Presentation on theme: "DISABLED PEOPLE AND MDGs IN TANZANIA PAPER PRESENTED AT THE WORKSHOP HELD IN BRATISLAVA 15 – 17 MAY 2007 BY LUPI MWAISAKA MASWANYA."— Presentation transcript:
DISABLED PEOPLE AND MDGs IN TANZANIA PAPER PRESENTED AT THE WORKSHOP HELD IN BRATISLAVA 15 – 17 MAY 2007 BY LUPI MWAISAKA MASWANYA
INTRODUCTION MKUKUTA is a Swahili acronnym for National Strategic plan for economic growth and poverty reduction, which addresses the 8 MDG’S. It was developed after stakeholder consultations and approved by the cabinet in February 2005. Its being implemented from 2005/2006 up to 2009/2010. People with disabilities are among the stakeholders consulted during the planning period. This presentation gives an overview of: Disability NGO’S and CSO’S Population of PWD’S in Tanzania How it is being implemented Education for PWD’S and its problems Inclusive education and obstacles faced by PWD’S
To make sure that the Government plans are implemented in fairness to all groups in society, associations of and for PWD’S have come together to a common platform, to advocate for our share in the National plans and benefits.
In Tanzania there are 6 main associations of PWD’S which are members of SHIVYAWATA, A federation of associations of PWD’S: ► Tanzania League of the Blind (TLB) ► Tanzania Association of the Physically Handicapped (CHAWATA) ► TANZANIA Albino Society ( TAS ) ► Tanzania Association of the Deaf (CHAVITA) ► Tanzania Association for Mentally Handicapped (TAMH) ► Tanzania Association of the Deaf Blind (TASODEB)
Furthermore there are other institutions dealing with disability issues: ► Disabled organization for Law and Social economic development (DOLASED) ► Information Centre on Disability (ICD) ► Human Rights Centre for PWD’S ► Deaf Peoples Economic Development Group (UMIVITA) ► Tanzania National Institute of the Blind (TNIB)
► According to WHO estimates on disability, in 2002 Tanzania had 3,456,900 PWD’S. The country population was 34,569,232. They are distributed in the following categories: ► Physically handicapped, 967,932.= 28% ► Blind 933,363,= 27% ► Deaf 691,380,= 20% ► Mentally handicaped 276,552,= 8% ► Multiple handicap 138,276,=4% ► Other disabilities 449,397, =13%
► According to population estimates carried out in 2002, Tanzania has more people with disabilities now. All associations of PWDS know the fact that parents do hide family members with disability. Its also a fact that the number of PWDS is growing because of accidents, malaria, meningitis, malnutrition and other reasons.
► The National Strategy for growth and poverty reduction is meant to address the MDGS being: ► To eradicate absolute poverty ► To provide primary education for all ► To promote gender equality and women empowerment. ► To reduce infant mortality ► To provide quality maternal health service ► To combat AIDS, Malaria and other diseases. ► To conserve and make the environment sustainable. ► To promote solidarity among the international community for development.
In Tanzania, PWDS have received the PRS with mixed feelings: ► That they may not benefit because they are not fully involved from the grassroots level to National decision making organs. ► That maybe they will benefit to some extent, because their associations were consulted and involved during the planning stage.
Implementation The Government has shown its commitment to address the Millennium Goals. We have seen a big increase in primary schools throughout the country. A big percentage of school-age children have been enrolled in Schools, the number of secondary schools has increased. Every ward has been ordered to have a school within its boundary.
Roads are being built and improved, safe water infrastructures are improved, Health services are brought closer to the people, women are given equal opportunities in education and employment to the extent that we have 7 women in the cabinet of 22 ministers. The situation of PWDS is still bleak. One of the reason is that in National policies we are grouped together as vulnerable People; which includes:- women, widows, the youth, children, orphans and people living with HIV/AIDS.
Education of PWDS The Government, through its special program for primary education has reached village level, making it possible for all children to attend school. Even children of nomadic tribes have access to school in their environment. In supporting this, parents, Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) and international organizations like DANIDA, JICA, SIDA and some Banks are contributing resources towards the Government efforts.
Challenges Although there are good programs, we still face challenges in education of the children with disabilities. ► Accessibility was not considered when building the school and classrooms ► Braille materials and teachers were not prepared for blind children ► There are not enough special teachers of the Deaf, and the few available don’t know sign language. ► The same challenges face children with mental handicap and Deaf blind
Inclusive education Inclusive education Tanzania is trying to implement this program according to the Salamanca Statement: 1994. The Ministry of Education is sensitizing parents to send their disabled children to inclusive schools. However, people with disabilities are divided on the issue of inclusion. Majority of PWD’S would prefer the special education model, but they acknowledge that there ere no enough schools, most being run by charities. So the consensus is that it is better to have inclusive schools than to miss education altogether
Inclusive education Cont … Inclusive education Cont … Inclusive schools are accepted, with the following conditions in place: ► Accessibility for physically impaired ► Special Braille from class 1 to 3, then an inclusive class from grade 4 for the blind ► For the Deaf and Deaf blind, inclusive classes are not practical! They will need classrooms and special teachers with sign language skills. Their communication needs make it impossible to study in an inclusive classroom, especially for primary school. ► Only hard-of-hearing children can benefit in an inclusive class. The others; profound Deaf cant cope as most can’t speak on top of not hearing it’s a waste of time and resources to have them in an inclusive classroom. ► It is accepted that in Secondary and higher education interpreters can be utilized in an inclusive classroom. At that stage they have sign language skills to cope with an interpreter.
