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Presentation on theme: "PENGANTAR EKOLOGI-EKONOMI: DAYA DUKUNG Diabstraksikan : smno.psdl.ppsub.2012/13 MK. EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA ALAM & LINGKUNGAN."— Presentation transcript:

1 PENGANTAR EKOLOGI-EKONOMI: DAYA DUKUNG Diabstraksikan : smno.psdl.ppsub.2012/13 MK. EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA ALAM & LINGKUNGAN

2 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 DAYA DUKUNG BUMI The Earth's carrying capacity is another central question. This was first examined by Thomas Malthus, and more recently in an MIT study entitled Limits to Growth. In order to INCREASE the real GDP per capita, the real GDP must increase faster than population growth. Diminishing returns suggest that productivity increases will slow if major technological progress is not made. Food production may become a problem, as erosion, an impending water crisis, and soil salinity (from irrigation) reduce the productivity of agriculture. Ecological economists argue that industrial agriculture, which exacerbates these problems, is not sustainable agriculture, and are generally inclined favorably to organic farming, which also reduces the output of carbon.

3 K SKENARIO DAYA DUKUNG Individuals Time r-selection K-selection Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

4 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Carrying Capacity of Environment and Ecosystems Carrying capacity of environment or an ecosystem is the threshold limit of use of that system without damaging the system. Every ecosystem has its resources that are used for economic development, for survival and for habitat creation. Environment and ecosystems have got the abilities to recover the loss of its resources by regenerating them over the period of time that are temporary and not exceeding the threshold damage limit. If the number of producers decline over the period of time. It will affect the consumers who depend directly on producers and those who depend on other consumers for their food. What happens is the instability of the system and probably the extinction of some of species.

5 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 POPULATION GROWTH - LIMITED RESOURCES Al resources in an ecosystem are limited. there is only so much food, only so much space, only so many mates even. The results of these ecological limits or ECOLOGICAL RESISTANCE is that no population can keep growing forever. There is a ceiling limit that each ecosystem sets. This limit set by the resources of the ecosystem is the CARRYING CAPACITY, confusingly given the symbol K in ecology.

6 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 GROWTH TO A STABLE POPULATION 1.Not all populations go through cycles of irruptive population growth and catastrophic decline. 2.Growth rates of many species are regulated by internal and external factors so that they can come into equilibrium with their environmental resources. 3.Logistic growth: exponential growth when resources are unlimited and slowed growth as species approach carrying capacity of environment: 1.Growth curve called an S- curve because of its shape. 4.Environmental resistance: factors that tend to reduce population growth rates.

7 Time GNP K Natural capital allocated to human economy Natural capital allocated to wildlife Czech, B Economic growth as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1):4-14. Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

8 KAPITAL SUMBERDAYA ALAM “We treat the earth like a business in liquidation.” (Herman Daly) Opportunity cost of capital Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 The universe is comprised of a lot of energy, of the type we sort of understand and of types we sort of understand a little bit less (so called “dark” energy is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe). While there is a lot of energy, it appears that it is nonetheless in limited supply. It is also understood that energy cannot be created or destroyed..

9 K DAYA DUKUNG EKONOMI (“Plimsoll line”) GNP Time r-selection K-selection Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

10 K and r-selected Economies Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

11 GGP K Human economy Economy of nature We Might Ask Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

12 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 HUMAN ECONOMY The boundary conditions for the human economy. Energy influxes from real-time and fossil sunlight drive the economic engine. Energy is needed to obtain usable energy as well as usable materials. Both the material resources and the fossil fuel resources are finite. Some material may be recycled internally but energy cannot. All energy influx eventually exits the system as waste heat. Much of the material similarly exits the system as waste (some being toxic). The major elements of the economic engine are shown internal to the boundary.

13 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 The human economy—schematic (Clift, 1995). Sustainable development presents us all with the challenge of living in ways which are compatible with the long- term constraints imposed by the finite carrying capacity of the closed system which is Planet Earth. Clean technology is an approach to process selection, design and operation which combines conventional chemical engineering with some of these system-based environmental management tools; it represents an interesting new direction in the application of chemical engineering to develop more sustainable processes. HUMAN ECONOMY

14 KTKT GNP Natural capital allocated to human economy Natural capital allocated to non-human economy X natural capital allocable Time KUKU ALOKASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

15 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 CRITICAL NATURAL CAPITAL How Much to Use? How Much to Preserve? There is no doubt that both using, and preserving, natural capital are essential to human well being. But how much is needed? What aspects are critical? These questions are less easily answered, and engender considerable debate. At one extreme are the economists who argue that financial capital can replace all natural capital. At the other extreme are those deep ecologists who argue that no natural capital can be replaced by any other type of capital

