is sometimes controversial with her research.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Kellie Tetrick, M.A. Ed.. Welcome! (Background and why we are learning about this?) Who is Ruby Payne? She is sometimes controversial with her research."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Kellie Tetrick, M.A. Ed.

2 Welcome! (Background and why we are learning about this?) Who is Ruby Payne? She is sometimes controversial with her research and techniques She admits this does not qualify as “research” against university standards because it does not have a “clean” methodology. This is a cognitive study – it looks at “thinking” or “mindsets” created by one’s environment. Some criticize her as being “classist”… you may too but it is not the intent of hers or my message to you today. Dr. Payne does not want to or for us to make EXCUSES for behaviors of people/students in poverty.

3 Raise your hand if you identify with the following: I know which grocery stores’ garbage bins can be accessed for thrown away food. I know how to get a library card. I fly in my own plane or my company plane. I know how to get a gun, even if I have a police record. I know how to place an order in a nice restaurant. I can read a menu in French, English and another language. I have at least two or three “screens” that keep people whom I do not wish to see away from me.

4 Raise your and if you agree with the following: Only minorities live in poverty. There is no way out of poverty. People who live in poverty never work. Most children living in poverty have both parents. Most children whose parents who are immigrants live in poverty. Fewer children of native-born parents live in poverty. 59% of poor renters spend 50% of their income on shelter. 47% of daughters born to parents in poverty stay in poverty compared to 35% of the sons. (!!!!) Education has no effect on births out of wedlock.

5 What is Poverty?? Please talk with the person next to you and jot down: How would YOU define poverty?? Who is affected by it? How do you think a person can get out of it? How do you think poverty affects education?

6 Poverty is… Lack of money or material possessions (The Merriam- Webster Dictionary). Poverty is relative – if everybody around you has similar circumstances, the notion of poverty and wealth is vague. (We was poor but we was rich?) Poverty occurs in all races and in all countries. Not a clear-cut distinction – in 2006 the poverty line in the U.S. was considered to be $20,444 for a family of four.

7 What Causes Poverty? Talk with your neighbor and jot down what you think are the causes of poverty.  Behaviors of the Individual  Human and Social Capital in the Community  Exploitation  Political/Economic Structures

8 Behaviors of the Individual Human and Social Capital in the Community ExploitationPolitical/Economic Structures Definition: Research on the choices, behaviors, characteristics, and habits of people in poverty. Definition: Research on the resources available to individuals, communities, and businesses. Definition: Research on how people in poverty are exploited because they are in poverty. Definition: Research on the economic, political, and social policies at the international, national, state, and local levels. Sample topics: Dependence on welfare Morality Crime Single parenthood Breakup of families Intergenerational character traits Work ethic Racism and discrimination Commitment to achievement Spending habits Addiction, mental illness, domestic violence Planning skills Orientation to the future Language experience Sample topics: Intellectual capital Social capital Availability of jobs Availability of well- paying jobs Racism and discrimination Availability and quality of education Adequate skill sets Childcare for working families Decline in neighborhoods Decline in social morality Urbanization Suburbanization of manufacturing Middle class flight City and regional planning Sample topics: Drug trade Racism and discrimination Payday lenders Sub-prime lenders Lease/purchase outlets Gambling Temp work Sweatshops Sex trade Internet scams Sample topics: Globalization Equity and growth Corporate influence on legislators Declining middle class De-industrialization Job loss Decline of unions Taxation patterns Salary ratio of CEO to line worker Immigration patterns Economic disparity Racism and discrimination 8 WHAT CAUSES POVERTY?

9 9 Intergenerational transfer of knowledge – it takes 3 generations out of poverty to become college educated. GP – SP – MC – NM – OM (Generational and Situational Poverty are very different, how?) Three generation rule – wealthy families lose their money by the 3 rd generation (GP) generational poverty (SP) situational poverty (MC) middle class (NM) new money (OM) old money Model for Classes:

10 10 What It’s Like Now Research done by Philip DeVol in 2004 with adults in poverty—welfare to work transition program. MENTAL MODEL FOR POVERTY

11 People in Poverty … Busy trying to solve immediate, concrete problems Believe in FATE above all determines the future Few have a “future story” When something bad happens, everything tends to pile up…

12 12 Mental Model for Middle Class Research done by Ruby K. Payne (2004). MENTAL MODEL FOR MIDDLE CLASS

13 Talk with your neighbor, how are the mental models different for middle class and poverty? Higher resources give those with economic stability the “luxury” of choice and future story. Education and achievement are driving forces that glue the elements together. Relationships are not about survival, but they are expected to incorporate stability. When a crisis does occur, there are usually significant amounts of resources, including social capital, available to stop a downward spiral into massive instability.

