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1 People and Performance Management Insert date and location.

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1 1 People and Performance Management Insert date and location

2 2 Theory X or Theory Y ? Theory X People are naturally Idle Work as little as possible Lack ambition Dislike responsibility Prefer to be led Theory Y People enjoy work Prepared to expand effort Provided they think task is worthwhile Accept and often seek responsibility Like to exercise self-control

3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self - actualization Esteem Social and Affiliation Safety and Security Physiological The need to fulfill oneself by maximizing the use of one’s abilities, skills and potential The need for self-esteem and the esteem of others The need for friendship and interaction with others The need to feel safe and secure The need for food, drink, shelter, warmth and relief from pain


5 Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Motivation Factors – factors that lead to extreme satisfaction

6 How are staff motivated? The importance and limitations of money as a motivator The manager can create the right conditions for staff to be motivated more effectively Personal goals must be identified. They may include: A need to feel a sense of achievement Recognition for good work Advancement and promotion Participation in decision making Increased responsibility Freedom to plan and organize own work Challenge and personal growth

7 Everybody can be enthusiastic! Know your people – what will make them ‘walk the plank’? Provide what your people need in terms of direction/support It’s more than just the money Motivation

8 Activity: Brainstorm a list of 20 actions a manager could take to motivate their team Write your ideas on flip-chart for other groups to review Identify which ideas you could use. How are staff motivated?

9 Managers vs. Leaders Administers Reactive Follows procedures Co-ordinates Seeks discipline Controls Does Organises Adjusts to Change Accepts current practice Creates Proactive Sets the pace Drives Inspires loyalty Inspires Thinks Motivates Initiates change Challenges status quo

10 Tom Peters’ View Manager: Cop Referee Devil’s advocate Dispassionate analyst Pronouncer Leader: Enthusiast Cheerleader Nurturer of champions Coach Facilitator

11 What is management? Management is the efficient and effective use of resources to achieve objectives with and through the efforts of other people.

12 Leadership – a definition Inspiring others to follow your lead by creating a compelling vision of the future

13 Task Individual Needs Team Maintenance John Adair’s Action Centred Leadership

14 Leadership Style

15 Styles of Leadership: Tennenbaum & Schmidt (1957) Leader Centered Balanced StyleGroup Centered

16 Why performance management? What are the benefits for: The organisation? The managers? The job holder? What are some of the drawbacks or disadvantages of the review process

17 Define Roles and Responsibilities What does the employee do? Problem Solving and Employee Developmen t Set Expectations Results expected of the employee? How will they be attained and measured Review Results Manager and employee evaluate performance over the entire period and conduct review Coaching Performance Manager and employee monitor performance relative to expectations, and develop strategies on how performance can be maintained and improved The performance management cycles


19 Performance management process

20 Objectives? Some quotes: If you're not sure where you are going, you're liable to end up someplace else. (Robert F. Mager) Committing your goals to paper increases the likelihood of your achieving them by one thousand percent! (Brian Tracy) The longest journey begins with the first step. (Lao Tsu)

21 What is an objective? An important part of the job which makes a significant impact on achieving its overall purpose A concise, precise and measurable statement of intended action

22 SMARTER Objectives Specific Measurable Agreed Realistic Time-scaled Exciting Reviewed

23 To know To understand To appreciate To be familiar with To perceive To be aware of To think about To write To demonstrate To define To solve To identify To explain To select Avoid the abstractUse action verbs Articulating SMARTER Objectives

24 Three Part Objectives There are three parts to an objective: performance 1. The performance element conditions - 2. The conditions - refers to environment, equipment, etc standards 3. The standards of achievement required

25 Bias in Assessment  Halo – assessing highly because of one strength  Horns – assessing poorly because of one weakness  Recency – allowing events close to time of assessment to have unfair weighting  Strictness/Leniency – assessing consistently but too high or low

26  Safety – avoiding negative comments in order to avoid conflict  Attribution – failing to take account of the context in explaining others failures  Blindspot – failing to detect weaknesses as same weaknesses exist in the assessor  Stereotyping/Prejudice – allowing own beliefs to influence judgements Bias in Assessment

27 Avoiding Bias in an Assessment How far do I feel competent to judge my staff’s performance objectively? What evidence do I have to support my claim of objectivity? Could I be guilty of any bias in my judgement?

