Presentation on theme: "Child Development from 6 - 12 Elizabeth Ross Hubbell Montessori Education Center of the Rockies Summer 2003."— Presentation transcript:
Child Development from Elizabeth Ross Hubbell Montessori Education Center of the Rockies Summer 2003
In this course, we will cover: Part I: Early pioneers in Childhood Development, including Maria MontessoriPart I Part II: Aspects of Development, including physical, social, emotional, cognitive/ intellectual, and moral developmentPart II Part III: Theories of Development and Learning and the people behind these theoriesPart III Part IV: Assessment and Measurement of Status and ProgressPart IV Part V: Student presentationsPart V
Early Pioneers in Childhood Development Studies Rousseau Pestalozzi Froebel Itard Seguin Freud Montessori Piaget
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) “Man is born free but is everywhere in chains.” Lived a rather difficult life Humans are born as innocent, good beings, but are corrupted by an “artificial” society. Learning moral and practical lessons should come before scholastic learning.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi ( ) Picked up where Rousseau left off with the idea of freedom in education. Children should be free to pursue interests and come to their own conclusions. Actually put the theories into practice in his classrooms.
Friedrich Froebel (1782 – 1852) Created the first “garden of children” “Stimulating voluntary activity” best for pre-school education Created “gifts” or manipulatives for learning
Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard ( ) Was a great influence to Seguin who later taught Montessori Made many breakthroughs in education of deaf and mentally retarded Taught “The Wild Boy of Aveyron” Entrance courtyard, Institute for the Deaf, Paris
Edouard Seguin (1812 – 1880) Student of Itard Greatly influenced Montessori in her quest to help “retarded” children Searched for muscular exercises to help with mental and behavioral deficiencies
Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) Was forming his theories of psychoanalysis at the same time Montessori was working on her theories Wrote letter to Montessori to comment on mutual interests in child’s psyche
Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) Adopted many of her ideas of the ability to educate the mentally retarded from Itard Was influence by Seguin to create the “Montessori Method,” relating knowledge to the senses Photo courtesy of NAMTA
Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) Ideas became internationally acclaimed Woodrow Wilson’s daughter became secretary in a Montessori school sponsored by Alexander Graham Bell In 1914, William Kilpatrick published book that criticized Montessori’s “out-dated” research and the Montessori movement temporarily died in the US Photo courtesy of NAMTA
Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) “I am a constructivist. I think that knowledge is a matter of constant, new construction, by its interaction with reality, and that it is not pre-formed. There is a continuous creativity.”
Activity Besides Maria Montessori, who do you think had the biggest impact on the history of educating children? Be able to give one or two reasons for your answer.
Aspects of Development Physical Social Emotional Cognitive/Intellectual Moral
Physical Development in Progress goes from “cherubic” to “messy” to almost a pre-teen look Pincer grip refines Hand-eye coordination improves Gait becomes smoother May see some signs of adolescence by 3 rd year Rhythm & grace develops (clapping routines)
Physical Development in Pre-adolescence Gross motor skills, athletic skills, and grace go through growing periods Fine motor skills become refined Females often taller and physically more mature than males
Social Development in “Best Friends” Often with same gender Fairness very “black & white” Feelings easily hurt Rarely will challenge an adult Social manipulation sometimes takes place
Social Development in Peers become extremely important Friendships can cross gender lines Social/emotional issues will often overshadow academic agenda Higher level of social values
Emotional Development in Generally very happy Feelings easily hurt in 1 st year, gradually subsides Rely heavily on adults for feelings of safety Impulsive Instilling confidence is key
Emotional Development in Emotional lull of 3 rd – early 4 th grade begins to give way to pre-adolescence by 4 th - 5 th Important that confidence has been instilled up to this point
Cognitive/Intellectual Development in Concrete to abstract C-V-C to comprehension and fluidity in reading Begin to see relationships and patterns Integration of subjects not usually automatic
Cognitive/Intellectual Development in More work is abstract than in Can make connections across the curriculum Reading is becoming a skill rather than a subject Practical uses of skills and concepts learned (a+b) 2 = (a+b)(a+b)= a 2 + 2ab + b 2
Moral Development in Few grey areas in “right” vs. “wrong” Feelings and impulses still sometimes overcome knowledge of what is right Pleasing adults & peers often drives actions Will remind adults of rules set Enjoy mediating
Moral Development in Erikson’s “Industry vs. Inferiority” stage Kohlberg’s “Authority Orientation” and perhaps beginnings of “Social Contract Orientation” Enjoy making own rules, consequences, peer judicial situations, classroom management Student council, debate teams, Model UN
Take a break!
