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Writing Effective Goals and Interventions in eCST

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1 Writing Effective Goals and Interventions in eCST
Child Study System Facilitators

2 Goals vs. Objectives In general, goals are broad; objectives are specific For the purpose of eCST, there’s no difference; the broad goal is to increase skills in a specific area—academic, behavior, or attendance A goal in eCST might be an objective in another context Don’t get bogged down in semantics First of all, let’s talk about goals versus objectives. What’s the difference and does it matter? Generally speaking, goals are broad and objectives are specific. This is especially true for long range goals which may have different components or benchmarks built in along the way to measure progress. Because the goals in eCST are shorter term goals, intended to be measured for 3-9 weeks, there’s no need to write objectives within the goal. What the child study system calls a goal might be called an objective somewhere else. The point is to write a short term goal that can be measured. Don’t get bogged down in semantics.

3 A goal is a dream with a deadline.
Why Does it Matter? In order to know if we’re on the right track, we must know where we started and where we want to go. A goal is a dream with a deadline. -Napoleon Hill

4 Guiding Questions What do we want the student to know or do?
What skills are missing? Why can’t the student do this now? What CAN the student do now? How is this relevant to this student’s learning? How can we measure this knowledge, skill or behavior? Use these guiding questions to think about what kind of goal you’d like to create for the student. If you can answer these questions, you are ready to create a good goal. (short wait time) If you cannot answer these questions, you’ll need to find the answers before beginning to write a goal. Where can answers to some of these questions be found? Perhaps in the TEKS or curriculum road maps for academic goals. Problem-solving meetings with a grade level team, curriculum specialist, or counselor can also provide guidance.

5 Intervention Plan: Analyze Data
Create Skill-Based Goal Deliver Focused Intervention Monitor Progress

6 Analyze Data Kinds of Data TAKS/STAAR
Universal Screeners (TPRI, Tejas Lee, DIBELS, etc.) Benchmarks Attendance Data Discipline Data Sources of Data Student Level Review eCST DEEDS SchoolNet Aimsweb My Reporting ACCESS The CSS Facilitators have created a help sheet for accessing various kinds of data used in AISD. The sheet contains helpful information about where to find data specific for attendance, behavior, and attendance as well as detailed step-by-step instructions for accessing specific data reports. This information is available on the CSS website— Please see for more information including detailed instructions for accessing specific AISD reports.

7 Intervention Plan: Create Goal
Analyze Data Create Skill-Based Goal Deliver Focused Intervention Monitor Progress Once you have analyzed data and have a good idea of the problem, you need to create a skill-based goal. Developing an effective goal is the main focus of this training.

8 (from the work of George T. Doran and Paul J. Meyer)
Writing S.M.A.R.T. Goals Specific—clearly focused; answers who, what, where, when, etc. Measurable—establishes concrete criteria for measuring progress Attainable—reasonable chance of being achieved Relevant—achievement will make a significant difference to the student’s ability to make progress Timely—the goal has a begin date and time frames for progress monitoring and follow-up (from the work of George T. Doran and Paul J. Meyer) The acronym SMART is commonly used to describe a quality goal. While there are numerous variations, this particular example comes from work by both George Doran and Paul Meyer. A specific goal is clearly focused which gives it a much greater chance of being accomplished than a general goal. A general goal might be to get in shape, whereas a specific goal might be to join a health club and workout 3 days a week for 45 minutes. Measurable goals are written so they can be measured in some concrete way—through observation, data collection, standardized tests, rubrics, etc. Attainable goals have a reasonable chance of being achieved within the time frame you’ve set. It doesn’t make sense to set a goal so high that there’s no chance of success. Sometimes this means setting a series of attainable goals in order to accomplish a bigger task. Relevant goals are those that make a big difference to a student’s progress. If a student appears highly disorganized but manages to turn in quality work and scores well on tests, it doesn’t make sense to write a goal for organization because the student is already demonstrating academic success. A goal should be anchored within some kind of realistic time frame. In eCST, the expectation is to measure academic and behavioral goals for 3 to 9 weeks, depending on the student and the goal.

