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Chapter 14 Life’s Transitions: The Aging Process.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Life’s Transitions: The Aging Process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Life’s Transitions: The Aging Process

2 LIFE’S TRANSITIONS

3 Useless Old People Are Useless!

4 AGING: The process of growing old – IT WILL HAPPEN to YOU !!!! In 1975  350 million people over 60 yearsIn 1975  350 million people over 60 years In 2050  1.1 billion over 60 yearsIn 2050  1.1 billion over 60 yearsPERCEPTION: HOW YOU VIEW PEOPLE OLDER THAN YOU

5 Studying Aging Connotations: A negative psychological shift. Western cultural views are different from others GERONTOLOGY: The study of aging. GERONTOLOGIST: One who studies aging.

6 Retire Younger Old People Should Retire So That Younger People Can Work?

7 Why study the effects of aging? (5 reasons): biology of aging (genetic and environmental factors associated with aging) shift in survival and life expectancy has itself driven the inquiry about the social implications medical science documents the diseases of old age and attempts to moderate their effects

8 Aging health care costs of an older society psychologists attempting to understand the negative attitudes toward the elderly

9 Slow Old People Are Slow And Get In My Way!

10 Beautiful Old People Aren’t Beautiful!

11 The Changing Face of the Nation Baby Boomers approaching retirement. Elderly are living longer - combination of modern medicine and lifestyle related factors = age 115 years

12 Changing Face of the Nation higher quality of life - therefore older people are a major social, political and economic factor in society. Changing demographics also reflected in fact that not as many children are being born in first world countries.

13 Never I Will Never Get That Old!

14 TYPES OF AGING: BIOLOGICAL: physical changes with timephysical changes with time relative age – condition of organs / body systemsrelative age – condition of organs / body systems arthritis / osteoporosis / accelerate aging processarthritis / osteoporosis / accelerate aging process

15 PSYCHOLOGICAL adaptive capacity = coping abilities intelligencecoping abilities intelligence individual capabilitiesindividual capabilities self-efficacyself-efficacy biologicalbiological social changessocial changes

16 SOCIAL habits and roles relative to society’s expectationshabits and roles relative to society’s expectations people sharing common interestspeople sharing common interests changes in person's familial, occupational and social roles (retirement, loss of income, etc.)changes in person's familial, occupational and social roles (retirement, loss of income, etc.)

17 GETTING OLDER

18 Legal chronological age driving drinking ( not together !) voting old age security Canada Pension Plan

19 Functional: how people compare at similar ages……..how people compare at similar ages…….. health health capacitycapacity activity activity interestsinterests mobilitymobility

20 THE AGING PROCESS: a function of three factors: True aging (also called primary aging): unavoidable result of chronology that affects all species sooner or laterunavoidable result of chronology that affects all species sooner or later Disease processes (secondary aging) aging due to diseases, such as trauma, illness, stress, etc.; lifestyle can be classified in this factor (smoking)aging due to diseases, such as trauma, illness, stress, etc.; lifestyle can be classified in this factor (smoking)

21 THE AGING PROCESS: a function of three factors: Disuse phenomena (secondary aging) aging due to the lack of activity (Sedentary Lifestyle)aging due to the lack of activity (Sedentary Lifestyle)

22 THEORIES ON AGING Biological: – “ It’s Not the Years.., It’s the Mileage”the wear and tear theory – “ It’s Not the Years.., It’s the Mileage” the human body simply wears out the human body simply wears out some activities may predispose this condition (running)some activities may predispose this condition (running)

23 THEORIES ON AGING the cellular theory – limited number of cells / capacity to reproduce / once exhausted body begins to deteriorate / varies from individual to individual the autoimmune theory – declining immune system / loses control attacking body

24 THEORIES ON AGING the genetic mutation theory – the older you are the more mutant cells develop/ function differently than intended / dysfunction of body organs + systems

25 Physical Changes The Skin: (30’s)thinner + loses elasticity /(40’s) lines on the face / (50’s) crow’s feet /(60’s) loses colour + sags / (70’s) age spots etc. Bones and Joints: constantly changing accumulating and losing minerals (modeling)constantly changing accumulating and losing minerals (modeling) 30’ and 40’s – net loss of minerals – could lead to osteoporosis30’ and 40’s – net loss of minerals – could lead to osteoporosis

