Presentation on theme: "Supporting positive parenting through legislation and policy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Supporting positive parenting through legislation and policy Supporting positive parenting through legislation and policyJenny Gray, Social Work Consultant and Immediate Past President, International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and NeglectISPCAN Global Institute29th San Diego International ConferenceOn Child and Family Maltreatment, 25 January 2015
5Kempe’s 6 stages of community recognition of child maltreatment - 1978 Stage 1 Denial of physical or sexual abuse – the responsibility of psychotics, drunk or drugged parents and foreign guestsStage 2 Lurid forms of abuse – the battered child syndromeStage 3 Physical abuse better handled – attention to neglect and failure to thriveStage 4 Recognition of emotional abuse, deprivation and neglect, and scapegoatingStage 5 Serious plight of sexually abused child recognisedStage 6 Guaranteeing each child is wanted, loved and cared for, sheltered, fed, first class preventative curative and health care
6Positive parenting to prevent child maltreatment LegislationPoliciesResourcesEvidence based interventions
7Positive parentingDefinition of “positive parenting” – parental behaviour ensuring the fulfilment of the best interests of the child ”that is nuturing, empowering, non-violent and provides recognition and guidance which involves setting of boundaries to enable the full development of the child.”Source: Council of Europe recommendation (2006)19 on positive parenting adopted by the Committee of Ministers (13/12/2006)Is the concept of positive parenting understood? By parents? Professionals? Governments?
8How is positive parenting achieved? Parents having access to resources to support themRemoving obstacles to positive parentingPromoting positive parenting through actions of awareness raisingSource: Council of Europe recommendation (2006)19 on positive parenting adopted by the Committee of Ministers (13/12/2006)
9UNCRC international obligations ChildrenRight to protection from harmRight to family lifeParentsProvide appropriate guidance and direction (in a non-violent manner)Provide materially for the childEnable the child to be heardEmphasis on parental nurturing, providing structure, recognition and being empoweredShifts emphasis from parental authority to parental responsibility
10UNCRC international obligations State’s responsibilitiesthe Guarantorthe enablerthe promoterRole of State partiesDevelop a policy on parentingSupport parents in rearing their childrenPolicy to include:Creating the conditions for positive parentingRemoving barriersPromoting positive parentingProviding equal access to resources
11National legislation Examples: banning all forms of physical chastisement including smackingensuring women have equal opportunities in the work placeensuring all legislation is family friendlycreating research/evaluation/project development bodies
12National legislation Example from England Children Act 2004 “improve the wellbeing of children” in the local authority areaChildren Act 1989duty “to safeguard and promote the welfare of vulnerable children”“it is in children’s best interests to be brought up in their families wherever possible”“whilst parents responsibility to bring up their children, they may need assistance from time to time to do so”“parents should be able to call on services … from or with the help of the local authority when they are required”
13Policies National and local policies which support: Parenting and familiesAll children forming secure attachments to their parents/caregiversGood quality childcare provisionParenting being able to access knowledge of how to bring up their children in non-violent ways and maximise their developmental potentialParents being able to access help with parenting concerns through e.g. helplines, advice and counselling services, parent education classes, self help groupsParents receiving specialist help when they or their children need it
14Resources Provision of services Are they part of a service delivery plan at central or local government level?Financial – at central and local government levelAre they funded?Is this funding sufficient?Is the funding ringfenced?Human – volunteers and professionals tasked with implementing positive parenting programmesare there enough people?are they trained to implement the programmes?Are they trained in evidence based programmes?Are the resources located in areas which are accessible to parents?Are the programmes acceptable to parents?
15Framework for intervention and prevention of child maltreatment Maltreatment (all types)Long-term outcomesPreventionbeforeoccurrenceofrecurrenceimpairmentUniversalTargetedA framework for interventionA three level model of prevention is often used to map both medical and social interventions.In this model primary prevention covers universal approaches to reduce the potential incidence of abuse and maltreatment;secondary prevention covers targeted approaches towards families where there is a greater likelihood of abuse and neglect, but before maltreatment has taken place;whilst tertiary prevention is designed to prevent further deterioration in cases where abuse or neglect has been identified.The left hand side of the Figure maps preventive interventions before the occurrence of maltreatment, and distinguishes between universal (primary) and targeted (secondary) prevention.The right hand side maps interventions which take place after maltreatment (tertiary prevention). In including tertiary prevention,the diagram is intended to demonstrate how interventions designed to prevent maltreatment and its recurrence differ from those designed to prevent long-term impairment to the child.From: MacMillan HL, Wathen CN, Barlow J, Fergusson DM, Leventhal JM, Taussig HN. Interventions to prevent child maltreatment and associated impairment. Lancet 2009;373:1515
16Evidence based interventions Primary levelSecondary levelTertiary level
17Evidence based interventions – primary prevention Swedish ban on physical chastisement (1979) evaluated 15 years later (Durrant, 1999)Findings:public support for such punishment had declinedOnly 1/3 middle school children reported physical punishment from mother or father – most the mildest forms3% population surveyed received a harsh slap, 1% hit with an objectYoung people less likely to be suspected of physical abuseNo child had died as a result of physical abuse
18Evidence based interventions – secondary prevention Most effective targeted approaches to preventing physical abuse and neglect appear to be home visiting programmes and multi-component interventions used in parent training (Davies and Ward Home, 2012)Home visiting programmesFamily Nurse Partnership in the UK (Department of Health, 2013)Home Visitation in the US (Olds et al, 1994)Parent training programmesTriple P-Positive Parenting ProgrammeIncredible Years Programme (Webster-Stratton, 2010)
19Evidence based interventions – tertiary prevention Parent-focused interventionse.g. Parents under Pressure (Dawe and Harnett, 2007)Parent and Child Focused Interventionse.g. Interaction GuidanceFamily Focused Interventionse.g. Multi-systemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (Swenson et al 2010)Child Focused Interventionse.g. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (Fisher et al 2005)
22Aim of the Hope for Children and Families project and resources The HfCF project includes Resources for Practitioners – designed for work with children and young people and their parents and carers to prevent abusive and neglectful parenting and the associated impairment of children’s health and development.The resources are aimed at all practitioners whose roles are to intervene to provide services to children and families where there are concerns that a parent may harm or neglect their child and where there is risk the child’s health or development is impaired.
23Article Reference: Bentovim A. and Elliott I Article Reference: Bentovim A. and Elliott I. (2014) Hope for Children and Families: Targeting Abusive Parenting and the Associated Impairment of Children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology.Website: childandfamilytraining.org.uk