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The Health of Young People. Workshop aims To determine what is good health for young people To determine what is good health for young people To review.

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Presentation on theme: "The Health of Young People. Workshop aims To determine what is good health for young people To determine what is good health for young people To review."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Health of Young People

2 Workshop aims To determine what is good health for young people To determine what is good health for young people To review the developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people To review the developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people To explain how social factors impact on the health of young people. To explain how social factors impact on the health of young people. To determine how best to respond to HSC questions regarding HOYP. To determine how best to respond to HSC questions regarding HOYP.

3 The Health of Young People What is good health for young people? Do Australia’s young people enjoy good health? What skills and actions enable young people to attain better health? If so … ? Then what … ?

4 What is good health for young people? Students learn about Students learn to developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people - revising roles within relationships - clarifying self-identity - developing self-sufficiency and autonomy - establishing a sense of self-worth - establishing education, training and employment pathways - establishing personal support structures - determining behavioural boundaries identify the relationship between successfully managing these developmental aspects and establishing good health identify the relationship between successfully managing these developmental aspects and establishing good health think critically about how young people’s priorities and values relate to their health by considering questions such as: think critically about how young people’s priorities and values relate to their health by considering questions such as: - is health a priority for young people? - what would young people view as the indicators of good health?

5 Developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people Revising roles within relationships: refers to the changing nature of the relationships young people have with their family, friends & community. Linked to the transition to adulthood; young people seek independence & to establish power balance in their relationships with their family Revising roles within relationships: refers to the changing nature of the relationships young people have with their family, friends & community. Linked to the transition to adulthood; young people seek independence & to establish power balance in their relationships with their family Clarifying self identity: is evident in how you describe yourself to others; it changes over time & is therefore dynamic eg a young person’s sexual orientation may change over time (8-9% of young people will have greater sexual desire for the same sex – La Trobe University) Clarifying self identity: is evident in how you describe yourself to others; it changes over time & is therefore dynamic eg a young person’s sexual orientation may change over time (8-9% of young people will have greater sexual desire for the same sex – La Trobe University)

6 Developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people Developing self sufficiency & autonomy: self sufficiency is the ability to provide for oneself without help from others; achieving autonomy enhances self confidence, identity & is a right of passage Developing self sufficiency & autonomy: self sufficiency is the ability to provide for oneself without help from others; achieving autonomy enhances self confidence, identity & is a right of passage Establishing a sense of self worth: is important for good mental health; family & peers have an important part to play. Confidence in meeting challenges comes with the security of personal support structures Establishing a sense of self worth: is important for good mental health; family & peers have an important part to play. Confidence in meeting challenges comes with the security of personal support structures

7 Developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people Establishing education, training & employment pathways: education & training are important in establishing positive self concept & esteem. Enhances health & wellbeing. Changing nature of workforce means that students may be working in careers that may not exist at this point; Gen Y & Gen Z have different expectations than previous generations. Establishing education, training & employment pathways: education & training are important in establishing positive self concept & esteem. Enhances health & wellbeing. Changing nature of workforce means that students may be working in careers that may not exist at this point; Gen Y & Gen Z have different expectations than previous generations. Establishing personal support structures: give assistance in times of stress or trauma. Eg the family assist with financial, emotion, physical & mental support. When personal structures fail young people turn to the community & government for assistance & support eg Youth Off the Streets Establishing personal support structures: give assistance in times of stress or trauma. Eg the family assist with financial, emotion, physical & mental support. When personal structures fail young people turn to the community & government for assistance & support eg Youth Off the Streets

8 Developmental aspects that impact on the health of young people Determining social boundaries: adolescence is a time for testing & establishing boundaries of behaviour (eg drinking, driving, sexual activity, etc) often leading to long term consequences such as injury, disability, dysfunction or stress related disorders. Clear & unambiguous boundaries protect young people from harm; in rural areas where youth crime is relatively high curfews are applied as penalties to restrict the movements of young people at night & there are few other consequences that can be applied. Determining social boundaries: adolescence is a time for testing & establishing boundaries of behaviour (eg drinking, driving, sexual activity, etc) often leading to long term consequences such as injury, disability, dysfunction or stress related disorders. Clear & unambiguous boundaries protect young people from harm; in rural areas where youth crime is relatively high curfews are applied as penalties to restrict the movements of young people at night & there are few other consequences that can be applied.

9 What is good health for young people? Students learn about Students learn to social factors that impact on the health of young people social factors that impact on the health of young people - socioeconomic status - employment - education - gender - ethnicity - Aboriginality - geographical location - sexual orientation. - peer influence understand the diverse nature of young people as a group understand the diverse nature of young people as a group propose explanations of how each social factor may impact on the health of young people. propose explanations of how each social factor may impact on the health of young people.