9 How Do I Determine the Goal?
Using data: Identify the highest skill the student CAN do and write a goal to measure the next step. Determine a missing skill that would make a significant difference if achieved and write a goal to address that skill. Identify a desirable behavior that would increase the student’s ability to be successful and write a goal to increase that behavior. So you’re ready to create an intervention plan for a struggling student. How do you determine which goal to create? There are several ways to decide: 1. Think of the hierarchy of skills needed to be successful in a particular subject. identify the highest skill the student has and develop a goal to measure progress toward the next step. For example, if a student knows letters and sounds but is unable to blend them to decode new words, you might create a decoding or phonics goal. Similarly, if the student has basic decoding skills but reads so slowly that comprehension suffers, you might create a goal to increase reading fluency. 2. Or you could identify a skill that is missing that would make a big difference if learned. An example might be a student who can write complete sentences with adequate spelling and punctuation, but whose writing lacks focus and organization. You might create a goal to write an organized paragraph on a specific topic using a graphic organizer. 3. For behavior, write a goal to measure progress toward a desired behavior. If a student blurts out answers or comments in class, you might write a goal for the student to raise her hand and be called on before answering.

10 Two Ways to Create Goals in eCST
Use drop down boxes to identify behavior type or TEKS-based skill then edit to make it S.M.A.R.T (screen shot) (review briefly—be sure to mention that the dropdowns in eCST will look slightly different. Also that it’s not necessary or even recommended to use the drop down boxes, but it’s simply an option.) In the Intervention section of eCST, there are two ways to create a goal. (1) You can use the drop down boxes to specify a TEKS-based academic goal, or use the behavior type drop downs to access specific behavior goals. It is perfectly ok to choose a grade level below the student’s actual grade in order to access an appropriate skill. Phonics, for example, does not appear in TEKS beyond grade 3. If you have a 4th grade student who needs a phonics goal, choose grade 3 in the drop down menu in order to access an appropriate TEKS statement. The focus is on the particular skill, not the grade level. Once a goal is transcribed into the goal box, simply edit it to make it SMART and student specific. If you used a below grade skill, edit out the text that specifies the grade level. Because some of the TEKS statements are very broad and cover multiple skills, it’s important to edit those statements to make them specific and measurable.

11 Two Ways to Create Goals in eCST
Write your own S.M.A.R.T. goal directly into the goal text box. The other way to create a goal is to simply write your own goal directly into the text box without using the drop down menus at all.

12 Include Measurement Method
Teacher made tests Point sheet DIBELS Level system Passports Frequency count Weekly curriculum assessments Phonics cards Writing rubric Grade level word lists In order to be specific and identify how progress will be monitored, include the measurement tool in your goal statement. There are a variety of ways to measure progress. This is not an exhaustive list of measurement methods. This is just a few of the ways you may measure a student’s goal. Make sure your measurement method focuses on the specific skill you are targeting. A unit test may cover multiple skills. You want to make sure you are only looking at the skills you have identified in your goal. Be sure it’s clear how you’re planning to measure any goal you write. Take a moment to read some examples. Examples: The student will … as measured by teacher made tests. The student will … as measured by DIBELS. The student will … as determined by a writing rubric. The student will … as evidenced by point sheet.

13 Conditions: Define the Circumstances
BEFORE the goal: Given a 4th grade level text, the student will… Given 2 or more acceptable choices, … Using a graphing calculator, … Or AFTER the goal: … within 3 minutes … using a visual cue or graphic organizer … using manipulatives. In order to be very specific, it’s sometimes desirable to include conditions for measuring a goal. Conditions provide information about how or under what circumstances a goal will be measured. Conditions can be added before the goal, as in the examples at the top. (pause—then click) Or after the goal, like the examples at the bottom. While conditions are often helpful and provide specificity, they are not always needed. You get to choose.

