5Defining Prosocial Behavior Type of BehaviorDefinitionExampleProsocial BehaviorBenevolencePure AltruismFrom Simpson, 2004
6Defining Prosocial Behavior Type of BehaviorDefinitionExampleAny action intended to benefit another (regardless of motive)Giving a large tip to a waiter to impress your bossProsocial BehaviorBenevolencePure AltruismFrom Simpson, 2004
7Defining Prosocial Behavior Type of BehaviorDefinitionExampleProsocial BehaviorBenefits another intentionally for no external rewardSending $20 to a charity to make yourself feel goodBenevolencePure AltruismFrom Simpson, 2004
8Defining Prosocial Behavior Type of BehaviorDefinitionExampleProsocial BehaviorBenefits another intentionally for no external or internal rewardJumping on a railroad track to help a stranger who has fallenBenevolencePure AltruismFrom Simpson, 2004
9Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior A basic question that people have asked is whether people are willing to help when there is nothing to gain, or if they only help when there is some benefit for them.
10Theories of Prosocial Behavior EvolutionarySocial exchangeEmpathy-altruism
11Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and GenesEvolutionary Psychology is the attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time, according to the principles of natural selection.
12Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and GenesDarwin recognized that altruistic behavior posed a problem for his theory: if an organism acts altruistically, it may decrease its own reproductive fitness.
13Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and GenesThe idea of kin selection is the idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection.[Suggests can pass on genes by helping genetic relatives have children or by helping their children survive.]
14Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and GenesThe norm of reciprocity is the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future.[Suggests reciprocity may increase likelihood of survival.]
15Evaluation of Evolutionary approach Although theorists can tell a story about evolutionary reasons for helping, we cannot know for sure whether helping has an evolutionary basis.Retrospective explanations, no hard evidence.
16Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Social Exchange: The Costs and Rewards of HelpingSocial exchange theory argues that much of what we do stems from the desire to maximize our outcomes and minimize our costs. Like evolutionary psychology, it is a theory based on self-interest; unlike it, it does not assume that self-interest has a genetic basis.
17Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Social Exchange: The Costs and Rewards of HelpingHelping can be rewarding becauseincreases the probability that someone will help us in returnrelieves the personal distress of the bystandergains us social approval and increased self-worth.
18Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Social Exchange: The Costs and Rewards of HelpingHelping can also be costly (danger, time, money); thus it decreases when costs are high.
19Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Empathy and Altruism: The Pure Motive for HelpingBatson (1991) is the strongest proponent of the idea that people often help purely out of the goodness of their hearts.
20Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Empathy and Altruism: The Pure Motive for HelpingHe argues that pure altruism is most likely to come into play when we experience empathy for the person in need; that is, we are able to experience events and emotions the way that person experiences them.
21Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior Empathy and Altruism: The Pure Motive for HelpingThe empathy-altruism hypothesis states that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help purely for altruistic reasons, that is, regardless of what we have to gain.
22Empathy and Altruism: The Pure Motive for Helping
23Empathy and Altruism: The Pure Motive for Helping When did people agree to help Carol (who was in auto accident) w/work missed in Intro Psych? (Toi & Batson,1982)High empathy: Imagine how Carol feltLow Empathy: Be objective, don’t be concerned w/ how Carol felt
25Altruistic or egoistic motives? It is often difficult to disentangle whether people are helping for altruistic or egoistic motives.If someone feels joy after helping, is that an egoistic motive?
26Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Individual Differences: The Altruistic PersonalityAspects of a person’s makeup that lead the person to help others in a wide variety of situations defines the altruistic personality.
27Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Individual Differences: The Altruistic PersonalityResearch has found that the extent to which people are helpful in one situation is NOT highly related to how prosocial they are in another situation.*High altruism scores not a good predictor of helpingPersonality is not the only determinant of whether people will help, at least across many situations.
28Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Individual Differences: The Altruistic PersonalityIt appears that different kinds of people are likely to help in different types of situations.
29Gender and HelpingWomen are universally perceived as kinder, more soft-hearted, and more helpful.But over 90% of Carnegie Hero awards go to men (for saving, or attempting to save, the life of another). Why?--Women are more likely to help those they already know.--Men are more likely to help strangers in emergency situations.From Simpson, 2004
30Gender Differences in Prosocial Behavior Ex: Men > likely to help w/flat tire or in dangerous situation. (short-term, strangers)Women > likely to help take care of a neighbor or elderly relative. (longer-term, close relationships)
31Gender differences in receiving help Are people more likely to help women or men? It depends.Male helpers are more likely to help women than men.Female helpers are equally likely to help men and women.Women not only receive more help from men, but they also SEEK more help.
32Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Cultural Differences in Prosocial BehaviorPeople across cultures are more likely to help members of their in-group, the group with which an individual identifies as a member, than members of the out-group, a group with which an individual does not identity.
33Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Cultural Differences in Prosocial BehaviorPeople from collectivist cultures are more prone to help in-group members and less likely to help out-group members than are people from individualist cultures.
34Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Effects of Mood on Prosocial BehaviorPeople who are in a good mood are more likely to help.
35Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Effects of Mood on Prosocial BehaviorGood moods can increase helping for three reasonsgood moods make us interpret events in a sympathetic wayhelping another prolongs the good moodgood moods increase self-attention and this in turn leads us to be more likely to behave according to our values and beliefs (and most of us value altruism).