14 14 Mental Model for Wealth MENTAL MODEL FOR WEALTH

15 Other ideas on class: People in poverty have personal power, strength, and fighting ability, but they can’t stop bad things from happening in the neighborhood or community. People in middle class have the power of the institutions because the institutions are run on middle class rules and norms. People in wealth have the power to influence and shape policy and the direction of the community.

16 Where do you fit in class?? Most teachers are usually from middle to upper middle class families. We are idealistic and want to help others, rather than make a fortune. Most schools operation on Middle Class norms and language.

17 Identity: Of the following which how would many of your male students identify himself? Worker? Smart? Lover? Fighter?

18 Characteristics of Generation Poverty Background “noise” – Almost always the TV is on, no matter what the circumstance. Conversation is participatory, often with more than one person talking at a time. Importance of personality – Individual personality is what one brings to the setting – because money is not brought. The ability to entertain, tell stories, and have a sense of humor is highly valued.

19 Significance of entertainment – When one can merely survive, then the respite from the survival is important. In fact, entertainment brings respite. Importance of relationships – One only has people upon whom to rely, and those relationships are important to survival. One often has favorites. Oral-language tradition – Casual register is used for everything Matriarchal structure – The mother has the most powerful position in the society if she functions as a caretaker

20 Survival orientation – discussion of academic topics is generally not prized. There is little room for the abstract. Discussions center around people and relationships. A job is about making enough money to survive. A job is not about a career. Identity tied to rescuer/martyr role for women – A “good” woman is expected to take care of and rescue her man and her children as needed. Importance of non-verbal/kinesthetic communication – Touch is used to communicate, as are space and non-verbal emotional communication. Ownership of people – People are possessions. There is a great deal of fear and comment about leaving the culture and “getting above your raisings”

21 Negative orientation – Failure at anything is the source of stories and numerous belittling comments. Discipline – Punishment is about penance and forgiveness, not change. Belief in fate – Choice is seldom considered Polarized thinking – Options are hardly ever examined. Everything is polarized; it is one way or the other. (“I quit” and “I can’t do it”) Mating dance – The mating dance is about using the body in a sexual way and verbally and subverbally complimenting body parts. If you have few financial resources, the way you sexually attract someone is with your body.

22 Time – Time occurs only in the present. The future does not exist except as a word. Time is flexible and not measured. Time is often assigned on the basis of the emotional significance and not the actual measured time. Sense of humor – A sense of humor is highly valued, as entertainment is one of the key aspects of poverty. Humor is almost always about people – either situations that people encounter or things people do to other people.

23 Lack of order/organization – Many of the homes/apartments of people in poverty are unkempt and cluttered. Devices for organization (files, planners, etc.) don’t exist. Lives in the moment – does not consider future ramifications: Being proactive, setting goals and planning ahead are not a part of generational poverty. Most of what occurs is reactive and in the moment. Future implications of present actions are seldom considered.

24 Even in telling me some of those stories that involve a great deal of humiliation at the hands of hospital or welfare personnel, she usually manages to find something that’s funny in the madness of it all and keeps on saying things that make both of us laugh. - Jonothan Kozol Amazing Grace

25 Resources Some would debate the definition of poverty is “the extent to which an individual does with out resources.” With your students you can best help them by identifying what resources they DO have and how to build on that. Then, try to build their resources so s/he may be more successful upon entering society.

26 Key Resources Financial – money to purchase goods. Emotional – Being able to choose and control emotional responses. Mental – Having the mental abilities and acquired skills (reading, writing, computing,) to deal with daily life. Spiritual – believing in divine purpose and guidance. Physical – having physical health and mobility. Support Systems – friends, family, backup resources. Relationships/role model – having frequent access to adults who are appropriate who are nurturing. ** Knowledge of Hidden Rules** - knowing the unspoken cues and habits of a group.

27 Hidden Rules:  Hidden rules are the “unspoken cues and habits of a group.”  These rules become part of your belief system and guide how you behave.  Relationships can be broken when you do not know the hidden rules.  Hidden rules can limit your interaction with people who are different from you. *** Hidden rules should not predict other people’s behaviors.