16 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Weak vs. Strong Sustainability The concept of weak sustainability holds that all or most forms of natural capital are substitutable by human-derived capital. The concept of strong sustainability holds that little or no forms of natural capital have human-derived substitutes. Those who believe in weak sustainability are sometimes referred to as “technical optimists,” because they believe that technology and human ingenuity will somehow exceed limits imposed by nature. Both logic and the limited information now available support the notion of strong sustainability; technical ingenuity generally serves to increase material and energy throughputs rather than expand the biophysical limits of ecosystems. It is clear that there are many life supporting ecosystem functions for which there are no substitutes; any substitution that is possible is likely to be marginal. CRITICAL NATURAL CAPITAL

17 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 The Virtues of Strong Sustainability Strong sustainability states that natural and man-made capitals are fundamentally complements rather than substitutes; it states that some natural capital is “critical,” in that it consists of assets that are irreplaceable and cannot be substituted by anything else. For example, protection against excessive ultraviolet radiation provided by the atmospheric ozone layer (e.g. Ozone), could theoretically be substituted for by manufactured goods consisting of hats, sun-glasses and suitable clothing. Even if such a substitution would allow human beings to survive, there are no other manufactured goods to prevent the damaging effects on other living creatures, or ecosystem functioning, upon which we depend. The atmospheric ozone layer is an example of “critical natural capital”. Similarly, there are other forms of natural capital that face similar substitution difficulties: the global atmosphere, the world’s storage capacity or biological diversity, for example. CRITICAL NATURAL CAPITAL

18 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Earth capital and natural capital are synonymous sources of biological wealth and necessary ecosystem services. NATURAL CAPITAL Ecosystem services may be defined as those beneficial and not so beneficial aspects of a functioning ecological unit that can be made available to human communities. Ecosystem services can be seen as primary and secondary services provided by topographical, atmospheric, hydrological or landscape features of natural areas.

19 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES These services are valuable because ecosystems function as a unity of processes and a forum of functions that cycle over time to sustain communities because they maintain optimal conditions by supplying the trace elements that would otherwise rob an ecological community of the means to support growing populations and diverse adaptations to changing external and internal conditions.

20 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 NATURAL CAPITAL CATEGORIES Natural capital in the different categories: 1.Rivers and riverine ecosystems that cannot be reconstituted, and provide non-substitutable support to life, 2.Artificial forests that provide environmental services necessary for life that cannot be provided with other kinds of capital, but could be reconstructed, 3.Riverine fishing areas, that could be substituted by non-life supporting naturalcapital or human-made capital 4.Wetlands, as purifiers of water, to some extent reconstitutable, and substitutable by artificial purifiers, 5.Landscape, sports and aesthetic natural capital 6.Gardens, agricultural land 7.Minerals 8.Artificial lakes, pasture land with low biodiversity.

21 Overlapping of essential and life-supporting NaturalCapital. Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012

22 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Traditional view. Thin arrows: Processes that contain natural resources: Production processes (A and C), distribution, consumption and import-export. Thick arrows: Waste; Dotted lines: Processes without natural resources component. Some processes in this figure have been kept simple: distribution—makes processed materials and energy, including intermediate and capital goods, accessible to consumers and producers, some occurs through the market, some dont; consumption—changes materials and energy into services; import- export—bring materials and energy in and out of the region.

23 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 THE REGIONAL MODEL RELATING QUALITY OF LIFE AND NATURAL CAPITAL.

24 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 A sustainable livelihood approach is one of many theoretical frameworks used to examine how individuals behave under different conditions and the different elements of the livelihood system defines the context within which individuals make their living. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities or assets while not undermining the natural resource base (DFID, 1999). Source: Adapted from DFID Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets (1999) H = human capital; N = natural capital; Ph = physical capital; S = social (cultural) capital; Po = political capital and F = financial capital. SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH

25 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH The sustainable livelihoods approach ( SLA ) is a way to improve understanding of the livelihoods of poor people. It draws on the main factors that affect poor people's livelihoods and the typical relationships between these factors. It can be used in planning new development activities and in assessing the contribution that existing activities have made to sustaining livelihoods. The two key components of the SLA are: 1.A framework that helps in understanding the complexities of poverty 2.A set of principles to guide action to address and overcome poverty

