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Approaches to People (Using Human Resources) Lecture Topic 3: Dr. Craig Kasper.

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1 Approaches to People (Using Human Resources) Lecture Topic 3: Dr. Craig Kasper

2 Introduction Main point: People are THE key to productivity.Main point: People are THE key to productivity. Productivity reflects on you, the manager!Productivity reflects on you, the manager! And we all want to look good, right??And we all want to look good, right??

3 Highlights Contingency TheoryContingency Theory Importance of people orientationImportance of people orientation Maslow’s HierarchyMaslow’s Hierarchy Active ListeningActive Listening Writing a Performance StandardWriting a Performance Standard Efficiency and effectivenessEfficiency and effectiveness Self AssessmentSelf Assessment Five steps to improve productivityFive steps to improve productivity

4 Contingency Theory We’ll discuss contingencies for physical emergencies later, but what if your “disaster” is an employee??We’ll discuss contingencies for physical emergencies later, but what if your “disaster” is an employee?? Human behavior is very complex.Human behavior is very complex. Ultimately, you manage through understanding and feeling for the people.Ultimately, you manage through understanding and feeling for the people. A good manager must know the people who work for him.A good manager must know the people who work for him.

5 Good Management Select the right people.Select the right people. Develop talentDevelop talent Treat justly (may be different thanTreat justly (may be different than what people’s sense of “fair,” what people’s sense of “fair,” or “unfair” is…) or “unfair” is…) Set high standards (people will eitherSet high standards (people will either meet or exceed them, or wash out.) meet or exceed them, or wash out.) Insist on achieving your set goalsInsist on achieving your set goals (people may surprise you with their (people may surprise you with their ingenuity.) ingenuity.) “Wolf” Pike’s Place Market, Seattle Reward superior performance!!Reward superior performance!! (Penalize suboptimal performance.) (Penalize suboptimal performance.)

6 Leadership Revisited We already mentioned that good leaders do so by setting good examples.We already mentioned that good leaders do so by setting good examples. However, good leaders also have the ability to influence people (not the power to require).However, good leaders also have the ability to influence people (not the power to require). REM: If all your employees leave due to your daily bad attitude, then you do a lot of work yourself!REM: If all your employees leave due to your daily bad attitude, then you do a lot of work yourself!

7 Leadership Defined Struggle!!!Struggle!!! Strive to achieve clairity of purpose.Strive to achieve clairity of purpose. Competant, assurred, confident (not arrogance), courageousCompetant, assurred, confident (not arrogance), courageous This attitude can be contageous and often attracts followers! (A self- fullfilling prophecy of sorts, since this is what make a leader great anyway!)This attitude can be contageous and often attracts followers! (A self- fullfilling prophecy of sorts, since this is what make a leader great anyway!) Mentor, doesn’t panic.Mentor, doesn’t panic. Explains difficult decisions (especially when they must be reversed.)Explains difficult decisions (especially when they must be reversed.)

8 Maslow (1954) Yes, this stuff still applies…Wait, who’s Maslow?Yes, this stuff still applies…Wait, who’s Maslow? Everone has basic needs and your employees certainly qualify.Everone has basic needs and your employees certainly qualify. They all revolve around self-fulfillment.They all revolve around self-fulfillment.

9 Maslow 1.Basic: air, water, food, rest, shelter. 2.Safety (security): Protection. 3.Social: sense of belonging, sharing, friends, love 4.Esteem: respect, achievement, competence, confidence. 5.Independence: working toward personal goals, authority, freedom 6.Self-fulfillment: Be all you can be!!, learning, growth, self- actualization (ambition).

10 When these coreWhen these core needs aren’t met, it needs aren’t met, it often shows up in an often shows up in an employee’s attitude! employee’s attitude! Unsatisfied needsUnsatisfied needs become motivators for other behaviors. You’ll see it coming inYou’ll see it coming in some folks long before some folks long before you actually have a confrontation. “Whoa! Too much coffee, Bob??” James Greenwood

11 Communication and Active Listening We choose to communicate verbally.We choose to communicate verbally. Non-verbal communication (NVC) is automatic. (Even when you sayin’ nuttin’, you sayin’ sum’in’!)Non-verbal communication (NVC) is automatic. (Even when you sayin’ nuttin’, you sayin’ sum’in’!) Personal perception is a powerful influencing factor in NVC.Personal perception is a powerful influencing factor in NVC. Also, recall that you can’t please everyone, all the time.Also, recall that you can’t please everyone, all the time.

