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MA Department of Mental Health Healthy Changes Initiative June 17, 2009 June 17, 2009 Health and Wellness for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness;

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Presentation on theme: "MA Department of Mental Health Healthy Changes Initiative June 17, 2009 June 17, 2009 Health and Wellness for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness;"— Presentation transcript:

1 MA Department of Mental Health Healthy Changes Initiative June 17, 2009 June 17, 2009 Health and Wellness for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness; Challenges and Opportunities Sally Reyering, M.D.

2 Agenda Project rationale –Mortality data –SAMSHA and NASMHPD calls to action Evidence base to support choice of three target areas of initiative Outcome measures and evaluation tools Interventions to achieve outcomes

3 Mortality Crisis Recent data from several states have found that people with serious mental illness served by our public mental health systems die, on average, at least 25 years earlier that the general population. US Life Expectancy 2008 = 78 years Serious mental illness = 53 – 57 years –Comparable to Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo Biggest lifespan disparity in U.S.

4 Morbidity and Mortality ~ Causes While suicide and injury account for about 30-40% of excess mortality, about 60% of premature deaths in persons with schizophrenia are due to “natural causes” –Cardiovascular disease –Diabetes –Respiratory diseases (including pneumonia and flu) –Infectious diseases (including HIV and Hep C)

5 Premature Mortality by 25 years Six major causes of death in U.S and increased relative risk in SMI –Cardiovascular Disease 3.4 X –Cancer Maybe lower rates except lung –Stroke 2x in age < 50 –Respiratory disease 5x –Accidents higher –Diabetes 3.4x

6 Massachusetts Study: Deaths from Heart Disease by Age Group/DMH Enrollees with SMI Compared to Massachusetts 1998-2000

7 High Rates of Chronic Illness 70% SMI have a chronic health cond –Mostly pulmonary disease 50% have two or more 50% have two or more 42% severe enough to limit function 34% HPTN Hep B rates increased 5x; Hep C 11x

8 Calls for Action SAMSHA: –Increase the average life span of those with mental illness by 10 years in 10 years. NASMHPD –13 th Technical Report CDC, Healthy People 2010 Health and Human Services; HealthierUS President’s New Freedom Commission Bazelon Center For Mental Health Law

9 Factors Associated with Premature Death Reduced Use/Inefficient Use of Medical Services Poverty Systemic Barriers to Ideal Health Care –Healthcare systems and financing Psychotropic medications Individual health habits –Smoking –Inactivity –Obesity/poor nutrition

10 Healthy Changes Initiative The Healthy Changes Initiative is designed to address the individual’s modifiable risk factors which result in chronic illness and early death in individuals with psychiatric disabilities. –Physical Inactivity –Overweight/Obesity –Smoking to persons with SMI.” Hutchinson et al, 2006 “…the recovery paradigm of needed services has to include the concept of health promotion in treatment planning and service delivery to persons with SMI.” Hutchinson et al, 2006

11 Lifestyle Changes Work in those with Mental Illness Addiction Recovery Smoking Cessation Prevention and reversal of antipsychotic induced weight gain Development of healthy eating and exercise habits

12 Physical Activity

13 Physical Activity: Benefits “The health benefits of physical activity are generally independent of weight.” PAGuidelines Sedentary lifestyle is an independent risk for cardiovascular death even in normal weight individuals. Moderate intensity exercise without dietary changes brings reduced incidence of metabolic syndrome.

14 Physical Activity: Benefits Strong evidence Early death Coronary artery disease Stroke High blood pressure Adverse lipid profile Type II Diabetes Metabolic syndrome Colon Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention of Wt Gain and to achieve weight loss Bone health in kids Function in older adults Moderate evidence Hip fracture, falls, bone density Lung cancer Endometrial cancer Maintaining wt loss Improved sleep quality Within weeks Increased cardiorespiratory fitness Increased muscular strength Decreased blood pressure Decreased depressive symptoms

15 Physical Activity Mental Health Benefits Strong evidence Depression reduced in adults Cognition improved in older adults Other evidence Anxiety improved Self-esteem Overall well-being Moderate evidence Depression reduced in children

16 Amounts of Exercise Inactive or sedentary <30 min/wk, <10min/qd Health benefits accrue at 60 min/wk Low level 90 min/wk. Even low levels lead to dramatic decr in risk of premature death For substantial health benefits 150 min cumulative moderate intensity exercise a week. Greater benefits accrue at higher levels 300 minutes for weight loss

17 Physical Activity CDC data Gen pop Povert y Seden. 36%56% Some activit y 31%23% Reg activit y 33%21%NHANES Gen pop SMISeden.17%26% Decractivity22%49%

18 Special Considerations Physical Activity in indiv. with SMI Inactive; start low, go slow. Fear of heart attack with sensation of incr. HR, R. Lack of familiarity with the sensation of muscle soreness. Traumatic bodily relationships Balance issues on moving treadmills; med effects Cold temperatures and destimulating env

19 DMH Data

20 Physical Activity: Outcomes Decrease the number of sedentary individuals <30 min/ week Increase the number of individuals who engage in physical activity > 60 min/ week. Increase the proportion of individuals who engage in physical activity >90 min/ week. Increase the proportion of adults who engage in moderate physical activity >150 min/ week or vigorous activity for at least >75 min/ week.

