GENRE APPROACH (Z. ADNAN) Mengajarkan Bahasa Indonesia dengan mendiskusikan 4 aspek: 1.Kegiatan apa yang sedang terjadi : memberi instruksi bagaimana membuat nasi goreng 2.Para pelaku (komunitas wacana): antara siapa dan siapa: pengajar dan yang diajar 3.Peranan bahasa: tulis/Lisan, imperatif/memberi instruksi 4.Ciri-ciri genre yang diajarkan
1) Reflective teaching – student needs. 2)To reassess the learning and teaching of Indonesian. Goebel (2002) Indonesian programs require some rethinking in view of the complex multilingual nature of Indonesia - to keep up with the development of Indonesian language in Indonesia. - as used in magazines, newspapers, television, radio. - and spoken language.
1. APA SIH BAHASA GAUL? * BAHASA LISAN * BAHASA INFORMAL* BAHASA PERCAKAPAN * BAHASA SEHARI-HARI * BAHASA TIDAK RESMI* BAHASA NON-BAKU * BAHASA ABG (ANAK BARU GEDE) * BAHASA GAUL * BAHASA JAKARTA * BAHASA BETAWI * BAHASA DAERAH * BAHASA PROKEM * BAHASA WARIA
Rogers (2006) - that Bahasa Gaul/ABG/Prokem is different from Bahasa Lisan – a distinct language form in itself. Have similarities. But different in specific vocabulary, prepositions, use of affixes, particles, abbreviations, inclusive/exclusive usage (b. waria, prokem, gaul).
2. PERLU NGGAK SIH NGAJAR BAHASA GAUL? JAMES SNEDDON (2006) COLLOQUIAL JAKARTA INDONESIAN - Foreign language students - formal language in informal situations. - People modify their speech - the social situations, - May use it in inappropriate circumstances. - Colloquial Jakarta Indonesian - the standard informal style. -Indonesian has different high and low varieties (diglossia). JAMES SNEDDON (2003) The Indonesian Language: its history and role in modern society. - Students - sensitivity to the sociolinguistic situation. - Teachers - possess such awareness, have the resources to teach and describe it effectively.
- Few resources are available, minimal discussion on contextual appropriateness. What type of informal language to teach –possible usage, age, status, education, regions, social situations. Diglossia – the low code varieties(bahasa sehari- hari) regarded as inferior to the high code. To enable the learners to eavesdrop. (Johns, 1996) To take part in a wider range of social communication. (Johns, 1996)
- The attitudes of Indonesian people to the type of Indonesian they expect foreigners to speak – prestige. - Bahasa yang baik dan benar. - “Penggunaan bahasa Indonesia pun semakin campur aduk. Setelah 60 tahun kita merdeka, ternyata kondisi bahasa Indonesia semakin menyedihkan,” Dendy Sugono The learning outcomes of the institution (analytical and communicative skill, and cultural understanding)
Possible factors that affect students movitation (Chambers) Unrealistic demands on learners. Insufficient reinforcement of learning. *Insufficiently relevant to students needs. LEARNING IS STRONGLY DRIVEN BY ASSESSMENT
3.GIMANA SIH NGAJAR BAHASA GAUL? The strategies for learners of modern languages to learn by heart, to use context and clues, to apply patterns, rules, and exceptions,etc. But also: - To use their knowledge to experiment with language. - To develop strategies for dealing with the unpredictable. LEARNING TO LEARN (Grenfell)
Language learning tasks are the means to develop the skills (Grenfell) Students should be able to turn a SKILL into a STRATEGY with a knowledge on SOCIOLINGUISTICS that guide them.
Indonesian 323 – Bahasa Gaul Learners are taught strategies useful to the language learning process (Grenfell) Explanation and teaching of grammar does not automatically lead to it being learned.
1. Preparation /consciousness-raising. 2. Modelling 3. Practice 4. Action planning/goal setting and monitoring. 5. Focused practice. ( encourage to use it ) 6. Evaluation of strategy acquisitions and recommending the cycle. ( reflection – usefulness)
Activities: Interaction with Indonesian students (interview, transcribe, analyze, report) Independent study (blogs, short stories, translated novels, teaching materials, TVRI, etc.) Recording conversations on a CD – to the whole class, to be assessed. More practice on how to form questions – reality, situations. More awareness on the diglossic situation of Indonesian language.
(Ferguson) DIGLOSSIA - a language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (a standard or regional standards), there is a very divergent, highly codified superposed variety of written language, learned largely by formal education/used for most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any section of the community for ordinary conversation. TION http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/messeas/diglossia/node3.html#SEC TION Retrieved on 3 July 2007
Students’ Comments: Mel I think that Bahasa Gaul brings with it a culture of fun and a friendly atmosphere. Jan The use of Indonesian slang can therefore reveal many things about a person. I believe the more one is exposed to this informal register, the more familiar it will become and the more natural it will be to use.
Ari It seems that it would be difficult to fully involve yourself in activities in Indonesian without some colloquial Indonesian. Cam Bahasa gaul seems quite structured however the interview with A has made me realise that the language can be left up to one’s individual interpretation..
Sara I was able to use my speaking skills by conversing with them in the formal language. I could use my listening skills by listening to their responses to my questions using the informal language and then I was able to write utilizing both forms of the language for the transcript and translation.
References =artikel&nomor=6&page=1 Chambers, G. (2000) Motivation and the Learners of Modern Languages in New Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Modern Languages. Ed. Simon Green. Modern Languages in Practice 13, NSW. Day, A. H. and V. Taylor (2006) Bersama- sama Selalu. Nelson Australia, Melbourne. Department of Education. (1995) Modern Foreign Languages in the National Curriculum. London: HMSO.
Grenfell, M. (2000) Learning and Teaching Strategies in New Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Modern Languages. Ed. Simon Green. Modern Languages in Practice 13, NSW. Goebel, Z (2002) When Do Indonesians Speak Indonesian? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, v23 n.6 p ssia/node3.html#SECTION http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/messeas/diglo ssia/node3.html#SECTION Retrieved on 3 July 2007.
Johns, Yohani (1996) Bahasa Indonesia: Langkah Baru, A new Approach. Australian National University Press, Canberra. Rogers, Aoibheann (2006) Is Slang Indonesian just a Subset of Colloquial Language? An unpublished essay, Curtin University, Perth.
Sneddon, James (2003) The Indonesian Language: its history and role in modern society. UNSW Press Book, Sydney. Sneddon, James (2003a) Diglossia in Indonesian. Bijdragen tot de Tall-, Land-en Volkenkunde 159/4: Sneddon, James (2006) Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian. Pacific Linguistics, ANU, Canberra.
Stradling, R., L. Saunders, P. Weston. (1991) Differentiation in Action: A Whole-School Approach for Raising Attainment. London: NFER and DES. Wharton, S. and P.Race.(1999) 500 Tips for TESOL. Kogan Page Ltd. London (UK) and Sterling (USA).