26 Physical Changes OSTEOPOROSIS: loss of bone material / bone mass post-menopausal women fractures common very debilitating risk factors: calcium, lack of exercise, lack of estrogen therapy post- menopause

27 Physical Changes The Head: features of the head enlarge ( nose, ears, head - skull thickens) Brain shrinks The Urinary Tract: urinary incontinence individual treatable - drug therapy

28 Physical Changes Heart and Lungs: Resting Heart Rate stays about the same throughout life stroke volume decreases heart muscle deterioration Vital Capacity decreases (max. inhalation + exhalation) exercise slows these changes

29 Eyesight: 30 years of age – lens harden 40 years of age – lens: yellow and looses transparency Cataracts – (clouding of the lens) / focus on retina / blurred vision / blindness possible glaucoma – ( increased pressure within the eyeball) hardening of the eyeball, impaired vision, eventual blindness

30 Hearing and TasteHearing: range diminishes / normal and conversational retainedrange diminishes / normal and conversational retainedTaste: age 30 – each papilla has 245 taste buds - # diminishes over timeage 30 – each papilla has 245 taste buds - # diminishes over time age 70 – 88 remainingage 70 – 88 remaining Smell and Touch:Smell and Touch: pain and tactile sensors declinepain and tactile sensors decline sense of smell also declines / may lead to malnutrition ( food lacks appeal)sense of smell also declines / may lead to malnutrition ( food lacks appeal)

31 Getting Around and body Comfort Mobility: 50% of older Canadians Report some disability related to mobility or agility Body Comfort: loss of body fat / thinning of epithelium / diminished glandular function body temperature hypothermia / heat stroke / heat exhaustion

32 Mental Changes:Intelligence: unchanged - except for illness continue to learn and develop (time?) compensate with practical knowledgeMemory: short-term can be memory - affected long-term unchanged

33 Coping with Change Flexibility vs. Rigidity: LIFE = diverse joys, sorrows, and obstacles –developed coping methodsDepression: most adults continue to lead healthy, fulfilling lives however, depression is the most common

34 Confusion and Frustration Senility: over-generalizationover-generalization misinterpreted as senility = memory failure / judgment error / disorientation / erratic behaviours…….. (any age!)misinterpreted as senility = memory failure / judgment error / disorientation / erratic behaviours…….. (any age!)

35 Alzheimer’s Disease and other Dementias Dementias – progressive brain impairments that interfere with memory and intellectual functioning

36 ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE The disease most dreaded by the elderly is dementia; loss of mental functions in an alert individual, characterized by group of symptoms : memory loss loss of language functions inability to think abstractly inability to care for oneself personality change emotional instability loss of sense of time

37 ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE three quarters (75%) dementia’s caused by Alzheimer's disease - chronic, degenerative dementing illness / cause unknown no known cure to stop the progression 6% of people over 65 years have Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease 4th leading cause of death - older adults < seventy conditions can cause dementia

38 Types of Dementia: Degenerative = Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's. Vascular dementia: cerebral embolisms, blood clots, and infarctions. Traumatic dementia: head injuries. Lesions: tumors, hematomas, and cancers. Toxic dementia: alcohol, poisons. Others: epilepsy, post-traumatic stress disorders, and heat stroke.

39 THEORIES OF AGING: Brain size & longevity Biological clock determines how long we live. Disposable soma: Allocation of resources - optimal is as little as possible to body repair, and more to other functions. Wear and tear: Accumulated damage leads to breakdown - like a machine!

40 Genes and Aging Genetic theories: Loss of genetic info. over time = loss of protein to rebuild. Immunological: Breakdown of immune system. Others: Error accumulation, cell loss, nutritive, environment, and brain chemistry.

41 AGEISM discriminationdiscrimination stereotyping - generalization of characteristics - + / - without knowing the individualstereotyping - generalization of characteristics - + / - without knowing the individual concept of young or oldconcept of young or old healthy or unhealthy healthy or unhealthy value youth, devalue old agevalue youth, devalue old age western culture vs. other cultures respectwisdom of elderlywestern culture vs. other cultures respect wisdom of elderly

42 DEATH AND DYING THANATOLOGY: the study of death and dying. PSYCHOLOGY: fascination yet denial in western society. people not prepared! DEATH - a process, not a point in time

43 KUBLER ROSS: STAGES OF DYING (5): Dying person may experience several intense emotions.DENIAL: "No, not me!" patient rejects the news initial positive defense mechanism but can become a problem if reinforced by family and friends, leading to poor coping.