12 Active Listening “You can let your walk, talk…or you can let your talk, talk; but never let your talk, talk, more than your walk, talks!”“You can let your walk, talk…or you can let your talk, talk; but never let your talk, talk, more than your walk, talks!” Learn to speak less and listen more (insight)! Reduce your listen/talk ratio. (TEOM=2 ears + 1 mouth)Learn to speak less and listen more (insight)! Reduce your listen/talk ratio. (TEOM=2 ears + 1 mouth) This gives you a powerful upper hand in determining the best course of action when dealing with conflict.This gives you a powerful upper hand in determining the best course of action when dealing with conflict. What you hear from people in the most innocent situation may provide valuable insight into what their true nature is (TAROT).What you hear from people in the most innocent situation may provide valuable insight into what their true nature is (TAROT).

13 Setting the Bar Evaluation of performance of workers is critical to any operation.Evaluation of performance of workers is critical to any operation. Each job should have a set of standards to “live up to.” If it doesn’t, then employees don’t know what is expected.Each job should have a set of standards to “live up to.” If it doesn’t, then employees don’t know what is expected. Employees are often involved in defining their job standards. This is good for both employee and manager.Employees are often involved in defining their job standards. This is good for both employee and manager.

14 Standard “standards” 1.Resemble a contract between the employee and the firm. 2.Address the most important aspects of the empolyee’s duties and responsbilities. 3.Guide the employee to accomplish important tasks. (As defined by the supervisor.) 4.Be directed at specific tasks or requirments. 5.Act as units of meaure (goes back to employee comparision/evaluation.)

15 Standard “standards” 6. Be brief, clear, concise, believable and easily understood!! 7. Enhance communication between employee and supervisor. 8. Encourage productivity and efficiency. 9. Enable employeeand evaluator to agree on whether the accomplishements failed to meet, met, or exceeded the standards. 10. Be taken seroiusly.

16 “Unstandard” standards 1.Nebulous, challenge your team, but don’t “give ‘em enough rope to hang themselves!” 2.Overemphasis on doing the “boss’” job. If your’re doing his job, why is he there? It works the other way, too! 3.Include unimportant tasks—those not necessary for the position. 4.Unclear. 5.Difficult to measure. 6.Discourage productivity. 7.Cause mistrust. 8.Mislead employee. 9.Waste/abuse of time. 10.Unused/unenforced.

17 Standard Development This can be a daunting task, especially if you don’t have prior experience.This can be a daunting task, especially if you don’t have prior experience. Communication (language) must be clear.Communication (language) must be clear. Often units of time, quality, and quantity are inserted within a document.Often units of time, quality, and quantity are inserted within a document. Don’t use directives, but require an outcome (and communicate it.)Don’t use directives, but require an outcome (and communicate it.)

18 Productivity Usually a good manager is rewarded by a highly productive group (TAL).Usually a good manager is rewarded by a highly productive group (TAL). Periodically the manager needs to assess the work or workers and make refinements as needed.Periodically the manager needs to assess the work or workers and make refinements as needed. There is no rule of thumbThere is no rule of thumb here, but several basic here, but several basic steps will be discussed… steps will be discussed…

19 What is productivity? Efficiency = output/inputEfficiency = output/input Productivity = doing the right things right.Productivity = doing the right things right. How to increase productivity?How to increase productivity? –Increasing efficiency –Response (speed) –Lower costs –All this may decrease production and/or delivery production and/or delivery time. time.

20 The Manager’s Mandate Make goals clear from the start (syllabus).Make goals clear from the start (syllabus). Rate yourself as a manager (performance eval’s.)Rate yourself as a manager (performance eval’s.) Involve people in looking for opportunities.Involve people in looking for opportunities. Analyze and measure before and after a change.Analyze and measure before and after a change. Choose opportunities.Choose opportunities.

21 The Manager’s Mandate Make goals clear from the start (syllabus).Make goals clear from the start (syllabus). -Explain what you intend to do (and why) at the beginning. the beginning. -You may have to spell it out (put in writing).

22 The Manager’s Mandate Rate yourself as a manager (performance eval’s.)Rate yourself as a manager (performance eval’s.) REM:Your ingenuity is your most powerful tool. Are you providing the following?: Clear direction with routine feedback? Challenging work? Striving for harmonious crews? Giving workers a choice? Advancement? Making workers feel part of the team?

23 The Manager’s Mandate Involve people in looking for opportunities.Involve people in looking for opportunities. –Be open and honest here! What needs improvement? What obstacles stand in the way? What tasks can be done more efficiently? What can be shortened, simplified, cut out? i.e.—What could we NOT do?) (Most people like this one!) What are the employees unhappy about? How can performance appraisals be used to improve productivity? What can YOU do to improve productivity?

