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Drafting your Dream-Team

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1 Drafting your Dream-Team
Selecting the best people and managing people working as individuals and in groups

2 Where we are… we know how to define what the project is about (scope planning) we know how to assess what the risks are (risk management) [… and actually explained how to deal with them during the project] … today we will look at issues related to selecting the “best people in town” (here we are between scoping and planning) and issues related to managing people (analogously to risk management, we will dig a little deeper and explore topics related to managing people during project execution and monitoring)

3 Objectives The basics How to draft your team: some of the issues involved in selecting and retaining staff To describe factors that influence individual motivation Key issues of team working including composition, cohesiveness and communications People capability maturity model (P-CMM) - a framework for enhancing the capabilities of people in an organisation

4 People in the process People are an organisation’s most important assets. The tasks of a manager are essentially people-oriented. Unless there is some understanding of people, management will be unsuccessful. Poor people management is an important contributor to project failure.

5 People management factors
Consistency Team members should all be treated in a comparable way without favourites or discrimination. Respect Different team members have different skills and these differences should be respected. Inclusion Involve all team members and make sure that people’s views are considered. Honesty You should always be honest about what is going well and what is going badly in a project.

6 Selecting staff An important project management task is defining the team requirements for your project and selecting your team.

7 Staff Requirements Information on defining team requirements depends on various factors among which: Organizational Are there any constraint in the organization related to acquiring the staff for the project What departments will be involved? Technical What are the technical skills needed to achieve the project goals? Interpersonal What kind of relationships exists among the candidates? Language differences? Supplier/customer relationships? Logistical We are the people located? Political Individual goals and agendas of the stakeholders?

8 Staff Selection Information on selecting team members comes from:
Information provided by the candidates. Information gained by interviewing and talking with candidates. Recommendations and comments from other people who know or who have worked with the candidates.

9 Staff selection factors 1
Application domain experience. For a project to develop a successful system, the developers must understand the application domain. It is essential that some members of a development team have some domain experience. Platform experience. This may be significant if low-level programming is involved. Otherwise, not usually a critical attribute. Programming language experience. This is normally only significant for short duration projects where there is not enough time to learn a new language. While learning a language itself is not difficult, it takes several months to become proficient in using the associated libraries and components. Problem solving ability. This is very important for software engineers who constantly have to solve technical problems. However, it is almost impossible to judge without knowing the work of the potential team member.

10 Staff selection factors 2
Educational background. This may provide an indicator of the basic fundamentals that the candidate should know and of their ability to learn. This factor becomes increasingly irrelevant as engineers gain experience across a range of projects. Communication Ability. This is important because of the need for project staff to communicate orally and in writing with other engineers, managers and customers. Adaptability. Adaptability may be judged by looking at the different types of experience that candidates have had. This is an important attribute as it indicates an ability to learn. Attitude. Project staff should have a positive attitude to their work and should be willing to learn new skills. This is an important attribute but often very difficult to assess. Personality. This is an important attribute but difficult to assess. Candidates must be reasonably compatible with other team members. No particular type of personality is more or less suited to software engineering.

11 … and some constraints Availability Interests Costs
is the resource available when needed by the project? Interests Is there a real interest in working in the project? Costs How much will each person be paid?

12 General Considerations
(When selecting staff from within the company) Managers in a company may not wish to lose people to a new project. “Hard” skills are in short supply. -> Part-time involvement may be inevitable. Recent graduates may not have specific skills but may be a way of introducing new skills. -> Technical proficiency may be less important than social skills.

13 Motivating people An important role of a manager is to motivate the people working on a project. Motivation is a complex issue but it appears that their are different types of motivation based on: Basic needs (e.g. food, sleep, etc.); Personal needs (e.g. respect, self-esteem); Social needs (e.g. to be accepted as part of a group).