10 Social factors that impact on the health of young people Socioeconomic status: The health and wellbeing status of young people varied significantly according to socioeconomic status. Young people from the most disadvantaged areas were less likely to rate their health as excellent or very good, were more likely to lack social support and be victims of assault, had lower Year 12 completion rates and had death rates almost twice as high as the least disadvantaged areas The health and wellbeing status of young people varied significantly according to socioeconomic status. Young people from the most disadvantaged areas were less likely to rate their health as excellent or very good, were more likely to lack social support and be victims of assault, had lower Year 12 completion rates and had death rates almost twice as high as the least disadvantaged areas Of young people living in families, most (80%) were living in couple-parent families in Of young people living in families, most (80%) were living in couple-parent families in Young people in couple-parent families were more likely than young people from lone-parent families to have an ‘employed’ parent or one that had completed secondary school. Young people in couple-parent families were more likely than young people from lone-parent families to have an ‘employed’ parent or one that had completed secondary school. The vast majority (90%) of young people were living in households that were not considered to be overcrowded in The vast majority (90%) of young people were living in households that were not considered to be overcrowded in One in three (34%) clients of agencies funded through the Supported Accommodation and Assistance Program (SAAP) (agencies providing assistance to homeless people) were aged 12–24 years in 2004–05. For males, accommodation problems were the main reason for seeking assistance, and interpersonal relationships was the main reason for females. One in three (34%) clients of agencies funded through the Supported Accommodation and Assistance Program (SAAP) (agencies providing assistance to homeless people) were aged 12–24 years in 2004–05. For males, accommodation problems were the main reason for seeking assistance, and interpersonal relationships was the main reason for females.Employment: The unemployment rates for 15–19 and 20–24 year olds were 12.5% and 6.3% respectively in July 2006, compared with a national unemployment rate of 4.4%. The unemployment rates for 15–19 and 20–24 year olds were 12.5% and 6.3% respectively in July 2006, compared with a national unemployment rate of 4.4%. Source: Young Australians: their health and wellbeing 2007

11 Social factors that impact on the health of young people Education: Most Year 7 students met the national benchmarks for reading, writing and numeracy (91%, 94% and 82%) in Most Year 7 students met the national benchmarks for reading, writing and numeracy (91%, 94% and 82%) in The apparent retention rate to Year 12 has increased substantially from 49% in 1986 to 75% in 2006 and the proportion of those aged 15–24 years with post-school qualifications rose from 23% to 26% between 1996 and The apparent retention rate to Year 12 has increased substantially from 49% in 1986 to 75% in 2006 and the proportion of those aged 15–24 years with post-school qualifications rose from 23% to 26% between 1996 and The majority of young people (85% of those aged 15–19 years and 76% of those aged 20–24 years) were participating full time in education and/or work in The majority of young people (85% of those aged 15–19 years and 76% of those aged 20–24 years) were participating full time in education and/or work in 2006.Gender: Life expectancy at birth has improved over the last 20 years: a gain of 5.6 years for males and 4 years for females. A boy born in 2002–2004 would be expected to live to 78.1 years, on average, while a girl would be expected to live to 83.0 years, on average. Life expectancy at birth has improved over the last 20 years: a gain of 5.6 years for males and 4 years for females. A boy born in 2002–2004 would be expected to live to 78.1 years, on average, while a girl would be expected to live to 83.0 years, on average. Between 1993–97 and 1998–2002, the rate of melanoma incidence decreased by 23% (from 7.6 to 5.9 per 100,000 young people) for males and by 14% (from 9.1 to 7.8 per 100,000 young people) for females. Between 1993–97 and 1998–2002, the rate of melanoma incidence decreased by 23% (from 7.6 to 5.9 per 100,000 young people) for males and by 14% (from 9.1 to 7.8 per 100,000 young people) for females. Injury (including poisoning) continues to be the leading cause of death for young people, accounting for two- thirds of all deaths of young people in Transport accidents accounted for 45% and intentional self-harm (suicide) accounted for 27% of all injury deaths. Injury was also the leading cause of hospital separation for males and the fourth highest for females in 2004–05. Transport accidents (largely motor vehicle accidents) were the most common external cause of injury for males and intentional self-harm was the most common cause for females. Injury (including poisoning) continues to be the leading cause of death for young people, accounting for two- thirds of all deaths of young people in Transport accidents accounted for 45% and intentional self-harm (suicide) accounted for 27% of all injury deaths. Injury was also the leading cause of hospital separation for males and the fourth highest for females in 2004–05. Transport accidents (largely motor vehicle accidents) were the most common external cause of injury for males and intentional self-harm was the most common cause for females. Source: Young Australians: their health and wellbeing 2007