24 The Manager’s Mandate Analyze and measure before and after a change.Analyze and measure before and after a change. a. Analyze your objectives and problems along with opportunities for improvement. opportunities for improvement. b. Decide what ought to be measured c. Define the measurement output parameters (quality, pounds). parameters (quality, pounds). d. Determine the input measures (labor). e. Establish the collection system. f. Analyze the validity and usefulness of the system. system.

25 The Manager’s Mandate Choose opportunities for improvement.Choose opportunities for improvement. 1. People-make the people better, not just hire more people (exc. seasonal) 2. Procedure-flow charts 3. Environmental-fish/people ergonomics go a long way to help increase productivity. 4. Capital Investment-improve the workplace.

26 Aquaculture Certification Team Manager: Joshua LembeckManager: Joshua Lembeck Task: Help design a set of steps to achieve an aquaculture certification component of Aqua Program at HCC.Task: Help design a set of steps to achieve an aquaculture certification component of Aqua Program at HCC. Goal: Develop State Recognized Aquaculture Technical Skills CertificationGoal: Develop State Recognized Aquaculture Technical Skills Certification

27 Aquaculture Certification Team Helpful Suggestions: 1.Must show performance measures of technical skill attainment. 2.Must be able to document completions (certificate) 3.Must be able to show/document student retention and transfer. 4.Must collect data (or be able too), how? What data? 5.Must account for non-traditional enrollments: i.e. Westmark. 6.NSF funding to initiate project possible: contact: Dr. Eric Roe:

28 Service Learning Team Manager: Ed Walkuski; Players: D.K., M.A., R.K.Manager: Ed Walkuski; Players: D.K., M.A., R.K. Task: Design a service learning component to a course within the aquaculture curriculum.Task: Design a service learning component to a course within the aquaculture curriculum. Goal: Implement service learning into the program this fall.Goal: Implement service learning into the program this fall. Contact: Barbara Ritter: Barbara Ritter: Helpful suggestions: Pick a topic, or task in aquaculture and write up a series of “how-to” steps for it. Then think about how we can develop it into a “service” a.k.a. job for students. Write it up and present the report to the group for critique and refining.Helpful suggestions: Pick a topic, or task in aquaculture and write up a series of “how-to” steps for it. Then think about how we can develop it into a “service” a.k.a. job for students. Write it up and present the report to the group for critique and refining.

29 Greenhouse Production Team Manager: Ryan Karcher, Players: J. Patten, M.A., Doc K.Manager: Ryan Karcher, Players: J. Patten, M.A., Doc K. Task: Manage fish production this semester in the HCC greenhouse.Task: Manage fish production this semester in the HCC greenhouse. Goal: Consistent quality fish production, staffing, fish husbandry, delivery for sales, increase production, new species, expand capacity for holding fish...etc.Goal: Consistent quality fish production, staffing, fish husbandry, delivery for sales, increase production, new species, expand capacity for holding fish...etc. Contact: Dr. Craig KasperContact: Dr. Craig Kasper Helpful suggestions: Look for ways to improve efficiency and consistency of production. Develop as much talent as you are able, including your own!Helpful suggestions: Look for ways to improve efficiency and consistency of production. Develop as much talent as you are able, including your own!

30 Marketing and Sales Team Manager: Daniel Kroegel, Player: J.L., M.B.Manager: Daniel Kroegel, Player: J.L., M.B. Task: Marketing and sales of fishTask: Marketing and sales of fish Goal: By low/sell high.Goal: By low/sell high. Contact: Chris Ekkwill Waterlife ResourcesContact: Chris Ekkwill Waterlife Resources Telephone: Fax: Helpful suggestions: Find new sales opportunities for the program.Helpful suggestions: Find new sales opportunities for the program.

31 Fish Nutrition Team Players: W.R., M.B., M. A., J.P. ???Players: W.R., M.B., M. A., J.P. ??? Task: Design, conduct and analyze a fish feeding study at the greenhouse.Task: Design, conduct and analyze a fish feeding study at the greenhouse. Goal: Collect some preliminary data on a potential citrus product used in several aquaculture feeds.Goal: Collect some preliminary data on a potential citrus product used in several aquaculture feeds. Contact: Dr. Craig KasperContact: Dr. Craig Kasper Helpful suggestions: Start soon, start early, never give up...Helpful suggestions: Start soon, start early, never give up...


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