14 Theory X Taylor 1911 Human beings have little interest in working and they will try to avoid it, if possible The majority of people is not ambitious and not interested in taking responsibilities Human beings are poorly creative in solving organizational problems Motivation is mainly related to satisfying physical/security needs

15 Theory Y Mc Gregor 1960 Working is a natural activity, like playing and resting People are, on average, very creative Motivation is often self-realization and self-esteem

16 Theory Z Ouchi 1981 (mix of american and japanese management styles)
To keep people motivated they have to have clear goals Motivation is essential for the success of any industrial activity: management must contribute to keep people motivated Motivated people can make mistakes: management must correct incorrect behaviors and ensuring people actions are in accordance with the strategies of the company High efficiency can be achieved where tasks are highly standardised People’s goal must change with working conditions and companies’ needs

17 Theory W Boehm (1988) (Have all stakeholders win)
Comprehend what each person means by “winning” (e.g. promotions are not always the best expected reward) Create the right expectations in each project (e.g. avoid creating expectations that are too high given budget and constraints) Define and clearly identify tasks based on each person capability

18 Summarizing… Theory Management Style Process Critical Aspect
X (Taylor 1911) Scientific “Waterfall” Lack of creativity and initiative Y (Mc Gregor 1960) Motivation based Creativity and initiative Conflicts and lack of coordination Z (Ouchi 1981) Japanese Corporate Culture Relationships among different companies W (Boehm 1988) Negotiation based Maximise satisfaction Lack of corporate strategy

19 Human needs hierarchy (Maslow, 1954)
Self-realisation Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

20 Need satisfaction Social Esteem Self-realization
Provide communal facilities; Allow informal communications. Esteem Recognition of achievements; Appropriate rewards. Self-realization Training - people want to learn more; Responsibility.

21 Situational Leadership
There is no single management style: it depends upon the managed people (Blanchard and Hersey) the leadership style of the leader must correspond to the development level of the follower - and it's the leader who adapts. Four styles and four commitments: S1. Directing (high guidance and little backing/support): people with low maturity and low commitment S2. Coaching (high guidance and high backing/support): people mature but not yet independent S3. Supporting (little guidance and high backing/support): people insecure (but ready to take responsibilities) S4. Delegation (little guidance and little backing/support): mature and autonomous people

22 Situational Leadership
High S3 S2 example Supportive Behavior S3 S1 Low High Directive Behavior

23 Situational Leadership Examples
a new person joins your team and you're asked to help them through the first few days. You sit them in front of a PC, show them a pile of invoices that need to be processed today, and push off to a meeting. They're at level D1, and you've adopted S4. Everyone loses because the new person feels helpless and demotivated, and you don't get the invoices processed. you're handing over to an experienced colleague before you leave for a holiday. You've listed all the tasks that need to be done, and a set of instructions on how to carry out each one. They're at level D4, and you've adopted S1. The work will probably get done, but not the way you expected, and your colleague despises you for treating him like an idiot. By adopting the right style to suit the follower's development level, work gets done, relationships are built up, and most importantly, the follower's development level will rise to D4, to everyone's benefit.

24 Personality types There are several dimensions to take into account!
An approach is that of taking into account different personality types: Task-oriented. The motivation for doing the work is the work itself; Self-oriented. The work is a means to an end which is the achievement of individual goals - e.g. to get rich, to play tennis, to travel etc.; Interaction-oriented. The principal motivation is the presence and actions of co-workers. People go to work because they like to go to work.

25 Motivation balance Individual motivations are made up of elements of each class. The balance can change depending on personal circumstances and external events. However, people are not just motivated by personal factors but also by being part of a group and culture. People go to work because they are motivated by the people that they work with.

26 Managing groups Most software engineering is a group activity
The development schedule for most non-trivial software projects is such that they cannot be completed by one person working alone. Group interaction is a key determinant of group performance. Flexibility in group composition is limited Managers must do the best they can with available people.

27 Factors influencing group working
Group composition. Group cohesiveness. Group communications. Group organisation.

28 Group composition Group composed of members who share the same motivation can be problematic Task-oriented - everyone wants to do their own thing; Self-oriented - everyone wants to be the boss; Interaction-oriented - too much chatting, not enough work. An effective group has a balance of all types. This can be difficult to achieve software engineers are often task-oriented. Interaction-oriented people are very important as they can detect and defuse tensions that arise.

29 Group Composition Don’t be tempted and form the team with people all like you! (simpler than being challenged all the time… but less functional and rewarding on the longer term)

30 Group leadership Leadership depends on respect not titular status.
There may be both a technical and an administrative leader. Democratic leadership is more effective that autocratic leadership.

31 Group cohesiveness In a cohesive group, members consider the group to be more important than any individual in it. The advantages of a cohesive group are: Group quality standards can be developed; Group members work closely together so inhibitions caused by ignorance are reduced; Team members learn from each other and get to know each other’s work; Egoless programming where members strive to improve each other’s programs can be practised.

