Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 – The World’s People"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4 – The World’s People Section NotesVideoCulturePopulationGovernment and EconomyGlobal ConnectionsImpact of CultureMapsClose-upWorld Population DensityGovernments of the WorldA Global EconomyWorld AlmanacImagesPopulationCulture TraitsCultural Diffusion of BaseballWorld Population GrowthA Developed and a Developing CountryQuick FactsChapter 4 Visual Summary
2Anything in green (GO on to the next point) you do not have to write. InstructionsAnything written in yellow (SLOW down and pay attention) is useful information. You should write it in your notes IN YOUR OWN WORDS.Anything in red (STOP and pay close attention) is critical information and should be copied exactly.Anything in green (GO on to the next point) you do not have to write.
3CultureThe Big IdeaCulture, a group’s shared practices and beliefs, differs from group to group and changes over time.Main IdeasCulture is the set of beliefs, goals, and practices that a group of people share.The world includes many different culture groups.New ideas and events lead to changes in culture.
4Culture is the set of beliefs, goals, and practices that a group of people share. Includes many aspects of life, such as language and religion, that we may share with people around usEach is unique
5Culture ContinueCulture TraitsAn activity or behavior in which people often take part, such as language spoken or sports playedCan be shared by people around the worldCan change from place to place
6Development of Culture Culture traits are often learned or passed down from one generation to the next.Within families as traditions, foods, or holiday customsLaws and moral codes within societies
8Development of Culture Cultures develop as people learn new culture traits.Immigrants who move to a new countryOther factors, such as history and environment, also affect how cultures develop.
9The world includes many different culture groups. A culture region is an area in which people have many shared culture traits, such as religious beliefs, language, or lifestyle.A single culture region can dominate an entire country.A single country may include more than one culture region within its borders.A culture region may stretch across country borders.
10The world includes many different culture groups. Often, culture regions are based on ethnic groups—groups of people who share a common culture and ancestry.
11The world includes many different culture groups. Cultural diversity is the state of having a variety of cultures in the same area.Creates an interesting mix of ideas, behaviors, and practicesCan sometimes lead to conflict
12New ideas and events lead to changes in culture. How Cultures ChangeInnovations—new ideas or ways of doing things—often bring about cultural changes.As societies come into contact with each other, cultures can change.
13New ideas and events lead to changes in culture. How Ideas SpreadThe spread of culture traits from one region to another is called cultural diffusion.Occurs when people move from one place to anotherTakes place as new ideas spread from place to place
15Population studies are an important part of geography. The Big IdeaPopulation studies are an important part of geography.Main IdeasThe study of population patterns helps geographers learn about the world.Population statistics and trends are important measures of population change.
16The study of population patterns helps geographers learn about the world. Population, or the total number of people in a given area, determines a great deal about the place in which a person lives.Influences business, transportation, schools, and more
17Geographers study human population The study of population patterns helps geographers learn about the world.Geographers study human populationInterested in patterns that emerge over timeStudy information such as how many people live in an area, why people live where they do, and how populations change
19Population Patterns Population Density Population density—a measure of the number of people living in an areaHigh population density areasLand more expensiveRoads crowdedBuildings tallerLow population density areasMore open spacesLess trafficMore available land
20Population Patterns Where People Live When an area is thinly populated, it is often because the land does not provide a very good life.Rugged mountainsHarsh desertsPolar regionsAreas with denser populations tend to be regions with fertile soil, reliable sources of water, and a good agricultural climate.
22Population statistics and trends are important measures of population change. Geographers examine three key statistics to learn about population changes.Birthrate—the annual number of births per 1,000 peopleDeath rate—the annual number of deaths per 1,000 peopleRate of natural increase—the birthrate minus the death rate equals the percentage of natural increase, or the rate at which a population is changing.
23Population growth rates differ from one place to another. Population statistics and trends are important measures of population change.Population growth rates differ from one place to another.In some countries, populations are growing very slowly or even shrinking.In most countries, populations are growing.In countries with growing populations, governments face many challenges.
24Population Change Migration Migration is the process of moving from one place to live in another.A common cause of population changePeople migrate for many reasons.Some factors push people to leave their country.Some factors pull, or attract, people to new countries.
26World Population Trends Population ChangeWorld Population TrendsEarth’s population has exploded in the last 200 yearsBetter health careImproved food productionTwo important population trends:Population growth in some of the more industrialized nations has begun to slow.Less industrialized nations often have high growth rates.