36Positive Mood: Feel good, do good When researchers have induced a good mood (e.g., leaving dimes in the coin return slot of a pay phone, giving people cookies, etc.), they find that people in a good mood are more likely to help than those in a “neutral” mood.
37Personal Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Effects of Mood on Prosocial BehaviorNegative-state relief hypothesis says that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress; it exemplifies a social exchange approach.
38Negative mood and helping Variety of studies show that, when people feel sad, they are more likely to help (e.g., donate money to a charity).
39Presence of SadnessHelping can be increased by events that trigger temporary sadness:Reminiscing about unhappy experiencesReading depressing statementsFailing at a taskWitnessing harm to anotherFrom Simpson, 2004
40AGE Young children are LESS likely to help when in a sad mood. They have not yet learned that helping another can produce good feelings.From Simpson, 2004
41How can a sad mood and a happy mood both lead to more helping? Different reasonsSadness: Helping may improve temporary sadness. (But, if we blame others for our bad mood, sadness is not associated with more helping.) Complex association.Happiness: May trigger positive thoughts about others. May prolong good mood. Straightforward, consistent association.
42Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Environments: Rural versus UrbanPeople in rural areas are more helpful. This effect holds over a wide variety of helping situations and in many countries.
43Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Environments: Rural versus UrbanOne explanation is that people from rural settings are brought up to be more neighborly and more likely to trust strangers.
44Situational determinants of prosocial behavior Or, it might be that people living in cities are overwhelmed with too much stimulation; if you put them in a calmer environment, they might be just as likely to help.
45Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Field studies conducted in 36 cities in the U.S.The more densely populated the area, the less likely people were to help.Location (rural or urban) more important than whether person grew up in small town or large city.
46Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Number of Bystanders: The Bystander EffectThe bystander effect is the finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help.
47Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Number of Bystanders: The Bystander EffectLatané and Darley (1970) developed a decision tree to show how people decide whether to help in an emergency:1. Noticing an Event: Yes No2. Interpreting the Event as an Emergency Yes No3. Assuming Responsibility Yes No4. Knowing How to Help Yes No5. Deciding to Implement the Help Yes No
48Stage 1: Noticing the event The Good Samaritan study
49Stage 1: Noticing the event Darley & Batson, TIME PRESSUREIVs: Hurry or No HurryTopic of talk: Good Samaritan parable or jobs for seminary studentsDV: Helping a man slumped in doorwayResults: No hurry condition: ____helpedHurry condition: ___ helpedTopic of speech was __________to helping.
50Kitty Genovese caseWas noticing the event a problem?
51Stage 2: Interpreting the event as an emergency Smoke-filled room studyvideo clip
52Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Number of Bystanders: The Bystander EffectPluralistic ignorance is the phenomenon whereby bystanders assume that nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned. This greatly interferes with the interpretation of the event as an emergency and therefore reduces helping.
53Kitty GenoveseWas interpreting the event a problem in the Kitty Genovese case?
54Stage 3: Assuming responsibility Recall seizure study (earlier in the course)When more people were present, participants were less likely to help (by getting the experimenter) and they took longer to help (if they did help).
55Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior Stage 3: Assuming responsibilityDiffusion of responsibility is the phenomenon whereby each bystander’s sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases. This results in a reduction of helping.
56Kitty GenoveseWas assuming responsibility a problem?
57Stage 4: Weighing rewards and costs People help when the rewards outweigh the costsPotential rewardsReciprocitySocial approvalSelf-satisfactionReduced guilt and arousalPotential costsDanger/life threateningFinancially detrimentalEmbarrassingTime consuming
58Stage 5: Deciding how to help People cannot help if they do not know how to help.Do you know CPR? The Heimlich maneuver? Your own blood type?These were not an issue in the case of Kitty Genovese.
59Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Nature of the Relationship: Communal Versus Exchange RelationshipsCommunal relationships are those in which people’s primary concern is with the welfare of the other, whereas exchange relationships are governed by equity concerns.
60Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior The Nature of the Relationship: Communal Versus Exchange RelationshipsCommunal/exchange distinction means that generally we are more helpful towards friends (> likely to be communal) than strangers; the exception occurs when the other is beating us in a domain that is personally important and thus threatens our self-esteem. (Recall Tesser video)
61How Can Helping Be Increased? Prosocial role models1--Bryan & Test (1967) L.A. drivers for more likely to offer help to a female driver with a flat tire if a quarter of a mile earlier they had witnessed someone helping another woman change a tire.
62Increasing helping—Prosocial models 2—Byran & Test (1967) New Jersey Xmas shoppers were more likely to drop money into a Salvation Army kettle if they had just seen someone else to donate.
63Increasing helping—prosocial models 3—Rushton & Campbell (1977) found British adults more willing to donate blood if they were approached after observing a confederate agree to donate.
64Media can encourage helping TV programmingNIMH study of Mr. Rogers4 wks preschool programKids from less educated homes became more cooperative, helpful, likely to state their feelings during the 4 wk period than those who did not see the show.
65Increasing helping: Disseminate research findings Beaman et al. (1978) Students who had heard a lecture on bystander intervention were more likely to help in a staged emergency 2 wks later.Heard lecture 43% helpedDid not hear lecture 25% helped