4Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage Age 3 - 5 The child adopts same sex parent characteristics due toThe Oedipus conflict (boys)The Electra conflict (girls)
5SUMMARYOF OEDIPUS CONFLICT Child has unconscious sexual desire for opposite sex parentFears same sex parent and may wish them out of the wayFears castration (if boy)Wishes for penis (if girl)Adopts characteristics of same sex parent to prevent castration
6In the PHALLIC stage….Failure to develop normal and resolve the Oedipus / Electra conflict leads to “fixation” at phallic stage.Adult symptoms of fixation at phallic stage include: homosexuality, curiosity, exhibitionism
7Little Hans This is the ONLY case study of a child undertaken by Freud Freud’s ideas about infant sexuality were based on his work with adult women(and his own self analysis)
8Little Hans The CASE STUDY (psychoanalytic therapy) was carried out by correspondence and interviews with Hans’ fatherFirst reports when Hans was three
9TERMS USED WIDDLER = PENIS WIDDLING = PEEING LUMF = FAECES (POO) COAXING = CUDDLINGNONSENSE = FEAR OF HORSESCASTRATION = HAVING PENIS CUT OFF
10Little Hans Hans was interested in his ‘widdler’ His mother told him “not to play with your widdler .. or else she would call the doctor to come and cut it off”Hans’ mother threatened to leave him
11Little HansHans’ baby sister was born - he was told the stork had brought the babyEarly jealousy of sisterContinued interest in his widdler, according to father his dreams and fantasies were of widdlers and of ‘widdling’
12Little Hans Father wrote to Freud “Hans is afraid of horses, afraid a horse will bite him in the street, this fear seems to be connected to his being frightened by a large penis”
13Little HansFreud & father try to make sense of what Hans was experiencing and to resolve his phobia of horsesFreud noted that Hans’ fear of horses developed after the child had anxiety dreams of losing his mother AND after he has been warned not to play with his widdler
14Little HansHans dreams about a giraffe were explained as ‘fear of big penis’(long neck = big penis)Freud theorised that Hans’ fear of horses was really fear of fatherHorse = symbolic for father
15TIMELINEVISIT THE TIMELINE TO SEE THE MILESTONES IN LITTLE HANS LIFE, AND FREUDS EXPLANATION FOR THESE.CONSIDER WHAT OTHER EXPLANATIONS THER COULD BE
16Little Hans Little Hans phobia of horses was really fear of father Freud’s conclusionLittle Hans phobia of horses was really fear of father(castration fear) during resolution of the Oedipus ConflictFear resolved when Oedipus conflict resolved
17Little Hans: Criticisms Hans is analysed by the father who is emotionally involvedFather is biased as he already admires the work of Freud and may have believed that the boy was in the Oedipal (phallic stage)Father ‘put words into Hans’ mouth’
18Little Hans: Criticisms The case study seems to be bothscientific evidence and treatment(action research)These should be separated becauseIf we ‘treat’ what we are investigating how can it remain unchanged to be investigated?
19Little Hans: Criticisms BUTFreud did deal with real people & their problemsNot neat & tidy but has“ecological validity”
20Little Hans: Criticisms AND unlike adult ‘case studies’No searching through ‘past memory’ Hans father simply asked Hans!
21Little Hans: Other explanations Perhaps Hans dreams about widdlers & widdling were caused by his fear that his mother might cut off his penis?But - Freud’s theory was that mothers were the primary love object of little boys, (not that Mother could be feared)
22Little Hans: other explanations Learning TheoryHans had seen a horse fall down in the street(equivalent to road accident today)He ‘learned to be’ afraid of horses!
23Little Hans - Ethical issues Treatment not very child friendly(and included leading questions)Freud’s theory of the Oedipus/Electra conflict is proposed by some psychologists as the reason why people are reluctant to believe children who report sexual abuse
24Little Hans - Ethical Issues Hans was interviewed when he was 19He had no recollection of any of the discussions - “No long term effects”Hans said when he read the case study“it came as something from the unknown”