44 ANGER ANGER: "Why me?" resentment and rage over impending death; may be directed outwards at loved ones.

45 BARGAINING acknowledgement but……... try to bargain with GOD in this stage e.g Exchange recovery promise to be a better person

46 DEPRESSION: gradual realization ofgradual realization ofconsequences difficult time - persons needs to be watched and supporteddifficult time - persons needs to be watched and supported a period of grievinga period of grieving must be allowed to work through this stage trying to cheer up isn’t an asset now!trying to cheer up isn’t an asset now!

47 ACCEPTANCE “I’m scared but, I'm ready."“I’m scared but, I'm ready." These stages may overlap and repeat.These stages may overlap and repeat.

48 DEFINITION OF DEATH: Spiritual death: death of meaningful lifedeath of meaningful life including responsiveness to others, with activity of the brain and consciousnessincluding responsiveness to others, with activity of the brain and consciousness ALSO: Unreceptive and unresponsive to painful stimuli - CPR No movement for an hour No movement for an hour No breathing for 3 minutes No breathing for 3 minutes No reflexes No reflexes Pupils fixed and dilated - flat EEG Pupils fixed and dilated - flat EEG LIFE SIGNS………………..LIFE SIGNS………………..

49 DEFINITION OF DEATH: Traditional legal definition: failure of heart and lungs = functional death. Modern medicine: brain death = absence of electrical impulse activity in the brain (EEG). Cellular death: Cells die- e.g., heart, brain, muscle

50 CIRCUMSTANCES OF DEATH Death at/or before 50 years of age or younger emotional trauma – unexpectedDeath at/or before 50 years of age or younger emotional trauma – unexpected Religious belief = less fearReligious belief = less fear Pain and physical distress.Pain and physical distress. Immediately prior to death there is often an increased in vitalityImmediately prior to death there is often an increased in vitality People often "hold on" for a specific life event or personPeople often "hold on" for a specific life event or person

51 EUTHANASIA: Mercy killing. INDIRECT INVOLUNTARY (PASSIVE) - remove life support DIRECT VOLUNTARY administer fatal drug as condition worsens DIRECT INVOLUNTARY- drug once a patient is in a coma. ILLEGAL / ETHICAL ISSUES

52 LIVING WILL A statement requesting removal from life support systems……. if the chance for survival is limited….A statement requesting removal from life support systems……. if the chance for survival is limited…. Not accepted in all provinces, e.g. Saskatchewan Not accepted in all provinces, e.g. Saskatchewan

53 DEATH OF A LOVED ONE: STAGES OF GRIEF: Bereavement: the experience of lossBereavement: the experience of loss Grief: intense emotional sufferingGrief: intense emotional suffering Mourning: social response e.g.Mourning: social response e.g. wearing black, funerals, etc wearing black, funerals, etc.

54 Stages and Experiences when coping with loss…. Physical: Exhaustion, feeling weighed down - stress. - nutrition, rest, exercise crying very importantPhysical: Exhaustion, feeling weighed down - stress. - nutrition, rest, exercise crying very important Emotional: ask or accept helpEmotional: ask or accept help Ask for what you need! Being alone or with friends and familyAsk for what you need! Being alone or with friends and family Talk to others with similar experiences - take the timeTalk to others with similar experiences - take the time Sadness and crying natural - share feelings.Sadness and crying natural - share feelings.

55 Stages and Experiences when coping with loss…. Intellectual: Avoid making major life decisions at this time. Process includes anger, resentment, and negative emotions. Work through the feelings - don't avoid or deny them Spiritual: surviving loss and finding meaning to continue, look inside yourself, your faith, and your life!

56 FUNERALS: A number of considerations: cost, embalming, burial, and cremation.A number of considerations: cost, embalming, burial, and cremation. Rites of passage - A process - saying goodbye very important for closure - found in most culturesRites of passage - A process - saying goodbye very important for closure - found in most cultures

57 SOME IMPORTANT TERMS 1.SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome - babies 1 to 3 months.1.SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome - babies 1 to 3 months. 2.STILLBIRTH: Infant is born dead. 3.PERINATAL DEATH: Death occurs within hours or days of birth.

58 HELPING SOMEONE FACE DEATH HELPING SOMEONE FACE DEATH: Hospices: concept rather than a place provides health careprovides health care support support free of painfree of pain death with dignity death with dignity


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