26 The SL framework places people, particularly rural poor people, at the centre of a web of inter-related influences that affect how these people create a livelihood for themselves and their households. Closest to the people at the centre of the framework are the resources and livelihood assets that they have access to and use. These can include natural resources, technologies, their skills, knowledge and capacity, their health, access to education, sources of credit, or their networks of social support. The extent of their access to these assets is strongly influenced by their vulnerability context, which takes account of trends (for example, economic, political, technological), shocks (for example, epidemics, natural disasters, civil strife) and seasonality (for example, prices, production, employment opportunities). Access is also influenced by the prevailing social, institutional and political environment, which affects the ways in which people combine and use their assets to achieve their goals. These are their livelihood strategies. People are the main concern, rather than the resources they use or their governments. SLA is used to identify the main constraints and opportunities faced by poor people, as expressed by themselves. It builds on these definitions, and then supports poor people as they address the constraints, or take advantage of opportunities. The framework is neither a model that aims to incorporate all the key elements of people's livelihoods, nor a universal solution. Rather, it is a means of stimulating thought and analysis, and it needs to be adapted and elaborated depending on the situation. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012

27 SLA has seven guiding principles. They do not prescribe solutions or dictate methods. Instead, they are flexible and adaptable to diverse local conditions. The guiding principles are: 1.Be people-centred. SLA begins by analysing people's livelihoods and how they change over time. The people themselves actively participate throughout the project cycle. 2.Be holistic. SLA acknowledges that people adopt many strategies to secure their livelihoods, and that many actors are involved; for example the private sector, ministries, community-based organizations and international organizations. 3.Be dynamic. SLA seeks to understand the dynamic nature of livelihoods and what influences them. 4.Build on strengths. SLA builds on people's perceived strengths and opportunities rather than focusing on their problems and needs. It supports existing livelihood strategies. 5.Promote micro-macro links. SLA examines the influence of policies and institutions on livelihood options and highlights the need for policies to be informed by insights from the local level and by the priorities of the poor. 6.Encourage broad partnerships. SLA counts on broad partnerships drawing on both the public and private sectors. 7.Aim for sustainability. Sustainability is important if poverty reduction is to be lasting. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012

28 The SLA framework is presented in schematic form below and shows the main components of SLA and how they are linked. It does not work in a linear manner and does not attempt to provide an exact representation of reality. It seeks to provide a way of thinking about the livelihoods of poor people that will stimulate debate and reflection about the many factors that affect livelihoods, the way they interact and their relative importance within a particular setting. This should help in identifying more effective ways to support livelihoods and reduce poverty. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012

29 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH

30 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities needed for a means of living - and is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from shocks and stresses, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets and provide sustainable opportunities for the next generation. The sustainable livelihoods approach considers vulnerabilities as the main factor that shapes how people make their living. The level of vulnerability of an individual or community is determined by how weak or strong their livelihoods are, what occupational activities they are engaged in, the range of assets they have access to for pursuing their livelihood strategies and the strength and support of the social networks and institutions that they are part of or which have influence over them. The key factor that influences the choice and strengths of the livelihoods that people pursue is the range of resources or assets that people are able to access and use. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH

31 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 A rural household which owns a small amount of land and has household members with skills in traditional farming, but who have no education, no savings, and poor access to markets, will probably be limited to making a living from subsistence, rain-fed agriculture alone. A household with more extensive land, access to water resources, additional skills in food processing and some savings to risk investing in a business opportunity, could develop a range of agricultural and non-agricultural livelihood options. They will have alternatives to fall back on in times of need or crisis. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH

32 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Certain components or assets are required to make a living. These assets can conveniently be divided into 5 main groups for ease of analysis. 1.Financial - sources of income, assets which can be traded or sold, savings, financial services, etc. These are objects, resources or activities that can generate cash. A person sells their labour for cash; a person runs a small business to generate cash, sells his/her labour, etc 2.Natural - soil, water, forest, environmental assets, etc. These are natural resources such as the land used to produce crops or grazing, the river which provides fish and the forest which provides wild food, timber, fuel and other useful products for consumption or sale. 3.Physical - houses, schools, clinics, roads, ploughs, producer goods accessible by community, etc. These are the physical structures such as buildings, including shops and markets and include the tools used in making a living such as ploughs, blacksmith's tools etc 4.Human - health, skills, education, knowledge, confidence etc. These are the qualities which help one make a living such as knowledge; knowing how to do things, the ability to work due to good health, and confidence, a sense of self worth, or motivation. 5.Social - family links, groups, support networks, leadership, influences over political decisions, conflict, etc. People are more resilient, able to withstand threats to their livelihoods when there is group cohesion. The family structure, support from groups (women's groups, churches etc), a sense of belonging and leaders who actively promote the well-being of their constituents all contribute to the resilience of a community. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH

