2The effects of Location and Environmental Issues in the Middle East
3Georgia Performance Standards SS7G6 The student will discuss environmental issues across Southwest Asia (Middle East).Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation and drinking water.SS7G7 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution in Southwest Asia (Middle East).b. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people live, what type of work they do, and how they travel.
4Part 1- How do the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia affect where people live, work and travel?
5Three Major Rivers:Tigris RiverEuphrates RiverJordan River
6Important water source For Turkey, Syria, Iraq Main water source for Israel, Jordan, SyrialongestSmaller thanTigris & EuphratesEuphrates R.Jordan R.Middle East RiversFlows intoDead SeaTigris R.Important Rivers forDrinking & FarmingNorth of EuphratesImportant water source forTurkey and Iraq
7Importance of RiversCritical resource of water for drinking and irrigationDams create hydroelectric power, but also conflicts with countries downstreamSet boundariesTransportation / tradeCities / industry / workers
8Southwest Asian Deserts Syrian DesertRub al-Khali (empty quarter)
9Importance of Deserts Natural barrier against invasion Unique way of life – surviving in harsh surroundingsBedouins – desert nomads – herders and traders of the desertThe Bedouins way of life is gradually disappearing
10Climate of Southwest Asia Climate –type of weather a region has over a long period of timeGenerally hot and dry climate
11Wet or Dry? Large bodies of water border SW Asia Mountains close to the coast block rainsAs a result, much of the interior of SW Asia is desert.Rivers and coastal areas have enough water to support agriculture, cities, and towns.
18Population Densities (person/km2): Israel:Turkey: 93Iraq: 66Afghanistan: 46Iran: 42Saudi Arabia: 11Why are they in this order??
19Trade in Southwest Asia “Crossroads” of Europe, Africa,& AsiaMajor trade role for centuriesShips from Asia to SW Asian portsCamel caravans – “ships of the desert”Today the Suez Canal allows trade without using overland caravans
20Agriculture in SW AsiaSubsistence agriculture – growing small amounts of food for local needs.Depends on irrigationSome commercial agriculture – limited by irrigationIrrigation methods:Water wheelsPumpsWellsQanats – underground tunnelsCanals
28Water Facts The Earth is made of roughly 2/3 water 97.5% of this is salt water 2.5% is fresh water70% of the fresh water is trapped in glaciers and the ice capsThis leaves only roughly 1% of all water is available freshwater
30What do you think are the main environmental problems in the Middle East? Water shortagesUnequal distribution of waterPollution, especially water5% of world’s population live here, but less than 1% of world’s fresh water is available to these people.
31VocabularyDesalination – process of removing the salt from salt water to make drinking water.Water Rights – agreements about how countries can use the water in a region; often causes political disputesAquifer-an underground layer of rock and sand that contains waterGround water -water below the surface that supplies wells and springs.
33Problems by countryTurkey: Pollution from industries, agriculture, and oil spills in the Black SeaTurkey/Syria/Iraq-Turkey built a dam on the Euphrates River, followed by Syria. This severely restricted the water flow into Iraq which almost caused a war.Iraq- also has major war damage to water treatment facilities and pollution from industries and oil spills.
35Problems by countryIsrael-Consumption has increased, but rainfall has decreased. They are forced to draw water from aquifers, lowering levels and allowing salt water in. They have also come close to war over Jordan River.Iran-having problem similar to Israel which is hurting their main crop-pistachios.Afghanistan-main problem is pollution from open sewers, failed septic systems, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides. Chemical fertilizers contaminates the water supply through runoff from the fields.
38Picture of smog in Tehran, Iran Picture of smog in Tehran, Iran. It was so bad in 2005, they closed schools.
39Problems by countrySaudi Arabia-most severe problem with water scarcity and poor quality of ground water from salt water intrusion, but they have found a solution-desalination. About 30 plants in the country provide most of the country’s drinking water.
40Match the country to the correct water issue Less water to irrigate pistachio cropBattles over water rights to Jordan RiverUses desalination to battle severe water shortagesOil spills from ships pollute the Black SeaWar has damaged water treatment facilitiesOpen sewers, failed septic systems
42Increase in car usage, leads to increase in air pollution in Amman, Jordan
43Major Environmental Issues- Unequal distribution of water Tigris and Euphrates Rivers shared by Turkey, Syria, and IraqJordan River shared by Israel, Syria, and Jordan.The problem is they don’t always play nice and share-second only to religious differences, water is a major cause of wars in the region. What do you think would be 3rd?OILWhich countries does this leave out??Iran and Saudi Arabia-they rely on desalination, but it is very expensive, so it is not used in many other countries
45Darker blue shows where land is more intensely irrigated
46Question Which river do Syria, Israel, and Jordan share? Euphrates NileTigris
47Question Jordan Which river do Syria, Israel, and Jordan share? EuphratesJordanNileTigris
48Question2. How has the building of dams created problems for countries sharing rivers in SW Asia?Dams are too expensive to build to be practicalDams limit the water available to countries further downstreamFew countries have the technology needed to be able to build damsCountries in SW Asia are not allowed to build dams along shared rivers
49Question2. How has the building of dams created problems for countries sharing rivers in SW Asia?Dams are too expensive to build to be practicalDams limit the water available to countries further downstreamFew countries have the technology needed to be able to build damsCountries in SW Asia are not allowed to build dams along shared rivers
50Question3. How has the use of chemical fertilizers affected water supplies in many countries?Use of chemical fertilizers means crops must be watered constantlyEnormous amounts of water must be used to produce chemical fertilizersWater supplies have been contaminated by the chemicals through runoff from the fieldsChemical fertilizers have had very little effect on local water supplies in SW Asia
51Question3. How has the use of chemical fertilizers affected water supplies in many countries?Use of chemical fertilizers means crops must be watered constantlyEnormous amounts of water must be used to produce chemical fertilizersWater supplies have been contaminated by the chemicals through runoff from the fieldsChemical fertilizers have had very little effect on local water supplies in SW Asia
52Question 4. Why isn’t desalination used more in SW Asia? Most countries do not know about this technologyDesalination is not very effectiveFew countries have access to seawaterIt is very expensive for countries to use
53Question It is very expensive for countries to use 4. Why isn’t desalination used more in SW Asia?Most countries do not know about this technologyDesalination is not very effectiveFew countries have access to seawaterIt is very expensive for countries to use
54AssignmentRead and complete pages in the Gallopade (Yellow book)