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People and Performance Management

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1 People and Performance Management
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2 Theory X or Theory Y ? Theory X Theory Y People enjoy work
People are naturally Idle Work as little as possible Lack ambition Dislike responsibility Prefer to be led Theory Y People enjoy work Prepared to expand effort Provided they think task is worthwhile Accept and often seek responsibility Like to exercise self-control

3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self - actualization Esteem Social and Affiliation Safety and Security Physiological The need to fulfill oneself by maximizing the use of one’s abilities, skills and potential The need for self-esteem and the esteem of others The need for friendship and interaction with others The need to feel safe and secure The need for food, drink, shelter, warmth and relief from pain


5 Motivation Factors – factors that lead to extreme satisfaction
Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Advancement Growth

6 How are staff motivated?
The importance and limitations of money as a motivator The manager can create the right conditions for staff to be motivated more effectively Personal goals must be identified. They may include: A need to feel a sense of achievement Recognition for good work Advancement and promotion Participation in decision making Increased responsibility Freedom to plan and organize own work Challenge and personal growth

7 Motivation Everybody can be enthusiastic!
Know your people – what will make them ‘walk the plank’? Provide what your people need in terms of direction/support It’s more than just the money

8 How are staff motivated?
Activity: Brainstorm a list of 20 actions a manager could take to motivate their team Write your ideas on flip-chart for other groups to review Identify which ideas you could use.

9 Managers vs. Leaders Administers Reactive Follows procedures
Co-ordinates Seeks discipline Controls Does Organises Adjusts to Change Accepts current practice Creates Proactive Sets the pace Drives Inspires loyalty Inspires Thinks Motivates Initiates change Challenges status quo

10 Tom Peters’ View Manager: Leader: Cop Referee Devil’s advocate
Dispassionate analyst Pronouncer Leader: Enthusiast Cheerleader Nurturer of champions Coach Facilitator 10

11 What is management? Management is the efficient and effective use of resources to achieve objectives with and through the efforts of other people. 11

12 Leadership – a definition
Inspiring others to follow your lead by creating a compelling vision of the future 12

13 John Adair’s Action Centred Leadership
Task Team Maintenance Individual Needs 13

14 Leadership Style 14

15 Styles of Leadership: Tennenbaum & Schmidt (1957)
Leader Centered Balanced Style Group Centered 15

16 Why performance management?
What are the benefits for: The organisation? The managers? The job holder? What are some of the drawbacks or disadvantages of the review process 16

17 Problem Solving and Employee Development
The performance management cycles Define Roles and Responsibilities What does the employee do? Review Results Manager and employee evaluate performance over the entire period and conduct review Set Expectations Results expected of the employee? How will they be attained and measured Problem Solving and Employee Development Coaching Performance Manager and employee monitor performance relative to expectations, and develop strategies on how performance can be maintained and improved 17


19 Performance management process

20 Objectives? Some quotes:
If you're not sure where you are going, you're liable to end up someplace else. (Robert F. Mager) Committing your goals to paper increases the likelihood of your achieving them by one thousand percent! (Brian Tracy) The longest journey begins with the first step. (Lao Tsu) 20

21 What is an objective? An important part of the job which makes a significant impact on achieving its overall purpose A concise, precise and measurable statement of intended action 21

22 SMARTER Objectives Specific Measurable Agreed Realistic Time-scaled
Exciting Reviewed 22

23 Articulating SMARTER Objectives
Avoid the abstract Use action verbs To know To understand To appreciate To be familiar with To perceive To be aware of To think about To write To demonstrate To define To solve To identify To explain To select 23

24 Three Part Objectives There are three parts to an objective:
The performance element The conditions - refers to environment, equipment, etc The standards of achievement required 24

25 Bias in Assessment Halo – assessing highly because of one strength
Horns – assessing poorly because of one weakness Recency – allowing events close to time of assessment to have unfair weighting Strictness/Leniency – assessing consistently but too high or low 25