33 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 If people have access to a broader range of assets or resources, they have more choices and are able to adapt more easily to changing circumstances. The quality and security of these resources is also important - for example the fertility and security of tenure of land and financial resources that keep their value. The sustainable livelihoods framework describes the different aspects of peoples' vulnerability while pointing to the social, political and economic structures and processes which influence vulnerability. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH

34 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 There are different assets that people have; the amounts available to them vary. The following are some types of livelihood assets (it is not an exhaustive list): 1.Human assets: would include household members, active labour, education, knowledge skills (including technical and interpersonal); knowledge; ability; employability and earning power; good health; leadership. In a wider definition, it can also include motivation; self-esteem; self-confidence; self-perception; emotional well-being; assertiveness; spirituality. 2.Physical assets: livestock, equipment, vehicles, houses, implements, and other physical (production) assets. 3.Natural assets: would include access to land, forests, water, grazing, fishing, wild products and biodiversity. 4.Financial capital: can include income from productive activity (employment/self- employment); available finances/savings; regular inflows of money from government transfers, family, gifts or in kind; access to credit; savings/debt, gold/jewelry, etc. 5.Social assets: would include kin networks; group membership; socio-political voice and influence; cooperation; networks, inter-connectedness; family support; friendships; relationships of trust/exchanges; partnership and collaboration; political participation. SLA = SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACH

35 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 The term "technology" refers to the application of knowledge for practical purposes. The field of "green technology" encompasses a continuously evolving group of methods and materials, from techniques for generating energy to non-toxic cleaning products. The goals that inform developments in this rapidly growing field include: 1.Sustainability - meeting the needs of society in ways that can continue indefinitely into the future without damaging or depleting natural resources. In short, meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 2."Cradle to cradle" design - ending the "cradle to grave" cycle of manufactured products, by creating products that can be fully reclaimed or re-used. 3.Source reduction - reducing waste and pollution by changing patterns of production and consumption. 4.Innovation - developing alternatives to technologies - whether fossil fuel or chemical intensive agriculture - that have been demonstrated to damage health and the environment. 5.Viability - creating a center of economic activity around technologies and products that benefit the environment, speeding their implementation and creating new careers that truly protect the planet. GREEN TECHNOLOGY

36 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Green technology subject areas 1.Energy Perhaps the most urgent issue for green technology, this includes the development of alternative fuels, new means of generating energy and energy efficiency. 2.Green building Green building encompasses everything from the choice of building materials to where a building is located. 3.Environmentally preferred purchasing This government innovation involves the search for products whose contents and methods of production have the smallest possible impact on the environment, and mandates that these be the preferred products for government purchasing. 4.Green chemistry The invention, design and application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. 5.Green nanotechnology Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials at the scale of the nanometer, one billionth of a meter. Some scientists believe that mastery of this subject is forthcoming that will transform the way that everything in the world is manufactured. "Green nanotechnology" is the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to this field. GREEN TECHNOLOGY

37 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Paradigma baru dalam pengelolaan air pertanian memasukkan green water sebagai komponen penting dalam analisis. Green water adalah air yang terdapat dalam zona tidak jenuh dalam tanah (unsaturated zone), yaitu di daerah perakaran tanaman hingga zona air tanah jenuh (saturated zone). Green water terkumpul karena hujan yang jatuh ke permukaan tanah dan mengalami infiltrasi ke bawah permukaan. Namun, green water juga menguap melalui proses evaporasi (langsung dari permukaan tanah) atau transpirasi (melalui tanaman). Falkenmark dan Rockstrom (2006) menunjukkan bahwa produksi pangan global memerlukan 6800 km 3 /tahun green water (evaporasi dan transpirasi). Sekitar 1800 km 3 /tahun diperoleh dari blue water dengan cara irigasi dari sungai, danau, atau air tanah. Perencana irigasi mempertimbangkan blue water sebagai total air yang dipergunakan pertanian, pada kenyataannya porsi terbesar penggunaan air disuplai oleh green water. GREEN WATER: PARADIGMA BARU