32 Developing cohesiveness
Cohesiveness is influenced by factors such as the organisational culture and the personalities in the group. Cohesiveness can be encouraged through Social events; Developing a group identity and territory; Explicit team-building activities. Openness with information is a simple way of ensuring all group members feel part of the group.

33 Group loyalties Group members tend to be loyal to cohesive groups.
'Groupthink' is preservation of group irrespective of technical or organizational considerations. Management should act positively to avoid groupthink by forcing external involvement with each group.

34 Group communications Good communications are essential for effective group working. Information must be exchanged on the status of work, design decisions and changes to previous decisions. Good communications also strengthens group cohesion as it promotes understanding.

35 Group communications Group size
The larger the group, the harder it is for people to communicate with other group members. Group structure Communication is better in informally structured groups than in hierarchically structured groups. Group composition Communication is better when there are different personality types in a group and when groups are mixed rather than single sex. The physical work environment Good workplace organisation can help encourage communications.

36 Structuring Communication
Types of meetings: Verification Decision-taking Brainstorming To be successful: Define clearly goals and attendees Define an agenda Keep the meeting focused Define duration and make sure it is kept Define people responsible for executing actions decided at the meeting

37 Meeting Minutes Structure
Coordinates: Date and location Attendees Invited people that did not attend the meeting Agenda Description of the meeting Actions: ID, Action, Due Date, Responsible, WP Reference

38 Group Structures Democratic/Informal Groups Chief Programmer Teams
Decentralized groups Virtual Teams

39 Informal groups Good for small teams (<= 10 people)
The group acts as a whole and comes to a consensus on decisions affecting the system. Work is discussed by the group as a whole and tasks are allocated according to ability and experience. Leadership is taken in turn by each member The group leader serves as the external interface of the group but does not allocate specific work items. This approach is successful for groups where all members are experienced and competent.

40 Extreme programming groups
Extreme programming groups are variants of an informal, democratic organisation. In extreme programming groups, some ‘management’ decisions are devolved to group members. Programmers work in pairs and take a collective responsibility for code that is developed.

41 Chief programmer teams
Consist of a kernel of specialists helped by others added to the project as required. Three roles: Chief Programmer: responsible of the project. Coordinates work and is responsible of development Assistant programmer: helps chief programmer (and substitutes her/him if chief programmer is assigned somewhere else) Librarian: responsible of handling all the results of the project. The motivation behind their development is the wide difference in ability in different programmers. Chief programmer teams provide a supporting environment for very able programmers to be responsible for most of the system development.

42 Problems This chief programmer approach, in different forms, has been successful in some settings. However, it suffers from a number of problems Talented designers and programmers are hard to find. Without exceptional people in these roles, the approach will fail; Other group members may resent the chief programmer taking the credit for success so may deliberately undermine his/her role; There is a high project risk as the project will fail if both the chief and deputy programmer are unavailable. The organisational structures and grades in a company may be unable to accommodate this type of group.

43 Decentralised Control Groups
Two-level hierarchy: PM coordinates senior programmers Senior programmers coordinate junior programmers Tasks assigned either: By module to be developed By function (implementation/testing/…)

44 Virtual Teams Groups of people with shared goal, who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face Made possible by new communication media Opportunities: It is possible to define a team with resources geographically located in different areas Special expertise can be added regardless of the physical location Home-working Teams composed by people with different shifts Include people with mobility handicaps Move forward with projects that would have been ignored for travel expenses

45 Virtual Teams (II) Some examples: Open source development
European projects

46 Group organisation Small software engineering groups are usually organised informally without a rigid structure Democratic groups For large projects, there may be a hierarchical structure where different groups are responsible for different sub-projects. Chief Programmer Teams Decentralized Control

47 Working environments The physical workplace provision has an important effect on individual productivity and satisfaction Comfort; Privacy; Facilities. Health and safety considerations must be taken into account Lighting; Heating; Furniture.

48 Environmental factors
Privacy - each engineer requires an area for uninterrupted work. Outside awareness - people prefer to work in natural light. Personalization - individuals adopt different working practices and like to organize their environment in different ways.

49 Workspace organisation
Workspaces should provide private spaces where people can work without interruption Providing individual offices for staff has been shown to increase productivity. However, teams working together also require spaces where formal and informal meetings can be held.

