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Why is water important to a country?. The effects of Location and Environmental Issues in the Middle East.

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Presentation on theme: "Why is water important to a country?. The effects of Location and Environmental Issues in the Middle East."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why is water important to a country?

2 The effects of Location and Environmental Issues in the Middle East

3 Georgia Performance Standards SS7G6 The student will discuss environmental issues across Southwest Asia (Middle East). a.Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation and drinking water. SS7G7 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution in Southwest Asia (Middle East). b. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people live, what type of work they do, and how they travel.

4 Part 1- How do the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia affect where people live, work and travel?

5 Three Major Rivers: Tigris River Euphrates River Jordan River

6 Middle East Rivers Euphrates R. longest Important water source For Turkey, Syria, Iraq Tigris R. North of Euphrates Important water source for Turkey and Iraq Jordan R. Smaller than Tigris & Euphrates Main water source for Israel, Jordan, Syria Flows into Dead Sea Important Rivers for Drinking & Farming

7 Importance of Rivers Critical resource of water for drinking and irrigation Dams create hydroelectric power, but also conflicts with countries downstream Set boundaries Transportation / trade Cities / industry / workers

8 Southwest Asian Deserts Syrian Desert Rub al-Khali (empty quarter)

9 Importance of Deserts Natural barrier against invasion Unique way of life – surviving in harsh surroundings Bedouins – desert nomads – herders and traders of the desert The Bedouins way of life is gradually disappearing

10 Climate of Southwest Asia Climate –type of weather a region has over a long period of time Generally hot and dry climate

11 Wet or Dry? Large bodies of water border SW Asia Mountains close to the coast block rains As a result, much of the interior of SW Asia is desert. Rivers and coastal areas have enough water to support agriculture, cities, and towns.

12 Climate Map

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14 Total Average Yearly Rainfall Baghdad, Iraq 7.5 inches Cairo, Egypt1.0 inches Jerusalem, Israel23.0 inches Amman, Jordan10.5 inches Tehran, Iran10.0 inches Riyadh, Saudi Arabia4.5 inches Damascus, Syria7.0 inches Washington, D.C. (U.S.)48.0 inches

15 Total Average Yearly Rainfall Inches per year Key

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18 Population Densities (person/km2): Israel: 325 Turkey: 93 Iraq: 66 Afghanistan: 46 Iran: 42 Saudi Arabia:11 Why are they in this order??

19 Trade in Southwest Asia “Crossroads” of Europe, Africa,& Asia Major trade role for centuries Ships from Asia to SW Asian ports Camel caravans – “ships of the desert” Today the Suez Canal allows trade without using overland caravans

20 Agriculture in SW Asia Subsistence agriculture – growing small amounts of food for local needs. Depends on irrigation Some commercial agriculture – limited by irrigation Irrigation methods: –Water wheels –Pumps –Wells –Qanats – underground tunnels –Canals

21 Water Wheels

22 Water pump

23 Qanats

24 Canals

25 Where people live-population high or low? How people work-what types of jobs? How people travel-how would they get around? DesertsHigh or low Why? RiversHigh or low Why?

26 Bellringer Complete questions on pages of the Blue Book.

27 Part 2- Environmental Issues

28 Water Facts The Earth is made of roughly 2/3 water 97.5% of this is salt water 2.5% is fresh water 70% of the fresh water is trapped in glaciers and the ice caps This leaves only roughly 1% of all water is available freshwater

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30 What do you think are the main environmental problems in the Middle East? 1.Water shortages 2.Unequal distribution of water 3.Pollution, especially water 5% of world’s population live here, but less than 1% of world’s fresh water is available to these people.

31 Vocabulary 1.Desalination – process of removing the salt from salt water to make drinking water. 2.Water Rights – agreements about how countries can use the water in a region; often causes political disputes 3.Aquifer-an underground layer of rock and sand that contains water 4.Ground water -water below the surface that supplies wells and springs.

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33 Problems by country Turkey: Pollution from industries, agriculture, and oil spills in the Black Sea Turkey/Syria/Iraq-Turkey built a dam on the Euphrates River, followed by Syria. This severely restricted the water flow into Iraq which almost caused a war. Iraq- also has major war damage to water treatment facilities and pollution from industries and oil spills.