28 Kolb’s learning cycle: Diagram taken from:

29 How you scored (2) Very strong pref Strong pref Moderate pref Low prefVery low pref Activist Reflector Theorist Pragmatist

30 Activist Strengths Flexible and open minded Happy to have a go Happy to be exposed to new situations Optimistic about anything new and therefore unlikely to resist change.

31 Weaknesses Tendency to take the immediately obvious action without thinking Often takes unnecessary risks Tendency to do too much themselves and to hog the limelight Rush into action without sufficient preparation Get bored with implementation/consolidation Activist

32 Reflector Strengths Careful Thorough and methodical Thoughtful Good at listening to others and assimilating information

33 Reflector Weaknesses Tendency to hold back from direct participation Slow to make up their minds and reach a decision Tendency to be too cautious and not take enough risks Not assertive - they are not particularly forthcoming and have no ‘small talk’

34 Theorist Strengths Logical ‘vertical’ thinkers Rational and objective Good at asking probing questions Disciplined approach

35 Theorist Weaknesses Restricted in lateral thinking Low tolerance for uncertainty, disorder and ambiguity Intolerant of anything subjective or intuitive Full of “shoulds”, “oughts” and “musts”

36 Pragmatist Strengths Keen to test things out in practice Practical, down to earth, realistic Businesslike - gets straight to the point Technique oriented

37 Pragmatist Weaknesses Tendency to reject anything without an obvious application Not very interested in theory or basic principles Tendency to seize on the first expedient solution to a problem Impatient with waffle On balance, task oriented not people oriented.

38 Learning and Development Opportunities Coaching Delegation Project work Job exchanges Secondments Deputising Shadowing Training Courses Committee Membership Telephone Hot-line Writing Reports E-learning Making Presentations External Representation Product Champion National Forums Representative Representative on Professional Bodies. Self Study – Books/CDs Study visits Trade Exhibitions Vocational Qualification

39 GROW – a popular coaching model G – GOAL R – REALITY O – OPTIONS W – WRAP UP

40 Skills Practice Briefing Sheet Job Holder: Explain in detail a current work based problem Manager: Help the job holder explore the problem Identify a possible way forward Don’t impose a solution Summarise what has been said Observer: Keeps time Makes notes Gives feedback on the Manager’s Skills Time: 15/20 minutes for each discussion 5/10 minutes for feedback

41 Performance interviewing exercise Decide on your roles: Manager. Job Holder. Observer Prepare and conduct a Performance Management Interview Interview 15 minutes. Review 5 minutes Discuss your experiences/learning in plenary group

42 Difficult Reactions Interviewees who clam up Interviewees who get distressed Interviewees who argue Interviewees who WON’T participate.

43 Preparing for Fight/Flight Perception of threat: –100% perception –Threat to anything that affects ‘homeostasis’ Production of adrenaline & cortisol Stimulation to cope with threat Production of steroids to release fats and sugars for energy

44 Effects of Fight/Flight Heart rate increases Breathing faster Blood vessels constrict, blood gets thicker Blood pressure rises Digestion slows down Sweating Eyes dilate

45 Staying in Control - be aware of your thinking: Negative self-talk That isn’t fair; it wasn’t my fault They shouldn’t speak to me like that This is so unjust, it isn’t fair What a rotten job; I’m always getting angry customers Positive self-talk This person has, or feels they have a problem. I need to help them I need to help this person speak more calmly Angry people usually exaggerate. I can help him communicate clearly Helping angry people calm down is a great way of learning good interpersonal skills

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