50 Office layout

51 How do we organize and use all this information to manage a project?
… so what!? How do we organize and use all this information to manage a project?

52 HR Management HR related activities in project management:
Human Resource Planning Identification of project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships, staff requirements, and staff creation Project Team acquisition Obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project Project Team development Improving competences and interaction of team members Project Team management Tracking each member performances, providing feedback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance

53 Human Resource Planning
Goal: define project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships, staff requirements, and staff creation Techniques: Hierarchical type charts Organizational breakdown structure: mix of organizational chart and activities. Resource breakdown structure: breakdown of the project according to resource types Matrix based charts RAM (Responsibility Assignment Matrix) illustrates connections between work that needs to be done and resources RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consult, Inform) is a special type of RAM Text-oriented formats Text-oriented documents (usually adhering to some standards) can be used to describe roles and responsibilities Hard skills/soft skills Help identify needs and roles -> Output: roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, staffing management plan

54 Organizational Breakdown Structure

55 Resource Breakdown Structure

56 Text-based formats Role: … Responsibilities: … Authority: …

57 RACI Matrix Joe Tim Sandra Lena Bart Homer Lisa Requirements R A C I Analysis Design Responsibility - People who are expected to actively participate in the activity and contribute to the best of their abilities. Accountability - The person who is ultimately responsible for the results. Consultation - People who either have a particular expertise they can contribute to specific decisions (i.e., their advice will be sought) or who must be consulted for some other reason before a final decision is made (e.g., finance is often in a consulting role for projects). Inform - People who are affected by the activity/decision and therefore need to be kept informed, but do not participate in the effort. (They are notified after the final decisions are made.)

58 Skill Matrices Can help you build the RACI matrix
Task Skill Required Level Requirements (analysis and) domain expertise in avionics H What people do I really need? What are their hard skills? Person Hard Skills Tim Java guru Laura M68000 programming Person Thinking Preference Communication Style Organization Skills Process Skills Tim Creative, big picture Open Poor Good Laura Technical, Detailed Introvert Very good What are their soft skills?

59 Project Team Acquisition
Goal: Obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project Techniques Pre-assignment: people assigned to a project may be known in advance (for instance because promised, or if special skills are required) Negotiation: on many projects staff is negotiated with other manager in the organization (functional managers, other project managers, …) Acquisition: if in-house staff is lacking (see previous slides) Virtual team creation: in any other situation -> Output: resources and assignments!

60 Project Team Development
Goal: Improving competences and interaction of team members Techniques: General management skills: interpersonal skills (soft skills) empathy, influence, creativity, group facilitation Training Team building activities: range from meeting, informal lunches and dinners, to professionally built activities Ground rules: define clear expectations about acceptable behaviour by project team member Co-location: either temporary or for the whole duration of the project (e.g. “war” rooms) Recognition and reward: recognizing and rewarding desirable behaviors. -> Output: improvement in skills, competences, reduced staff turnover

61 Project Team Management
Goal: Tracking each member performances, providing feedback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance Techniques: Observation and conversation Project Performance appraisals Conflict management Team ground rules, group norms, and solid pm practices such as communication planning, and role definition When dealt with can increase creativity and better decision making Management is usually from informal to formal -> Output: Issue Log

62 The People Capability Maturity Model
Intended as a framework for managing the development of people involved in software development.

63 P-CMM Objectives To improve organisational capability by improving workforce capability. To ensure that software development capability is not reliant on a small number of individuals. To align the motivation of individuals with that of the organisation. To help retain people with critical knowledge and skills.

64 P-CMM levels Five stage model Initial. Ad-hoc people management
Repeatable. Policies developed for capability improvement Defined. Standardised people management across the organisation Managed. Quantitative goals for people management in place Optimizing. Continuous focus on improving individual competence and workforce motivation

65 The people capability model

66 Key points Staff selection factors include education, domain experience, adaptability and personality. People are motivated by interaction, recognition and personal development. Software development groups should be small and cohesive. Leaders should be competent and should have administrative and technical support.

67 Key points Group communications are affected by status, group size, group organisation and the gender and personality composition of the group Working environments should include spaces for interaction and spaces for private working. The People Capability Maturity Model is a framework for improving the capabilities of staff in an organisation.

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