38 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Pengelolaan air untuk pertanian yang memasukkan pengelolaan green water menjadi sangat penting untuk dilakukan. Rockström et al. (2009) membuktikan bahwa pengelolaan green water yang tepat akan menjadi basis baru bagi revolusi hijau. Bahkan bisa menjadi basis bagi ketahanan terhadap bencana yang disebabkan air, seperti banjir, kekeringan, dan musim kemarau yang kini menjadi sulit diprediksi akibat perubahan iklim (climate change). Tanpa peningkatan produktivitas air yang siginifikan dengan diiringi usaha-usaha lain untuk meningkatkan hasil pertanian, penyediaan pangan penduduk dunia dapat menjadi masalah serius di tahun-tahun mendatang. Demikian juga dengan adanya wacana peningkatan produksi biofuel, pertanian kini berperan tidak hanya untuk menyediakan pangan dan pakan tapi juga bahan bakar (food, feed, fuel). Air untuk pertanian kini menjadi isu yang sangat penting. GREEN WATER: PARADIGMA BARU

39 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Konsep green building atau bangunan ramah lingkungan didorong menjadi tren dunia pengembangan properti saat ini. Bangunan ramah lingkungan ini punya kontribusi menahan laju pemanasan global dengan membenahi iklim mikro. “Hal penting dalam konsep ini adalah penghematan air dan energi serta penggunaan energi terbarukan” KONSEP GREEN BUILDING

40 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Agrowisata (agrotourism), Agro berarti pertanian dan tourism berarti pariwisata. Agrowisata adalah berwisata ke daerah pertanian dalam arti luas, mencakup pertanian rakyat, perkebunan, peternakan dan perikanan. Pengembangan agrowisata akan membangun komunikasi yang intensif antara petani dengan wisatawan. Harapannya petani MENJADI lebih kreatif mengelola usahataninya sehingga mampu menghasilkan produk yang diminta wisatawan dan sektor kepariwisataan. GREEN AGROWISATA

41 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 R.S. Damardjati (1995) : agrowisata adalah wisata pertanian dengan objek kunjungan daerah pertanian atau perkebunan yang sifatnya khas, yang telah dikembangkan sedemikian rupa sehingga berbagai aspek yang terkait dengan jenis tumbuhan yang dibudidayakan itu telah menimbulkan motivasi dan daya tarik bagi wisatawan untuk mengunjunginya. Aspek-aspek tersebut adalah jenis tanaman yang khas, cara budidaya dan pengelolaan produknya, penggunaan teknik dan teknologi, aspek kesejarahannya, lingkungan alam dan juga sosial budaya disekelilingnya. GREEN AGROWISATA

42 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Kota Hijau atau sering disebut Green City adalah keinginan setiap penduduk kota, tidak ada masyarakat yang menolak adanya green city. Green city erat kaitannya dengan konsep yang ramah lingkungan, dengan demikian bumi pun terlindungi dari berbagai bencana-bencana yang terjadi akibat ulah manusia, misalnya tanah longsor, banjir, kekeringan sumber air bersih dan terutama pemanasan global. GREEN CITY Smno 2011, jl. Veteran kota malang, jatim

43 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Specific recommendations include: 1.A long-term plan for carbon reduction 2.High-performance buildings to reduce energy consumption 3.Smart land use planning and increased open space 4.Enhanced transportation 5.Mitigating storm water issues 6.Improving recycling practices GREEN CAMPUSS Smno 2011, kampus UB di Kota Malang, Jatim

44 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Green parking refers to several techniques applied together to reduce the contribution of parking lots to the total impervious cover is a lot. From a storm water perspective, application of green parking techniqes in the right combination can dramatically reduce impervious cover and consequently, the amount of storm water runoff. GREEN PARKING LOTS smno 2010, lapangan parkir ppsub, kampus UB, Kota Malang

45 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Urban transportation right-of-ways integrated with green techniques are often called “green streets”. Green Streets achieve multiple benefits, such as improved water quality and more livable communities, through the integration of stormwater treatment techniques which use natural processes and landscaping. Green streets can incorporate a wide variety of design elements. Although the design and appearance of green streets will vary, the functional goals are the same: provide source control of stormwater, limit its transport and pollutant conveyance to the collection system, and provide environmentally enhanced roads. GREEN STREET

46 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Green Streets are designed to: 1.Mimic local hydrology prior to development 2.Provide multiple benefits along the street right of way including: 3.Integrated system of stormwater management within the right of way 4.Volume reductions in stormwater which reduce the volume of water discharged via pipe into receiving streams, rivers and larger bodies of water 5.Key linking component in community efforts to develop local green infrastructure networks 6.Aesthetic enhancement of the transit right of way 7.Improves local air quality by providing interception of airborne particulates and shade for cooling 8.Enhanced economic development along the transit corridor 9.Improved pedestrian experience along the street right of way. GREEN STREET SMNO 2012, jalan raya di Kota Tulungagung, Jatim