21 Evaluation Tools

22 Interventions: Physical Activity Physical activity opportunities for each patient –Structured group format –Milieu changes such as stairs to cafeteria, walking to appts on campus Encouragement of walking in all sites. Enhance and document physical activity opportunities in vocational and residential settings Motivational interventions to eliminate culture of lethargy


24 Interventions: Physical Activity Fitness equipment at every facility, esp aerobic (exercise bikes, elliptical) –Staffed for pts and open for staff use –Relationships with local health clubs for equip. Access to fitness centers in the community Education –Links to obesity and cardiovascular illness and death –Benefits/Barriers –Types/Low cost options –Getting started; Medical Clearance –Posters

25 Interventions: Physical Activity Sponsoring Events to promote Culture Change and Maintain Focus –Physical Activity Challenges, Workplace wellness opportunities for employees –NAMI Walk Peer Counselors –Peers with lived experience key component in change of culture; Social network inspires group change. –Increase opportunities for shared wellness opportunities –Include consumers on area Health and Wellness task forces

26 Overweight and Obesity

27 Definitions: Healthy Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) 18-24.9 Overweight; BMI 25-29.9 Obesity BMI 30-34.9 Extreme obesity BMI >35 US population 30% overweight 30% obesity

28 Health Risks Premature death Diabetes type II Cardiovascular Disease Dyslipidemia High blood Pressure Osteoarthritis Stroke Sleep Apnea Gall Bladder Disease Asthma Hirsutism /menstrual irregularities Social isolation Surgical complications Depression

29 Obesity and Mental Illness Epidemic in mentally ill –Multiple studies show increased incidence of overwt. and obesity in schizophrenia, esp women –Majority recognize the wt problem, want to/have tried to weigh less Certain 2 nd gen antipsychotics (SGA) can cause rapid wt gain (7 -30% of body wt) from 1 st sev. months of therapy up to a yr or longer. –Significant wt increases coincided with clozapine introduction –Wt gain ranked as top “bad thing” about taking meds in UK survey Lifestyle modifications preferred approach

30 Common Elements of Weight Reduction Programs Goal Setting of Realistic short-term goals Strategies to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior Nutritional focus teaching and demo of healthy eating habits Self-monitoring of nutritional intake and physical activities

31 Measures/Evaluation Tools Body Mass Index (BMI) Underweight = 18DMH 1% Optimal 18.1 -24.9 DMH 23% Overweight 25- 29.9 DMH 30% Obese 30 -39.9DMH 34% Extremely Obese > 40DMH 9% Abnormal BMI addressed on all treatment plans Stages of change approach Small steps approach

32 Interventions: Client Education Client Education about Nutrition and Weight Management Nutrition label reading Macronutrient information (protein, carbs, fats, fiber) Eating behaviors and physiology; recognizing and responding to hunger, slow eating Substitution of healthy foods for less healthy foods; emphasis on addition of healthy foods rather than deprivation Portion size High calorie drinks Goal setting; one change at a time. Grocery shopping Food preparation Fast food, restaurant eating

33 Interventions: Milieu Vending machines and canteens –Provision of healthy alternatives Water Fresh fruit Low fat dairy products Substitute juice for water at med dispensing Printed materials and posters at cafeteria Inpatient take out food –Emphasis on discretionary income, financial aspects recommended Engage staff; “biggest loser” contests


35 Smoking

36 Cigarette smoking is the single most preventable cause of morbidity and premature death in US for past 30 years. CDC “No other health intervention makes such a difference.” Schroeder SA “We cannot in good conscience ignore a substance and practice that is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in our patients.” (NASMHPD)

37 Nicotine Dependence among Seriously Mentally Ill (SMI) 75% of SMI are tobacco dependent (22% gen pop) –85% in schizophrenia 60 - 95% of people with addiction disorders smoke 44% of all US cigarette consumption by those with mental illness/substance abuse (SA) disorder

38 Nicotine Dependence among Seriously Mentally Ill 27% of consumer income went to cigarettes. 22% of consumers reported that they started smoking in a psychiatric setting. –Metro Suburban Area Survey, Mary Ellen Foti, M.D., 1999-2000 40% of staff smoke versus 22% in the general population. NASMHPD


40 DMH Inpatient Smoking Data 55% smokers in 12/07 to 45.6% 3/09 53% have moderate to high levels of nicotine addiction where full access to smoking is limited 54% in the “precontemplation stage” 29% contemplating a change 3% in preparation to quit 3% in action phase 10% in maintenance of past successful quit attempts. 93% of smokers were advised to quit smoking

41 Outcomes Decrease number of smokers in every setting. Increase the number of smokers advancing toward quitting as measured by stage of change Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Increase the number of smokers who have been given advise to quit. Increase the number of patients who have smoking cessation interventions addressed on the treatment plan.

42 Clinical and Educational Interventions Living and Learning: Tobacco and You group treatment manual Motivational enhancement approach CO monitors, discretionary income tools Educational events in all settings Training Tobacco Treatment Specialists Pharmacotherapy Substitutes for social aspects of smoking wellness walks group physical activities Precede cigarette lighting on breaks with a walk Employee groups

43 Preliminary Results 55% smokers in 12/07 45.6% 3/09 Plans to role out as a Learning Collaborative to measure effectiveness of various interventions (Institute of Healthcare Improvement)

44 National Wellness Summit Wellness Pledge National Wellness Summit Wellness Pledge We Envision: We Envision: a future in which people with mental illnesses pursue optimal health, happiness, recovery, and a full and satisfying life in the community via access to a range of effective services, supports, and resources. We pledge: We pledge: to promote wellness for people with mental illnesses by taking action to prevent and reduce early mortality by 10 years over the next 10 year time period.

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