Unschooling is a generic term for a form of homeschooling in which, loosely speaking, education happens without the use of a schedule, curriculum, testing and grades. Unschooling is child-led education, so if the child chooses to go to school, they are still unschooled, as they were not coerced or persuaded to go there, but chose to do so of their own free will. Unschooling is the rejection of an imposed education. http://unschooling.ca/ http://unschooling.ca/
6th - 15th centuries Medieval period Children were cared for until they could begin caring for themselves, around 7 years old. Children treated as adults (e.g. their clothing, worked at adult jobs, could be married, were made into kings, were imprisoned or hanged as adults.)
Children were born evil, and must be civilized. A goal emerged to raise children effectively. Special books were designed for children.
Both the environment and biology influence the child's development. The environment affects the child and the child influences the environment.
Children "construct" their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions
Albert Bandura Stressed how children learn by observation and imitation. Believed that children gradually become more selective in what they imitate.
Theories are ideas about development. Which theories do you agree with?
Heredity – biological transfer of certain characteristics Environment - the people, places, and things that surround and influence a person.
Prenatal period: from conception to birth Infancy and toddlerhood: birth to 2 years Early childhood: 2-6 years old Middle childhood: 6-12 years old Adolescence: 12-19 years old
Development is similar for each individual. Babies lift their head before they lift their bodies. Development builds upon earlier learning. ex. Words than sentences Development proceeds at an individual rate. The different areas of development are interrelated. Body, mind, emotions Development is a lifelong process.
Development is described in three domains, but growth in one domain influences the other domains. Physical Domain: body size, body proportions, appearance, brain development, motor development, perception capacities, physical health. Cognitive Domain: thought processes and intellectual abilities including attention, memory, problem solving, imagination, creativity, academic and everyday knowledge, metacognition, and language. Social/Emotional Domain: self-knowledge (self-esteem, metacognition, sexual identity, ethnic identity), moral reasoning, understanding and expression of emotions, self-regulation, temperament, understanding others, interpersonal skills, and friendships.
What are some things that could keep a child from growing in these domains?
Do children around the world develop the same? Do children around the world have the same basic needs?
List 5 significant events in the lives of children that could be considered environmental influences on children’s development. What effect would each of these events have on a child’s development? Why would the event be important to the child?
Why do we study child development? What were some early theories about child development? What are two things that affect child development?