27Government and Economy The Big IdeaThe world’s countries have different governments and levels of economic development.Main IdeasThe governments of the world include democracy, monarchy, dictatorship, and communism.Different economic activities and systems exist throughout the world.Geographers group the countries of the world based on their level of economic development.
28The governments of the world include democracy, monarchy, dictatorship, and communism. Make and enforce lawsRegulate business and tradeProvide aid to peopleHelp shape the culture and economy of a country as well as the daily lives of people who live there.
29Many countries have democratic governments. The governments of the world include democracy, monarchy, dictatorship, and communism.Many countries have democratic governments.A democracy is a form of government in which the people elect leaders and rule by majority.Some work to protect the freedoms and rights of their people.Others restrict the rights and freedoms of their people.
30Other Types of Government MonarchyOne of the oldest types of governmentRuled directly by a king or queen, the head of a royal familyIn some, power is in the hands of just one person.In others, many democratic practices are used.
31Other Types of Government DictatorshipA single, powerful ruler has total control.Leader is called a dictator.Often rules by forcePeople have few rights and no say in their own government.
32Other Types of Government CommunismA political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a countryLeaders are chosen by the Communist Party or by Communist leaders.People have restricted rights and very little freedom.
34Different economic activities and systems exist throughout the world. The economy is a system that includes all of the activities that people and businesses do to earn a living.Countries use a mix of different economic activities and systems.Geographers divide economic activities into four levels.
35Four Levels of Economic Activity Primary IndustryPeople earn a living by providing raw materials or natural resources to others.Examples include farming, fishing, and mining
36Four Levels of Economic Activity Secondary IndustryUse natural resources or raw materials to manufacture other productsExample: automobile manufacturers use steel and other materials to build cars and trucks.
37Four Levels of Economic Activity Tertiary IndustryGoods and services are exchangedIncludes people who sell the products made in secondary industries and people who provide services rather than goods, such as health care
38Four Levels of Economic Activity Quaternary IndustryInvolves the research and distribution of informationPeople work with information rather than goods and often have specialized knowledge and skills.
39Economic Systems Traditional Economy System in which people grow their own food and make their own goodsTrade may take place through barter, or the exchange of goods without the use of money.Often found in rural and remote communities
40Economic Systems Market Economy System based on private ownership, free trade, and competitionIndividuals and businesses are free to buy and sell what they wish.Prices determined by the supply and demand for goodsSometimes called capitalism
41Economic Systems Command Economy System in which the central government makes all economic decisionsGovernment decides what goods to produce, how much to produce, and what prices will be.Communist governments own and control most businesses in their countries.
42Geographers group the countries of the world based on their level of economic development. Economic IndicatorsMeasures of a country’s wealth used by geographers to decide if a country is developed or developingOne measure used is gross domestic product (GDP)—the value of all goods and services produced within a country in a single year.Other indicators include a country’s per capita GDP, level of industrialization, and overall quality of life.
43Developed and Developing Countries Geographers group the countries of the world based on their level of economic development.Developed and Developing CountriesDeveloped countries have strong economies and a high quality of life; usually have high per capita GDPDeveloping countries have less productive economies and a lower quality of life; usually have lower per capita GDP
45Global Connections The Big Idea Fast, easy global connection have made cultural exchange, trade, and a cooperative world community possible.Main IdeasGlobalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade.The world community works together to solve global conflicts and crises.
47Globalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade. Globalization is the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade.Caused by improvements in transportation and communication over the last 100 years
48Globalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade. Popular culture refers to culture traits that are well known and widely accepted.Examples include food, sports, music, and movies.United States has great influence on global popular culture and is also influenced by global culture.
49Globalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade. Expansion of global trade has increased interdependence—the reliance of one country on the resources, goods, or services of another country—between countries.Many companies in one country often rely on goods and services produced in another country.
50The world community works together to solve global conflicts and crises. Because of globalization, the world seems smaller.Places are more connected.What happens in one part of the world can affect the entire planet.The world community works together to promote cooperation among countries in times of conflict and crisis.
51A World CommunityCountries often join together to settle conflicts such as wars, trade disputes, and political disagreements.The United Nations (UN) is an organization of the world’s countries that promotes peace and security around the globe.The world community promotes cooperation in times of crisis such as ones caused by earthquakes, floods, and drought.Groups from many nations often come together to provide humanitarian aid, or assistance to people in distress.Organizations representing countries around the globe work to help in times of crisis.