Presentation on theme: "Word learning in first and second languages. Do dogs learn words? Teaching a dog its name Teaching it to sit Teaching it to come when called."— Presentation transcript:
Word learning in first and second languages
Do dogs learn words? Teaching a dog its name Teaching it to sit Teaching it to come when called
3 principles of word learning Mutual exclusivity principle Whole object principle Taxanomic principle
Mutual exclusivity principle One object has only one name
Whole object principle A label is for a whole object not for a part of the object
Shape bias Objects with the same shape have the same name
Non-solid objects Tend to be labeled by material not shape
Taxanomic principle Objects are related through taxonomies not themes For example: dog, cat, dog food. Dog and cat are connected more than dog and dog food
In “The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and Why” Richard Nisbett says…..
Which two are connected?
Describe what you see
Shared attention Children learn to attend to (pay attention to) where the adult is looking
Very early childhood one to one (face to face) relationships for example mother-child
From 9-12 months Triadic relationships are possible For example mother-child-ball This requires shared attention the ability to understand what someone else is looking at for example
Evidence is now accumulating to show that it is a caregiver’s responsiveness to a child, rather than the adult’s direction or external scaffolding of the interaction that determines the interactions between them (L. Bloom, 1993, 1998; Bloom, Margulis, Tinker, and Fujita, 1996).
In simple English: it is not the mother telling the child to look at something and then naming it that helps the child learn words.
18 - 24 months: word learning explosion Why does this happen?
It is the mother seeing what the child is looking at and then naming the object that helps the child learn words.
What about second language learning?
L1-L2 Mediation Hypothesis (Jiang 2000)
morphologyphonology semanticsyntax The L1 Lexical Entry lexeme lemma (adapted from Levelt 1989)
Lexical Development in L2 (adapted from Jiang 2000) L1 syntax L2 phon/orth L2 syntax L2 morphology L2 semantics L2 phon/orth L1 semantics L2 phon/orth
Intermediate Learners L1 word L2 word look for a direct one to one mapping in the L1
Advanced Learners concept L2 word do not look for a direct one to one mapping in the L1
Word Frequency How many words a student knows affects how much of a text (or conversation) they understand and how many new words they learn from the text.
Word Coverage and Word Frequency for Everyday Use Word frequencyText coverage Most frequent 100072% 1001-2000 most frequent80% 2001-3000 most frequent84%
Word Coverage and Word Frequency for Academic Texts Word frequencyText coverage Most frequent 1000 71% 10001-2000 most frequent75% Academic word list (570)85%
Word Coverage If a student knows 95% of the words in a text, they have a good chance to learn new words. If a student knows 98% or more of the words in a text, then fluency practice can be successful.
So How Do We Do This? Assess students' word knowledge (this will be explained next week). Use The Compleat Lexical Tutor to analyze the text or activity. http://www.lextutor.ca/ Modify the text or activity for word learning or fluency as needed.