Theories of Development and Learning Pavlov Skinner Piaget Bruner Erikson Kohlberg Vygotsky Maslow Bloom Gardner Hirsch
Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) Left seminary after reading Darwin’s work Famous study of feeding dogs was originally a study of digestion “Conditioned reflex” Behaviorist theory of psychology ov-bio.html
If a child lives with... by Dorothy Law Nolte If a child lives with criticism he learns to condemn. If a child lives with hostility he learns to fight. If a child lives with fear he learns to be apprehensive. If a child lives with honesty he learns what truth is. If a child lives with fairness he learns justice. If a child lives with security he learns to trust in himself and others. If a child lives with jealousy he learns to feel guilt. If a child lives with tolerance he learns to be patient. If a child lives with encouragement he learns to be confident. If a child lives with praise he learns to be appreciative. If a child lives with friendliness he learns the world is a nice place in which to live.
B. F. Skinner ( ) Familiarized self with Pavlov and Watson while working at bookstore Operant behavior Programmed instruction Tried to create teaching machine
Piaget ( ) General Periods of Development Period 1: Sensori-Motor Intelligence (ages 0 – 2) Period 2: Preoperational Thought (ages 2 – 7) Period 3: Concrete Operations (ages 7 – 11) Period 4: Formal Operations (ages 11 to adulthood)
Jerome Bruner ( ) Greatly impacted curriculum development Researched cultural impact upon an individual’s growth and learning (propaganda, WW II) Proponent of giving children opportunities to develop interests and hypotheses Founded Head Start "I'm interested in the various institutional forms by which culture is passed on... My preferred method of work in both instances is the anthropological-interpretive."
Erik Erikson ( ) Believed that our personalities continued to develop throughout our lives, contradicting Freud’s theory that our personalities were in tact by age five. 8 psychosocial stages we go through in life ory/erikson.htm
Erikson’s Eight Psychosocial Stages 1.Trust vs. Mistrust (birth – 1 year) 2.Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (ages 2 – 3) 3.Initiative vs. Guilt (ages 4 – 5) 4.Industry vs. Inferiority (age 6 – puberty) 5.Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) 6.Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) 7.Generativity vs. Stagnation (adulthood) 8.Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
Lawrence Kohlberg ( ) ralEd/gifs/kohlberg.gif
Lev Vygotsky ( ) Zone of Proximal Development Importance of play in child’s development Three stages of speech development –Social Speech –Egocentric Speech –Inner Speech estpraceduc.org/people/LevVygotsky.html
Abraham Maslow ( ) Studied under Harry Harlow, famous for work with rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior Formed theory that certain needs must be met before one can focus on other things: “Hierarchy of Needs”
Abraham Maslow ( ) Chart courtesy of Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
Benjamin Bloom (1913 – 1999) Created Bloom’s Taxonomy, a categorized level of abstraction used by educators web.odu.edu/webroot/instr/ED/ llschult.nsf/pages/blooms tml
Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to infer analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain
Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
Howard Gardner ( ) Theory of Multiple Intelligences 1.Visual / Spatial Intelligence 2.Musical Intelligence 3.Verbal Intelligence 4.Logical/Mathematical Intelligence 5.Interpersonal Intelligence 6.Intrapersonal Intelligence 7.Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence
E. D. Hirsch ( ) “Core Knowledge” program What Your Kindergartener Needs to Know Discovery learning takes time away from children learning “the basics” Presenting all children with the same information will promote excellence and fairness in early education
For further study: Due to time constraints, these individuals were not covered, but have made great contributions to the science of educating children Dewey Gesell Werner Watson Locke Bandura Jung Chomsky
Assessment and Measurement of Status and Progress Types of Assessment: –IQ Tests –Norm-referenced tests –Standards-based tests including CSAP –Authentic assessment –Rubrics –Project-based or research-based assessment
IQ Tests First created by Binet (Stanford-Binet) Weschler IQ: fixed or malleable? Different cultural ideas of intelligence
Norm Reference Tests Compares scores to “norm group” Assumes bell curve as ideal One question can throw off Intentionally make questions for people to miss (lower socio-economic at disadvantage, worded to trick students) Test the curriculum ERBs, Iowa Test of Basic Skills
Standardized vs. Standards-Based Tests Standardized tests operate along the bell curve If lowest score was 80, that receives an “F” If highest score was 40, that received an “A” Standards-based tests have teachers teach certain standards No surprises to students Grading criteria set in advanced (rubrics) CSAP is standards- based
Authentic Assessment Students demonstrate skills and knowledge Science experiments Research Write stories Make materials Give presentations Give lessons Solve real-life problems Portfolios
Rubrics Lists specific criteria for project Numbered (excellent, acceptable, needs improvement) Are given when project is assigned Progress reports: –Independently –With materials –Working on concept Example
Project-based or Research-based Assessment Children do not think of these as “tests” Are culminating activities following a unit of study Technology can play a large role Exciting, meaningful assessment
"An interesting piece of work, freely chosen, which has the virtue of inducing concentration rather than fatigue, adds to the child's energies and mental capacities, and leads him to self-mastery." - Maria Montessori
Student Presentations One page outline –ideas of a major theorist with regard to children ages 6-12 –or a description of any aspect of assessment and testing List 3 published primary or secondary references which are the sources of the information. Present the outline to the class and provide copies for all class members. (40 pts)