Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 – The World’s People Section Notes Culture Population Government and Economy Global Connections Video Impact of Culture Images Population Culture."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 – The World’s People Section Notes Culture Population Government and Economy Global Connections Video Impact of Culture Images Population Culture Traits Cultural Diffusion of Baseball World Population Growth Quick Facts Chapter 4 Visual Summary Maps World Population Density Governments of the World Close-up A Global Economy World Almanac A Developed and a Developing Country
Instructions Anything written in yellow (SLOW down and pay attention) is useful information. You should write it in your notes IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Anything in red (STOP and pay close attention) is critical information and should be copied exactly. Anything in green (GO on to the next point) you do not have to write.
Culture The Big Idea Culture, a group’s shared practices and beliefs, differs from group to group and changes over time. Main Ideas Culture is the set of beliefs, goals, and practices that a group of people share. The world includes many different culture groups. New ideas and events lead to changes in culture.
Culture Includes many aspects of life, such as language and religion, that we may share with people around us Each is unique Culture is the set of beliefs, goals, and practices that a group of people share.
Culture Continue Culture Traits An activity or behavior in which people often take part, such as language spoken or sports played Can be shared by people around the world Can change from place to place
Development of Culture Culture traits are often learned or passed down from one generation to the next. Within families as traditions, foods, or holiday customs Laws and moral codes within societies
Development of Culture Cultures develop as people learn new culture traits. Immigrants who move to a new country Other factors, such as history and environment, also affect how cultures develop.
The world includes many different culture groups. A culture region is an area in which people have many shared culture traits, such as religious beliefs, language, or lifestyle. –A single culture region can dominate an entire country. –A single country may include more than one culture region within its borders. –A culture region may stretch across country borders.
The world includes many different culture groups. Often, culture regions are based on ethnic groups—groups of people who share a common culture and ancestry.
The world includes many different culture groups. Cultural diversity is the state of having a variety of cultures in the same area. –Creates an interesting mix of ideas, behaviors, and practices –Can sometimes lead to conflict
New ideas and events lead to changes in culture. How Cultures Change Innovations—new ideas or ways of doing things—often bring about cultural changes. As societies come into contact with each other, cultures can change.
How Ideas Spread The spread of culture traits from one region to another is called cultural diffusion. –Occurs when people move from one place to another –Takes place as new ideas spread from place to place New ideas and events lead to changes in culture.
Population The Big Idea Population studies are an important part of geography. Main Ideas The study of population patterns helps geographers learn about the world. Population statistics and trends are important measures of population change.
The study of population patterns helps geographers learn about the world. Population, or the total number of people in a given area, determines a great deal about the place in which a person lives. –Influences business, transportation, schools, and more
The study of population patterns helps geographers learn about the world. Geographers study human population –Interested in patterns that emerge over time –Study information such as how many people live in an area, why people live where they do, and how populations change
Population Patterns Population Density Population density—a measure of the number of people living in an area High population density areas –Land more expensive –Roads crowded –Buildings taller Low population density areas –More open spaces –Less traffic –More available land
Where People Live When an area is thinly populated, it is often because the land does not provide a very good life. –Rugged mountains –Harsh deserts –Polar regions Areas with denser populations tend to be regions with fertile soil, reliable sources of water, and a good agricultural climate. Population Patterns
Population statistics and trends are important measures of population change. Geographers examine three key statistics to learn about population changes. –Birthrate—the annual number of births per 1,000 people –Death rate—the annual number of deaths per 1,000 people –Rate of natural increase—the birthrate minus the death rate equals the percentage of natural increase, or the rate at which a population is changing.
Population statistics and trends are important measures of population change. Population growth rates differ from one place to another. –In some countries, populations are growing very slowly or even shrinking. –In most countries, populations are growing. –In countries with growing populations, governments face many challenges.
Population Change Migration Migration is the process of moving from one place to live in another. A common cause of population change People migrate for many reasons. –Some factors push people to leave their country. –Some factors pull, or attract, people to new countries.
World Population Trends Earth’s population has exploded in the last 200 years –Better health care –Improved food production Two important population trends: –Population growth in some of the more industrialized nations has begun to slow. –Less industrialized nations often have high growth rates. Population Change
Government and Economy The Big Idea The world’s countries have different governments and levels of economic development. Main Ideas The governments of the world include democracy, monarchy, dictatorship, and communism. Different economic activities and systems exist throughout the world. Geographers group the countries of the world based on their level of economic development.
