Presentation on theme: "Explanations of why people obey incl: Independent behaviour"— Presentation transcript:
1Explanations of why people obey incl: Independent behaviour Explanations of why people obey incl: Independent behaviour..resisting social influence Individual differences in independent behaviour Implications for social change.
2Validity of obedience research. Realism- Orne & Holland challenged the realism of the study, most people know to distrust ‘investigations’ thus distrust was the reason behind the shocking (sorry!) result.Generalisability- Hofling et al (1966), Rank & Jacobson (1975) both real life and realistic, both with opposing results.Obedience alibi-Eichman suggested he was doing his job-Milgram suggested this was as a result of the agentic shift However:Major Wilhelm Trapp offered soldiers to partake in other duties if they found the killing of Jews an uneasy duty.Proximity- Well…the killers walked their victims to their death. This should have produced empathy!Presence of allies- Several did not partake in the killings, but the majority did..in theory they should have said no!
3Review of learning. Outline three obedience studies Describe three evaluative pointsProvide a counter argument showing Milgrams work was high in validityPresent evidence that Milgrams research was low in validity.Describe two ethical issues and how Milgram attempted to deal with these issues.
4So why do people obey?(AO1)Gradual commitment- Having committed to one course of action i.e the shocks, it is difficult to say no to other requests aka the foot in the door effect.Agentic Shift-When an individual moves from an autonomous (independent, thinking for themselves to an agentic state where they now see themselves as acting on behalf of another).The role of Buffers- Cruise missile vs. the shooting an individual face to face. The immediacy of ones action is not present in the case of a cruise missile thus buffering allows for a willingness to obey.The less well known defence-Justification. By giving individuals a justification dissenters in Milgrams study were able to find a reason aka justification for their actions (the experiment must continue, he said it was real important).(AO1)
5So what do others say about Milgram? Soldiers carried out killings over months, even years Milgams Ps only experienced ½ hour.Ps were adv no harm can come to learner..soldiers knew they were killing people.Can Agency theory really explain this behaviour?(AO2)Mandel(1998) suggested the explanations given are over simplified.Goldhagen(1996) suggested prejudice & discrimination as the major cause of Holocaust rather than obedience.Milgram claimed his work offered situational explanationMandel suggested: To say Just obeying orders-distressing for those affected.Given the historical analysis of the event to suggest it was mere obedience is unjustified!(AO2)(AO2)
6Review of learning Identify and explain two reasons why people obey Give two criticisms of Milgrams explanationsUse your knowledge of why people obey to explain two examples of behaviour reported in the media that might be attributed to obedience.
7Independent behaviour..resisting social influence Resisting pressure to conformInsights from Aschs studies Having a ally makes them feel they are right (ISI)Moral considerations want to be liked (NSI) more likely to go with majority even in the case of cheating!Nonconformist personality usually unconcerned with social norms (Nail et al 2000). Intentionally choose to oppose often based on strong convictions.Resisting pressure to obeyInsights from Milgrams work When victim could be seen or had allies obedience lowered…thus having consequence of actions & social support increase resistance.Moral considerations Behaviour based on moral principles (Think Heinz!) were more defiant in experiment . Those at lower/restricted levels of morality more obedient.Social heroism Putting oneself at risk in pursuit of justice. Can lead to loss of status, credibility and even freedom..(think Nelson Mandela!)REMEMBER : INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR
8ATTRIBUTION & LOCUS OF CONTROL. Both successfulBoth display independent behavioursBoth have a positive attributional style.They resist influence/coercionThey have strong locus of control.= money!!= Status!!= SUCCESS!!ATTRIBUTION & LOCUS OF CONTROL.
9Implications for social change. Conformity- Terrorism is a form of social change through persistence & conformity to zeitgeist.Obedience- Disobedient models empower others (Civil rights, gay rights, votes for women!)Independent behaviour research- Dissent can be effective and although disobedient can effect positive change (Ghandi, Rosa Parks).
10Review of learningDescribe four implications for social change from research into social influence.For each implication outline a piece of supporting research.When answering questions on this area you should…..outline the relevant psychology then illustrate clearly how this has been associated with social change.