12 Social factors that impact on the health of young people Ethnicity: Research shows the longer a migrant stays in Australia the more likely they are to adopt unhealthy lifestyles Research shows the longer a migrant stays in Australia the more likely they are to adopt unhealthy lifestyles Cultural beliefs can impact on opportunities for physical activity, views about body image Cultural beliefs can impact on opportunities for physical activity, views about body image Stress of migration and subsequent marginalisation on arrival can impact on the mental health of young people; a lack of culturally appropriate services may exacerbate this Stress of migration and subsequent marginalisation on arrival can impact on the mental health of young people; a lack of culturally appropriate services may exacerbate this Cultural conflict (ideas and values) cause considerable stress. Cultural conflict (ideas and values) cause considerable stress.Aboriginality: Young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had higher rates of death, injury and some chronic diseases compared with other young Australians. During 2002–2004, the death rate for Indigenous young people was almost 4 times the rate for other young Australians, and the injury death rate was almost 5 times that of other young people. Indigenous young people had higher hospital separation rates for injury (1.7 times the rate for other young Australians), asthma (1.3 times) and diabetes (more than 3 times). Young Indigenous Australians were also more likely than other young Australians to experience health risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, imprisonment, and lower educational attainment. Young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had higher rates of death, injury and some chronic diseases compared with other young Australians. During 2002–2004, the death rate for Indigenous young people was almost 4 times the rate for other young Australians, and the injury death rate was almost 5 times that of other young people. Indigenous young people had higher hospital separation rates for injury (1.7 times the rate for other young Australians), asthma (1.3 times) and diabetes (more than 3 times). Young Indigenous Australians were also more likely than other young Australians to experience health risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, imprisonment, and lower educational attainment. Source: Young Australians: their health and wellbeing 2007

13 Social factors that impact on the health of young people Geographic location: A small proportion (2.3%) of young people lived in Remote and Very Remote areas in 2005, however, these young people had substantially higher rates of death and hospital separation for specific health conditions and were more likely to engage in certain risky health behaviours than young people in Major Cities. For example, injury separation rates were 2.7 times as high as in Major Cities and death rates were 5 times as high. Consumption of recommended levels of fruit and vegetables declined with increasing remoteness, while the proportions of risky and high-risk drinking for short-term harm increased. A small proportion (2.3%) of young people lived in Remote and Very Remote areas in 2005, however, these young people had substantially higher rates of death and hospital separation for specific health conditions and were more likely to engage in certain risky health behaviours than young people in Major Cities. For example, injury separation rates were 2.7 times as high as in Major Cities and death rates were 5 times as high. Consumption of recommended levels of fruit and vegetables declined with increasing remoteness, while the proportions of risky and high-risk drinking for short-term harm increased. Source: Young Australians: their health and wellbeing 2007

14 Social factors that impact on the health of young people Sexual orientation: According to La Trobe University study, 8-9% of young people report to feel same sex attraction. According to La Trobe University study, 8-9% of young people report to feel same sex attraction. This may in part be sexual experimentation & establishment of self identity This may in part be sexual experimentation & establishment of self identity Homophobic attitudes may lead young people to hide their feelings; lead to self loathing & denial. Homophobic attitudes may lead young people to hide their feelings; lead to self loathing & denial. Evident in rural communities where stereotypes of homosexual people and construction of masculinity/femininity are definite. Evident in rural communities where stereotypes of homosexual people and construction of masculinity/femininity are definite. High rates of self harm, substance abuse & suicide among gay teenagers in these communities. High rates of self harm, substance abuse & suicide among gay teenagers in these communities. Peer influence: Both positive & negative Both positive & negative Provision of peer network can promote security and good health practices Provision of peer network can promote security and good health practices Negative influences result in pressure to drink, engage in sexual contact, passing inaccurate health information; social isolation and alienation (bullying) increases the risk of depression and suicidal behaviour. Negative influences result in pressure to drink, engage in sexual contact, passing inaccurate health information; social isolation and alienation (bullying) increases the risk of depression and suicidal behaviour.

15 The Question … HSC 2007 Question 23 (c) Analyse a health promotion program designed to enhance the health of young people. Refer to ONE area of concern you have studied To analyse this health promotion what must you do?

16 What makes you a HYOP student? What are your areas of study: stress and coping stress and coping risk taking and road injuries risk taking and road injuries substance abuse substance abuse sexuality sexuality violence violence body image. body image.

17 What’s missing … What skills and actions enable young people to attain better health? What skills and actions enable young people to attain better health? building positive self-concepts building positive self-concepts developing a sense of connectedness developing a sense of connectedness promoting an acceptance and valuing of cultural diversity promoting an acceptance and valuing of cultural diversity developing health literacy and accessing skills developing health literacy and accessing skills coping skills coping skills social problem-solving skills social problem-solving skills supportive networks supportive networks creating a sense of future creating a sense of future Social action Social action

18 Better responses … demonstrated understanding of HYOP demonstrated understanding of HYOP applied the skills of critical thinking & analysis applied the skills of critical thinking & analysis illustrated the answer with relevant examples illustrated the answer with relevant examples presented ideas in a clear & logical way presented ideas in a clear & logical way showed knowledge of the HYOP syllabus through using specific terminology showed knowledge of the HYOP syllabus through using specific terminology


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