34 [Iraq] Young boy stands on the edge of sewage outflow. Image Credit: © IRIN

35 Problems by country Israel-Consumption has increased, but rainfall has decreased. They are forced to draw water from aquifers, lowering levels and allowing salt water in. They have also come close to war over Jordan River. Iran-having problem similar to Israel which is hurting their main crop-pistachios. Afghanistan-main problem is pollution from open sewers, failed septic systems, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides. Chemical fertilizers contaminates the water supply through runoff from the fields.

36 Sewage and pollution in the Khan Younis area of southern Gaza. Image Credit: © ICRC

37 A fountain in Jerusalem. Water experts say the country's water shortage is the result of overuse. Image Credit: © Shabtai Gold/IRIN

38 Picture of smog in Tehran, Iran. It was so bad in 2005, they closed schools.

39 Problems by country Saudi Arabia-most severe problem with water scarcity and poor quality of ground water from salt water intrusion, but they have found a solution-desalination. About 30 plants in the country provide most of the country’s drinking water.

40 Match the country to the correct water issue 1.Less water to irrigate pistachio crop 2.Battles over water rights to Jordan River 3.Uses desalination to battle severe water shortages 4.Oil spills from ships pollute the Black Sea 5.War has damaged water treatment facilities 6.Open sewers, failed septic systems

41 Twenty percent of global infant mortality is accounted for by diarrhea, a problem in Egypt due to contaminated water. Image Credit: © Sarah Kamshoshy/IRIN

42 Increase in car usage, leads to increase in air pollution in Amman, Jordan

43 Major Environmental Issues- Unequal distribution of water Tigris and Euphrates Rivers shared by Turkey, Syria, and Iraq Jordan River shared by Israel, Syria, and Jordan. The problem is they don’t always play nice and share-second only to religious differences, water is a major cause of wars in the region. What do you think would be 3 rd ? OIL Which countries does this leave out?? Iran and Saudi Arabia-they rely on desalination, but it is very expensive, so it is not used in many other countries

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45 Darker blue shows where land is more intensely irrigated

46 Question 1.Which river do Syria, Israel, and Jordan share? A.Euphrates B.Jordan C.Nile D.Tigris

47 Question 1.Which river do Syria, Israel, and Jordan share? A.Euphrates B.Jordan C.Nile D.Tigris

48 Question 2. How has the building of dams created problems for countries sharing rivers in SW Asia? A.Dams are too expensive to build to be practical B.Dams limit the water available to countries further downstream C.Few countries have the technology needed to be able to build dams D.Countries in SW Asia are not allowed to build dams along shared rivers

49 Question 2. How has the building of dams created problems for countries sharing rivers in SW Asia? A.Dams are too expensive to build to be practical B.Dams limit the water available to countries further downstream C.Few countries have the technology needed to be able to build dams D.Countries in SW Asia are not allowed to build dams along shared rivers

50 Question 3. How has the use of chemical fertilizers affected water supplies in many countries? A.Use of chemical fertilizers means crops must be watered constantly B.Enormous amounts of water must be used to produce chemical fertilizers C.Water supplies have been contaminated by the chemicals through runoff from the fields D.Chemical fertilizers have had very little effect on local water supplies in SW Asia

51 Question 3. How has the use of chemical fertilizers affected water supplies in many countries? A.Use of chemical fertilizers means crops must be watered constantly B.Enormous amounts of water must be used to produce chemical fertilizers C.Water supplies have been contaminated by the chemicals through runoff from the fields D.Chemical fertilizers have had very little effect on local water supplies in SW Asia

52 Question 4. Why isn’t desalination used more in SW Asia? A.Most countries do not know about this technology B.Desalination is not very effective C.Few countries have access to seawater D.It is very expensive for countries to use

53 Question 4. Why isn’t desalination used more in SW Asia? A.Most countries do not know about this technology B.Desalination is not very effective C.Few countries have access to seawater D.It is very expensive for countries to use

54 Assignment Read and complete pages in the Gallopade (Yellow book)


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