14 Defining “Measurement Type”
Measurement type indicates what you will be using to measure student progress on reaching a goal. For academics, we recommend using a specific assessment score, percentage, or frequency. For behavior, it may be most helpful to use a scale, percentage or frequency count. Think of the measurement method you chose. If you chose a weekly quiz, you may be looking at a student’s scores on those weekly quizzes to measure success. If the measurement method is a behavior point sheet, you may look at the frequency the behavior occurs as the method to measure success. (pause)

15 Determining “Success Threshold”
The “success threshold” in eCST means the performance level needed to show mastery or adequate progress toward the goal. (review briefly—be sure to emphasize that success threshold is often written directly into the goal. If so, just be sure the goal and the dropdowns match) Finally determine what the success threshold will be. The “success threshold” in eCST means the performance level needed to show mastery or adequate progress toward the goal. What score does the student need to achieve to show she is successful?

16 Success Threshold- Must Match Measurement Type
Percentage 80% 3 weeks in a row 100% in 3 out of 4 attempts Frequency 4 of 5 attempts Less than 2 times per day Assessment Score DORF of 55 wpm or better 2 out of 4 on writing rubric Scale “Often” or better, 4 of 5 days “Rarely” or better, 2 weeks in a row It is important for the success threshold to match the measurement type. If you wrote into the plan that you’re measuring with a percentage, your success threshold should include a percentage. If you’re using frequency, then indicate what frequency is needed to show success. It’s a good idea to include how long or how often the student has to reach the success threshold before you consider the goal achieved. If a student scores 80% one time, will you consider the goal achieved? Probably not. You might want to see the student score 80% on two consecutive attempts or in 2 out of 3 attempts. There’s room in the success threshold box for you to be specific.

17 Common Goal Writing Errors
Too broad to be measurable Too many to be manageable Too high to be achievable Too low to make any difference There are several common errors made when writing goals. Examples include goals that are: (click, Too broad to be measurable): Saying a student will improve writing skills is too vague. In order to measure a goal, there must be some specificity. An example of a measurable writing goal might be, “Using a graphic organizer, the student will produce a paragraph of 5 or more sentences on a specific topic which scores at least a 2 on a 4 point rubric. (Click, Too many to be manageable): Remember that each goal requires data collection in the form of progress monitoring. If you write four behavior goals, you must collect and report four different kinds of data regularly. Rather than write numerous goals in one area, focus on the root of the problem or the skill that will have the most impact on the learner. Sometimes this means setting a series of attainable goals in order to accomplish a bigger task. (Click, too high to be achievable): Sure, we want all students to be working at grade level in all areas. However, for some students, that might take some time. The purpose of monitoring progress in eCST is to determine whether interventions are working or if more intensive interventions are needed. Setting an unachievable goal produces meaningless data. We already know the student is struggling. However, setting an ambitious but achievable goal will likely result in data that is useful to the process. (click, too low to make any difference): Some teachers want to write a goal that the student is sure to achieve. If a goal’s attainment is a sure thing in a short time, you’re not being efficient by creating an intervention plan for a skill that doesn’t move the student significantly forward. Again, ambitious but achievable goals are the most desirable.

18 Example 1: Make it SMART Adam will get better with adding and subtracting two digit numbers Adam will determine the correct operation and solve problems requiring addition and subtraction of two-digit numbers with and without regrouping, with 80% accuracy, as measured on teacher made assessments. Now it’s your turn. See if you can reword this goal to make it SMART. Remember to include conditions when needed and to include the measurement method in your goal. PAUSE webinar, user must click to advance (provide wait time) Here’s one example of a goal that is SMART. There are many examples that would work. Check again see if yours is measurable and specific.

19 Example Goal in eCST Here’s how this example would look if entered into eCST. Notice in addition to the goal, we have also included the measurement type, when the progress monitoring will be observed, how often progress monitoring will occur (known as the summary period), and the success threshold.

20 On your handout, review components of SMART goals.
Find the table at the bottom. Working with a partner, transform the “weak” goals into SMART goals in the space provided.