47 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Sustainable transport (or green transport ) refers to any means of transport with low impact on the environment, and includes non-motorised transport, i.e. walking and cycling, transit oriented development, green vehicles, carsharing, and building or protecting urban transport systems that are fuel-efficient, space-saving and promote healthy lifestyles. GREEN TRANSPORT Smno 2011, pejalan kaki di jl. Buring, Kota Malang, Jatim

48 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Prinsip-prinsip Ekonomi Hijau: 1.The Primacy of Use-value, Intrinsic Value & Quality: This is the fundamental principle of the green economy as a service economy, focused on end-use, or human and environment needs. Matter is a means to the end of satisfying real need, and can be radically conserved. Money similarly must be returned to a status as a means to facilitate regenerative exchanges, rather than an end in itself. When this is done in even a significant portion of the economy, it can undercut the totalitarian power of money in the entire economy. 2.Following Natural Flows: The economy moves like a proverbial sailboat in the wind of natural processes by flowing not only with solar, renewable and "negawatt" energy, but also with natural hydrological cycles, with regional vegetation and food webs, and with local materials. As society becomes more ecological, political and economic boundaries tend to coincide with ecosystem boundaries. That is, it becomes bioregional. 3.Waste Equals Food: In nature there is no waste, as every process output is an input for some other process. This principle implies not only a high degree of organizational complementarity, but also that outputs and by- products are nutritious and non-toxic enough to be food for something. GREEN ECONOMY

49 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Prinsip-prinsip Ekonomi Hijau: 1.Elegance and Multifunctionality: Complex food webs are implied by the previous principle--integrated relationships which are antithetical to industrial society's segmentation and fragmentation. What Roberts & Brandum (1995) call "economics with peripheral vision", this elegance features "problem-solving strategies that develop multiple wins and positive side-effects from any one set of actions". 2.Appropriate Scale / Linked Scale: This does not simply mean "small is beautiful", but that every regenerative activity has its most appropriate scale of operation. Even the smallest activities have larger impacts, however, and truly ecological activity "integrates design across multiple scales", reflecting influence of larger on smaller and smaller on larger (Van der Ryn and Cowan, 1996). 3.Diversity: In a world of constant flux, health and stability seem to depend on diversity. This applies to all levels (diversity of species, of ecosystems, of regions), and to social as well as ecological organization. GREEN ECONOMY

50 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Prinsip-prinsip Ekonomi Hijau: 1.Self-Reliance, Self-Organization, Self-Design: Complex systems necessarily rely on "nested hierarchies" of intelligence which coordinate among themselves in a kind of resonant dance. These hierarchies are built from the bottom up, and--in contrast to civilization's social hierarchies--the base levels are the most important. In an economy which moves with ecosystem processes, tremendous scope for local response, design and adaptation must be provided--although these local and regional domains must be attuned to larger processes. Self-reliance is not self-sufficiency, but facilitates a more flexible and holistic interdependence. 1.Participation & Direct Democracy: To enable flexibility and resilience, ecological economic design features a high "eyes to acres" ratio (Van der Ryn & Cowan, 1996)--that is, lots of local observation and participation. Conversely, ecological organization and new information/communications technologies can provide the means for deeper levels of participation in the decisions that count in society. GREEN ECONOMY

51 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Prinsip-prinsip Ekonomi Hijau: 1.Human Creativity and Development: Displacing resources from production and tuning into the spontaneous productivity of nature requires tremendous creativity. It requires all-round human development that entails great qualities of nurture. These are qualities of giving and real service that have been suppressed (especially in men) by the social and psychological conditioning of the industrial order. In green change, the personal and political, the social and ecological, go hand-in- hand. Social, aesthetic and spiritual capacities become central to attaining economic efficiency, and become important goals in themselves. 2.The Strategic role of the Built-environment, the Landscape & Spatial Design: As Permaculturalist Bill Mollison has emphasized, the greatest efficiency gains can often be achieved by a simple spatial rearrangement of system components. Elegant, mixed-use integrated design which moves with nature is place-based. In addition, our buildings, in one way or another, absorb around 40 per cent of materials and energy throughput in North America. Thus, conservation and efficiency improvements in this sector impact tremendously on the entire economy. GREEN ECONOMY

52 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 Integrating disciplines of ecological economics


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