28 28 POVERTYMIDDLE CLASSWEALTH POSSESSIONSPeople.Things.One-of-a-kind objects, legacies, pedigrees. MONEYTo be used, spent.To be managed.To be conserved, invested. PERSONALITYIs for entertainment. Sense of humor is highly valued. Is for acquisition and stability. Achievement is highly valued. Is for connections. Financial, political, social connections are highly valued. SOCIAL EMPHASIS Social inclusion of the people they like. Emphasis is on self- governance and self- sufficiency. Emphasis is on social exclusion. FOODKey question: Did you have enough? Quantity important. Key question: Did you like it? Quality important. Key question: Was it presented well? Presentation important. CLOTHINGClothing valued for individual style and expression of personality. Clothing valued for its quality and acceptance into the norms of middle class. Label important. Clothing valued for its artistic sense and expression. Designer important. TIMEPresent most important. Decisions made for moment based on feelings or survival. Future most important. Decisions made against future ramifications. Traditions and past history most important. Decisions made partially on basis of tradition decorum. HIDDEN RULES FOR ECONOMIC CLASS

29 29 POVERTYMIDDLE CLASSWEALTH EDUCATIONValued and revered as abstract but not as reality. Education is about facts. Crucial for climbing success ladder and making money. Necessary tradition for making and maintaining connections. DESTINYBelieves in fate. Cannot do much to mitigate chance. Believes in choice. Can change future with good choices now. Noblesse oblige. LANGUAGECasual register. Language is about survival. Formal register. Language is about negotiation. Formal register. Language is about connection. FAMILY STRUCTURE Tends to be matriarchal.Tends to be patriarchal.Depends on who has/controls money. WORLD VIEWSees world in terms of local setting. Sees world in terms of national setting. Sees world in terms of an international view. LOVELove and acceptance conditional, based on whether individual is liked. Love and acceptance conditional, based largely on achievement. Love and acceptance conditional, related to social standing and connections. DRIVING FORCESSurvival, relationships, entertainment. Work and achievement.Financial, political, social connections. Hidden Rules of Economic Class HIDDEN RULES FOR ECONOMIC CLASS

30 Hidden rules can limit your interaction with people who are different from you. Don’t try to discuss or reframe hidden rules unless there is a relationship of mutual respect. Use the understanding of hidden rules to create relationships of mutual respect. The more rules one knows, the more “middle class games” someone from poverty can play. The wider the range of your responses, the more control you have over your situation—and the more opportunities become open to you.

31 31 REGISTEREXPLANATION FROZENLanguage that is always the same. For example: Lord ’ s Prayer, wedding vows, etc. FORMALThe standard sentence syntax and word choice of work and school. Has complete sentences and specific word choice. (What we use at school and work) CONSULTATIVEFormal register when used in conversation. Discourse pattern not quite as direct as formal register. (Mix) CASUALLanguage between friends, characterized by a 400- to 800-word vocabulary. Word choice general and not specific. Conversation dependent upon nonverbal assists. Sentence syntax often incomplete. INTIMATELanguage between lovers or twins. Language of sexual harassment. Registers of Language Adapted from Martin Joos REGISTERS OF LANGUAGE

32 You can go up or down one register in a conversation and it's socially acceptable. But if you go up or down two registers or more, people are often offended. Maria Montaño-Harmon, a linguist in California, found that in generational poverty virtually all that the adults and students know is casual register.

33 Use the registers of language as a teaching tool. Many times when students say, "I don't know what that means," they cannot say it in your words. How much time do we give them to translate something from casual register to formal register? Try translating the Pledge of Allegiance from frozen to formal. See how difficult that is?

34 Students may get referred for discipline because of language issues when they're in the wrong register. A sixth-grade boy was sent to the office because he told the teacher that something "sucked." Well, part of his discipline was to find two ways to say "sucked" in formal register. His first translation was, "I don't like this work." His second translation was, "There's no longer any joy in this activity.” Idea: When students speak in casual register, have them come up with two other ways to say it in formal register. Give information to parents and students in story form.

35 FormalCasual

36 To survive in poverty, one must rely upon nonverbal, sensory, and reactive skills To survive in school or work, one must use verbal, abstract and proactive skills. (PLANNING) (Think about how the modes of class restrict some children from success…)

37 The Paper World of the Middle Class Middle Class Abstract Items: Grades House deed Address Social Security Number Daily To-do List Clock or Calendar Homework Driver’s License MRI ***Teacher Contract***

38 Two things that help a person out of poverty:  Education  Relationships 38 KEY POINT

39 Four reasons one moves out of poverty are:  Too painful to stay  Vision or goal  Key relationship  Special talent/skill 39 KEY POINT

40 What does this mean to us as educators??? Consider the kids you work with and where they come from Think about words/hidden language they do not understand Make things visual Teach them the social cues/norms they do not know. Reflect ALWAYS start confrontation in the tone you would like to end it.

41 We Make a DIFFERENCE!!! Locate a resilient kid and you will also find a caring adult – or several – who has guided him. - Invincible Kids U.S. News and World Report

42 Thank you so much for your time Please feel free to email me at if you have any questions or would like to discuss this further! I’m just down the road!

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