26 Bias in Assessment Safety – avoiding negative comments in order to avoid conflict Attribution – failing to take account of the context in explaining others failures Blindspot – failing to detect weaknesses as same weaknesses exist in the assessor Stereotyping/Prejudice – allowing own beliefs to influence judgements 26

27 Avoiding Bias in an Assessment
How far do I feel competent to judge my staff’s performance objectively? What evidence do I have to support my claim of objectivity? Could I be guilty of any bias in my judgement? 27

28 Kolb’s learning cycle:
Diagram taken from:

29 How you scored (2) Very strong pref Strong pref Moderate pref Low pref
Very low pref Activist 13-20 11-12 7-10 4-6 0-3 Reflector 18-20 15-17 12-14 9-11 0-8 Theorist 16-20 14-15 11-13 8-10 0-7 Pragmatist 17-20 15-16 29

30 Activist Strengths Flexible and open minded Happy to have a go
Happy to be exposed to new situations Optimistic about anything new and therefore unlikely to resist change. 30

31 Activist Weaknesses Tendency to take the immediately obvious action without thinking Often takes unnecessary risks Tendency to do too much themselves and to hog the limelight Rush into action without sufficient preparation Get bored with implementation/consolidation 31

32 Reflector Strengths Careful Thorough and methodical Thoughtful
Good at listening to others and assimilating information 32

33 Reflector Weaknesses Tendency to hold back from direct participation
Slow to make up their minds and reach a decision Tendency to be too cautious and not take enough risks Not assertive - they are not particularly forthcoming and have no ‘small talk’ 33

34 Theorist Strengths Logical ‘vertical’ thinkers Rational and objective
Good at asking probing questions Disciplined approach 34

35 Theorist Weaknesses Restricted in lateral thinking
Low tolerance for uncertainty, disorder and ambiguity Intolerant of anything subjective or intuitive Full of “shoulds”, “oughts” and “musts” 35

36 Pragmatist Strengths Keen to test things out in practice
Practical, down to earth, realistic Businesslike - gets straight to the point Technique oriented 36

37 Pragmatist Weaknesses
Tendency to reject anything without an obvious application Not very interested in theory or basic principles Tendency to seize on the first expedient solution to a problem Impatient with waffle On balance, task oriented not people oriented. 37

38 Learning and Development Opportunities
Coaching Delegation Project work Job exchanges Secondments Deputising Shadowing Training Courses Committee Membership Telephone Hot-line Writing Reports E-learning Making Presentations External Representation Product Champion National Forums Representative Representative on Professional Bodies. Self Study – Books/CDs Study visits Trade Exhibitions Vocational Qualification 38

39 GROW – a popular coaching model

40 Skills Practice Briefing Sheet
Job Holder: Explain in detail a current work based problem   Manager: Help the job holder explore the problem Identify a possible way forward Don’t impose a solution Summarise what has been said Observer: Keeps time Makes notes Gives feedback on the Manager’s Skills Time: /20 minutes for each discussion /10 minutes for feedback 40

41 Performance interviewing exercise
Decide on your roles: Manager. Job Holder. Observer Prepare and conduct a Performance Management Interview Interview 15 minutes. Review 5 minutes Discuss your experiences/learning in plenary group 41

42 Difficult Reactions Interviewees who clam up
Interviewees who get distressed Interviewees who argue Interviewees who WON’T participate. 42

43 Preparing for Fight/Flight
Perception of threat: 100% perception Threat to anything that affects ‘homeostasis’ Production of adrenaline & cortisol Stimulation to cope with threat Production of steroids to release fats and sugars for energy

44 Effects of Fight/Flight
Heart rate increases Breathing faster Blood vessels constrict, blood gets thicker Blood pressure rises Digestion slows down Sweating Eyes dilate

45 Staying in Control - be aware of your thinking:
Negative self-talk That isn’t fair; it wasn’t my fault They shouldn’t speak to me like that This is so unjust, it isn’t fair What a rotten job; I’m always getting angry customers Positive self-talk This person has, or feels they have a problem. I need to help them I need to help this person speak more calmly Angry people usually exaggerate. I can help him communicate clearly Helping angry people calm down is a great way of learning good interpersonal skills

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