21 Example 2: Make it SMART Danielle will improve her reading comprehension skills. After reading a 5th grade level text, Danielle will answer at least 4 out of 5 comprehension questions correctly on the weekly reading assessment. Here’s another. See if you can write a goal that is more specific and measurable. PAUSE webinar, user must click to advance (provide wait time) Again, the example on the screen is only one example—there are many that would work.

22 Example 3: Make it SMART Manuel will improve his study skills. After assistance creating an organization system, Manuel will complete and turn in assigned work on time, as measured by scoring a weekly average of 3 or better on a 4 point teacher feedback sheet. This high school student is described as unorganized. His grades and progress are suffering because he rarely turns in work. How might you rewrite this goal to make it SMART? PAUSE webinar, user must click to advance (provide wait time) This goal includes a condition that the student receive some kind of instruction on how to organize himself. While this is an intervention, it’s also fine to write it into the goal if it makes sense for this student.

23 Example 4: Make it SMART Lesley will behave in class. Lesley will stay in her seat during academic work periods as measured by the student’s point sheet. Lesley will refrain from making disruptive noises and sounds during classroom activities as measured by the student’s point sheet. Here’s a behavior goal. How might you rewrite this goal to be very specific about what behavior is being measured? PAUSE webinar, user must click to advance (provide wait time) In this example, the teacher decided to write two separate goals and collect data on each using a behavior chart or point sheet. Again, there are numerous examples of acceptable goals for classroom behavior—this is only one.

24 Things to keep in mind Goals are skill based not grade level based.
Good goals are reasonable but ambitious. Measure progress for 3-9 weeks, review fidelity and results, and adjust as needed. Be judicious—each goal must be measured regularly. Don’t overwhelm yourself with too many goals. To measure progress, plan for multiple data points, gathered at least every other week. Measurements taken less frequently (MOYs or DRAs, for example) are not good tools for short term goals. Goals should be skill based not grade level based. They should be reasonable but ambitious. Measure progress for 3-9 weeks. Don’t overwhelm yourself with too many goals. One goal per subject is often enough to measure progress. Plan for multiple data points. It’s not possible to adequately measure progress if data is collected less frequently as in benchmarks tests, DRA scores, or other similar kinds of assessments.

25 And the Biggest Thing to Remember
The Intervention Plan is all about the INTERVENTIONS, not the goal. The purpose of the goal is to measure the student’s response to your interventions. Without good, quality interventions, implemented with fidelity, the goal is meaningless. An amazing goal alone does not lead to student success. This is just one part of the process. It really is all about what you do to support the student’s learning. Interventions and focused instruction are the most important parts of any goal-setting process.

26 I Have a Goal—Now What?

27 Intervention Plan: Instruction
Analyze Data Create Skill-Based Goal Deliver Focused Intervention Monitor Progress

28 Providing Interventions
Research- or evidence-based Directly linked to goal Not simply a location (reading specialist, after school tutoring, etc.) Includes frequency, duration, grouping ratio Multiple interventions can support one goal Interventions can change even if goal remains the same

29 Literacy Interventions
TPRI Interventions SRA Corrective Reading Great Leaps REWARDS Read Naturally Achieve 3000 Learning A-Z Portals SIPPS Ebbers Strategies Wilson Reading Read 180 Passports Ticket to Read Duet/Choral Reading Six Minute Solution Key 3 Routine Strategies Tesoros de lectura Project Read My Reading Coach

30 Math Interventions Holt Additional Resources Envisions
Meadows Center Modules America’s Choice Mathematics Navigator TEMI Intervention Resources Region IV Strategies Envisions Read it, Draw it, Solve it Van de Walle Strategies Moving with Math Kathy Richardson Strategies Region XIII 2nd, 5th, 8th Sense Strategies Hands on Standards