The governments of the world include democracy, monarchy, dictatorship, and communism. Governments: –Make and enforce laws –Regulate business and trade –Provide aid to people –Help shape the culture and economy of a country as well as the daily lives of people who live there.
The governments of the world include democracy, monarchy, dictatorship, and communism. Many countries have democratic governments. –A democracy is a form of government in which the people elect leaders and rule by majority. –Some work to protect the freedoms and rights of their people. –Others restrict the rights and freedoms of their people.
Other Types of Government Monarchy One of the oldest types of government Ruled directly by a king or queen, the head of a royal family In some, power is in the hands of just one person. In others, many democratic practices are used.
Dictatorship A single, powerful ruler has total control. Leader is called a dictator. Often rules by force People have few rights and no say in their own government. Other Types of Government
Communism A political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country Leaders are chosen by the Communist Party or by Communist leaders. People have restricted rights and very little freedom. Other Types of Government
Different economic activities and systems exist throughout the world. The economy is a system that includes all of the activities that people and businesses do to earn a living. Countries use a mix of different economic activities and systems. Geographers divide economic activities into four levels.
Four Levels of Economic Activity Primary Industry People earn a living by providing raw materials or natural resources to others. Examples include farming, fishing, and mining
Use natural resources or raw materials to manufacture other products Example: automobile manufacturers use steel and other materials to build cars and trucks. Secondary Industry Four Levels of Economic Activity
Goods and services are exchanged Includes people who sell the products made in secondary industries and people who provide services rather than goods, such as health care Tertiary Industry Four Levels of Economic Activity
Involves the research and distribution of information People work with information rather than goods and often have specialized knowledge and skills. Quaternary Industry Four Levels of Economic Activity
Economic Systems Traditional Economy System in which people grow their own food and make their own goods Trade may take place through barter, or the exchange of goods without the use of money. Often found in rural and remote communities
Market Economy System based on private ownership, free trade, and competition Individuals and businesses are free to buy and sell what they wish. Prices determined by the supply and demand for goods Sometimes called capitalism Economic Systems
Command Economy System in which the central government makes all economic decisions Government decides what goods to produce, how much to produce, and what prices will be. Communist governments own and control most businesses in their countries. Economic Systems
Economic Indicators Measures of a country’s wealth used by geographers to decide if a country is developed or developing One measure used is gross domestic product (GDP)—the value of all goods and services produced within a country in a single year. Other indicators include a country’s per capita GDP, level of industrialization, and overall quality of life. Geographers group the countries of the world based on their level of economic development.
Developed and Developing Countries Developed countries have strong economies and a high quality of life; usually have high per capita GDP Developing countries have less productive economies and a lower quality of life; usually have lower per capita GDP Geographers group the countries of the world based on their level of economic development.
Global Connections The Big Idea Fast, easy global connection have made cultural exchange, trade, and a cooperative world community possible. Main Ideas Globalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade. The world community works together to solve global conflicts and crises.
Globalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade. Globalization is the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade. –Caused by improvements in transportation and communication over the last 100 years
Popular culture refers to culture traits that are well known and widely accepted. –Examples include food, sports, music, and movies. –United States has great influence on global popular culture and is also influenced by global culture. Globalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade.
Expansion of global trade has increased interdependence— the reliance of one country on the resources, goods, or services of another country—between countries. –Many companies in one country often rely on goods and services produced in another country. Globalization links the world’s countries together through culture and trade.
The world community works together to solve global conflicts and crises. Because of globalization, the world seems smaller. –Places are more connected. –What happens in one part of the world can affect the entire planet. The world community works together to promote cooperation among countries in times of conflict and crisis.
A World Community The United Nations (UN) is an organization of the world’s countries that promotes peace and security around the globe. The world community promotes cooperation in times of crisis such as ones caused by earthquakes, floods, and drought. Groups from many nations often come together to provide humanitarian aid, or assistance to people in distress. Countries often join together to settle conflicts such as wars, trade disputes, and political disagreements. Organizations representing countries around the globe work to help in times of crisis.
World Religions Buddhism Hinduism Islam Christianity Judaism