Globalization Globalization has brought many and profound changes in education, employment, agriculture, health etc. Employment for PWDS has become difficult as competition is stiff on the job market. It is difficult to be employed now as employers want to get maximum returns from employees. Among PWDS it is obvious that globalization is increasing poverty not alleviating. During post independence period there was an act that forced employers to employ a minimum of 2% of their Staff to consist PWDS.
Globalization cont… ► PWDS were employed as telephone operators, typists and other skilled job in factories. They were mostly employed in state corporations and the public sector. ► Now our economy is market oriented, all the parastatals have been privatized and the Law is not in force any longer. The result is most PWDS are unemployed and have become idle beggars. Some are doing small businesses to sustain their livelihood and their family. ► To address this problem, we have built a network for lobbying and advocacy, including Government and non Government institutions, media for sensitizing the society on the plight of PWD’S
CHAVITA IN POVERTY REDUCTION The Tanzania association of the Deaf (CHAVITA) is currently implementing a poverty reduction program in 5 regions of Tanzania. The program has been running for 2 years, this is the last year; if we will not get funds for its continuation.
In this program, we: ► Sensitize Government institutions and NGO’s to include the Deaf in their plans and activities for example The PRS Programs ► We have built an alliance with media personnel, now they are helping in raising awareness of the society on issues of disability. ► Working within the federation we are coordinating the “African Decade for People with Disabilities. Two seminars with parliament committees have been conducted, we are expecting good results as issues of disability will be discussed in Parliament. ► Campaign among communities to show that PWD’S can contribute to our national development. Through this we want to remove stigma and negative attitudes. ► Training women and youth in entrepreneurship, empowering them to access microfinance and training institutions. ► Lobby employers so that they employ Deaf people where there is an appropriate vacancy. ► Teaching sign language to vocational centers so that they can accept Deaf people in vocational training. ► Offer counseling to employers, and other institutions on how to co- exist with the Deaf, or where there is a communication problem.
Challenges ► Most of the Deaf have inferior education, making it hard to be employed. ► Change of Leaders/Managers in government institutions makes it necessary to start sensitizing the replacements. ► Employers feel the Deaf will increase cost: for interpreters during meetings and dialogue. ► The Deaf have an inferiority complex, thinking the society won’t accept them. ► The program is too short, 3 years. We won’t be able to reach all the Deaf in those regions. Follow up is also important but resources are not enough.
ACHIEVEMENTS ► We have built alliances with a wide range of Co-workers and stake holders. ► Awareness is now high among employers, but there is a need for more training to the Deaf as there is competition in the job market. ► In the project area about 25% do access microfinance, and about 10% do get employed as artisans or unskilled job ► At head office we have established a sign language and education committee where we work with ministry of education, the University of Dar es Salaam, the Institute of Education and National Examination Council. ► For the first time in history there is a Deaf girl studying at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, studying through an interpreter! ► A few Deaf people with qualifications have been employed as teachers. Now more Deaf people are applying for teacher training so they can go back to teach Deaf children. ► Capacity building programs have been undertaken in all regions especially in fund raising, Good Governance, HIV/AIDS and advocacy
General Challenges. ► DPO’S don’t have enough resources for running their offices and programs ► There is no official policy on full participation in decision making and planning of issues affecting them. ► Policies and plans pertaining to disability are not implemented but remain on papers only for example “The standard rules on equalization of opportunities for PWDS. ► PWD’S don’t know their rights, especially those in the villages where DPO’S cant reach them in their campaigns. ► Tanzania has yet to have representation for PWD’S in legislatives bodies like parliament and local councils. ► Many National programs and campaigns, e.g. HIV/AIDS are not accessible by PWD’S as they are made without consulting PWD’S
General Achievements. ► The Government is becoming more positive towards rights of people with Disabilities. Some local governments have disabled members in development committees. ► More PWD’S are graduating in universities and are employed. Some are Blind (one is a Lawyer) and physically handicapped. The Deaf and others are still behind. One Deaf person is a member of Budget tracking committee for EU Support (Cotonou agreement for PRSP) ► Deaf people have been trained to become VCT counselors (Voluntary counseling and testing) for HIV/AIDS. They now practicing under AMREF. (African Medical Research Foundation)
Inclusive Tanzania ► This is a program being Co-ordinate by ICD (Information Center on Disability) in collaboration with Light of the world (AUSTRIA) there is a steering committee and technical committees comprising of PWD’S and other stakeholders. ► The objective is to raise awareness and sensitize the public, Government and other institutions about the importance of using the inclusive model of school. This model can enable all children with disability go to school in their community. The program is lobbying and advocating for right of education for all. ► It is a 4-year program and as a pilot it covers 4 districts. 3 in Dar es Salaam and one in Mwanga – Kilimanjaro
Achievements ► In the program area some Schools have agreed to become model inclusive Schools. ► The teachers are motivated to learn how to teach/handle children with different disabilities. ► There is a good working relationship with the local governments involved.
Challenges ► Some PWD’S don’t accept inclusive classrooms as the best solution for own education needs ► The project duration 4 years is too short as this model is new to Tanzania. ► Special Education Teachers are very few compared to the need ► Instruction and environment still not in favor of PWDS ►
Conclusion ► The task of fighting for rights is a difficult and needs persistence. Without co-opting other groups, institutions, experts, professionals and policy makers we will never reach our objectives. Changing of attitudes and policies is a long journey. is a difficult and needs persistence. Without co-opting other groups, institutions, experts, professionals and policy makers we will never reach our objectives. Changing of attitudes and policies is a long journey. ► DPO’S have to work hand in hand with parents, Teachers, politicians and other stakeholders to promote the welfare of PWD’S, especially now that the UN convention has been signed and adopted. )