31 Behavior Interventions
Success Chart Behavior Contract/Point Sheet Level System Social Skill Group 2:10 Intervention Back and Forth Journal Self-Control Strategies Visual Schedule Self-Management Group Cool Down/Recovery Space Check in/Check out Pre-Correction Degree of Choice Partner with CIS Problem Solving Instruction

32 Intervention Plan: Monitor Progress
Analyze Data Create Skill-Based Goal Deliver Focused Intervention Monitor Progress

33 Determining “When Observed”
The when observed field indicates when progress monitoring will occur. Is progress monitoring taking place during a particular class, during an after-school intervention or pull out group, or during a specified assessment? For behavioral goals, it may be helpful to observe progress throughout the day. (pause) Will this measurement be collected during a particular class, after school or in-school intervention program, or a different times during the day?

34 Determining “Summary Period”
The summary period indicates how often you plan to progress monitor- daily, weekly, other period Multiple data points are necessary in order to measure progress- gathered at least every other week. Behavior progress monitoring may be needed more frequently than academic monitor- we recommend daily. Next determine how when progress monitoring will occur. Plan to have multiple data points to measure progress, gathered at least every other week, more often if possible. Measurements done once or twice (MOYs or DRAs, for example) are not good tools for short term goals. (pause)

35 Document Progress Progress monitoring in eCST
Include multiple data points Review progress regularly (3-9 weeks) Adjust intervention as needed based on data Frequency Intensity Duration Develop new intervention if needed

36 Okay. I’ve created an intervention plan and collected data. Now what?
After you’ve created a plan with SMART goals, implemented interventions to support the student’s goal, and collected data to measure progress, what’s next? ….

37 Intervention Plan: Review Data
Analyze Data Create Skill-Based Goal Deliver Focused Intervention Monitor Progress … you review your data.

38 Data-Based Decision Making in RtI Adapted from Beyond the RtI Pyramid by William Bender
Possible Data Outcomes Possible Decisions on Future Interventions Data chart shows great success, and child is now on grade level or meeting benchmarks. Discontinue the intervention; child continues participation in general education. Data chart shows some success, but child is not yet on grade level or meeting benchmarks. Continue the intervention for an additional grading period; child continues participation in general education. or Modify intensity of the current intervention without otherwise changing it. Move child to a more intensive intervention and continue participation in general education. Data chart shows little positive growth on targeted skills. Move child to a more intensive intervention, and continue participation in general education. Consider moving the child forward toward a child study team meeting for more intensive staffing or possible eligibility for special education services. This chart shows possible decisions you might make based on various data outcomes. As you can see, it’s important to analyze your data in order to determine the next logical step. You are encouraged to problem-solve and collaborate with colleagues at any point during the process. This may be one of the times when you want to discuss with your grade-level team or experts on your campus. -You might discontinue the intervention if the student shows great success. -You might decide more time is needed and continue the current intervention without any changes. -You might add additional or more intensive interventions without changing the goal. -You might write a new, more intensive goal, or -You might request a child study team meeting to consider more intensive staffing or further evaluation.

39 Review Data (3-9 weeks) Review progress monitoring data
Review fidelity of implementation May increase/decrease frequency, duration May add additional intervention May change current intervention May discontinue intervention and return to Tier 1

40 If Insufficient Response Continues
Refer to Child Study Team (CST) Make request through eCST (Service Tracking) CST will meet to: Review current interventions Review progress monitoring May consider additional interventions May consider referral to social service specialist May consider request for additional assessment (dyslexia, 504, special education, etc.)

41 For Additional Help and Information
Child Study System website— eCST Resource Links Child Study System Facilitators Professional Development (CSS or RtI) CST chair or team Pre-Referral Intervention Manual, Stephen McCarney Campus Specialists Academic Coaches Other colleagues If you need help with instruction or deciding on quality interventions, talk with the curriculum specialists and coaches on your campus. You can also use the child study system website’s resources, talk with members of your campus CST, or attend training sessions. Child Study System Facilitators are also available to provide additional help with the process at your campus. AISD Response to Intervention website—

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