Presentation on theme: "Shirley Stitt, L.C.P.C. Stacey Brown, M.Ed, LCPC The Family Tree"— Presentation transcript:
1Shirley Stitt, L.C.P.C. Stacey Brown, M.Ed, LCPC The Family Tree Child Maltreatment for Maryland Association of Resources for Families and YouthShirley Stitt, L.C.P.C.Stacey Brown, M.Ed, LCPCThe Family Tree
3Overview of Presentation Define and Identify Characteristics of Child Abuseand NeglectDefine and Identify Symptoms of Child Sexual AbuseLearn Why Professional Boundaries are ImportantHow to Report Suspected Abuse and Maltreatment
5Maryland’s Child Abuse Statistics In 2012 Maryland had 55,775 Referrals of Child Abuse & Neglect13,079 were victims of child abuse or neglect26 Children in Maryland died as a result of abuse or neglectAbout 6,098 Children Spend Time Out of Their Homes Each Year Due to Maltreatment (2010)
6Types and Occurrence of Reports on Child Maltreatment in Maryland Neglect %Physical %Sexual %
7Maryland State Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect –Family Law 5-701 Abuse means:The physical or mental injury of a child by any parent or other person who has permanent or temporary care, custody, or responsibility for supervision of a child, or by any household or family member, under circumstances that indicate that the child's health or welfare is harmed or at substantial risk of being harmedSexual abuse of a child, whether physical injuries are sustained or not
8Neglect Neglect Means: The leaving of a child unattended or other failure to give proper care and attention to a child by any parent or other person who has permanent or temporary care or custody or responsibility for supervision of the child under circumstances that indicate:That the child's health or welfare is harmed or placed at substantial risk of harmMental injury to the child or a substantial risk of mental injury
9Victims of Physical Abuse and Neglect Males and Females equally victimizedRate of victimization is inversely related to child’s ageRecurrence of abuse9% within 6 months of first incidenceChildren who were neglected are at highest riskIncreased risk when maltreated by motherChildren whose families received services including placement are at great risk of recurrenceNCANDS (2007)
10Perpetrators of Physical Abuse and Neglect Female 55%, Male 40%Parents account for 88% of perpetratorsNeglect is the most common type of maltreatment for all perpetratorsBreakdown of most likely perpetratorNeglect: both parentsPhysical abuse: unmarried partner (not child’s parent)Sexual abuse: other relativeNCANDS (2012)
11Characteristics of Physically Abusive Caregivers Unfulfilled need for nurturanceIsolation or fear of relationshipsLack of support systemsMarital/Intimate Partner problemsLife crisesInability to care for or protect a childLack of nurturing child-rearing practices
12Characteristics of Maltreated Children Weak Parent-Child bonding and attachmentSlow expressive language development, delays in receptive language, deficits in articulationProblematic transactions with extra-familial systemsInadequate coping skillsParentified behaviors
13Characteristics of Maltreated Children Considers disorganization and chaos the normEmotional desensitization to violenceDefensive world viewTendencies towards low self-esteem, depression, anti-social behavior and/or self injuryLittle ability to draw from past experiences or anticipate future consequences
14Indicators of AbuseUnusual or unexplained injuries, in various stages of healingMay suffer from chronic illnesses, headaches, or stomachachesSigns of neglect such as dirty clothes, poor hygiene, or excessive hungerMay be withdrawn from everyone around themMay show signs of depression or have low self-esteemMay use violence in order to solve conflicts that ariseHave a hard time falling or staying asleep and may also fall asleep during schoolMay experience flashbacks
15Indicators of AbuseProblems in school including frequent absences, fights, and fatigueMay act overly responsibleShe/he may become very worried over poor results in grades or sportsMay act out sexually or have a mature sexual vocabularyMay come up with extravagant stories about bruises or scratchesMay become very upset when a worker needs to leave or when they have to leave school or child careMay act out the violence in play or in storyA difficulty in expressing emotions other than anger
16Let’s Educate Ourselves Developmentally Expected Behaviors in Children
18School Age 6 to 12Encouraging competence and confidence
19School Age (6 to 12) Physical/ Motor development Copies a triangle (6year), diamonds (7year), prints letters, draws recognizable man with head, body & limbsTies shoesSkips with alternating feetRides bicycleGains sports skills and coordination increasesSocial/ Emotional DevelopmentPeers gain importance, and the child has increased interest in the world outside homeIdentifies with the peer group rather than with the familyLearns to differentiate between personal goals and those of the groupIntelligent DevelopmentAbility to reason and solve problems improves, and concerned about right and wrongCan entertain another point of viewAttention span increasesVocabulary expands geometrically (50,000 words by age 12)
20Teenage Years (13-17)Staying connected when kids what to fly
21Teenage Years 13-17 Physical/ Motor development Adolescent growth spurtOnset of sexual maturity (after 10 years-old)Development of primary and secondary sexual characteristicsSocial/ Emotional DevelopmentIdentity is key issueConformity most impossibleOrganized sports diminish for manyCross-gender relationshipsCognitive / Language DevelopmentSystematic problem-solving strategiesCan handle hypotheticalsDeals with past, present, futureAdopts personal speech patternsCommunication becomes focus of relationships
23Definition of Child Sexual Abuse The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) (42 U.S.C.A. § 5106g), as amended by the CAPTA Reauthorization Act of 2010, defines child sexual abuse as, at minimum:Sexual abuse - “the employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement, or coercion of any child to engage in, or assist any other person to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct or simulation of such conduct for the purpose of producing a visual depiction of such conduct; or the rape, and in cases of caretaker or inter-familial relationships, statutory rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children.”Definition of child sexual abusePart I:Understanding child sexual abuse as a public health problemThe Enough Abuse Campaign
24Touching Behaviors Can Include: Deliberate contact with a child or teen’s genitals, buttocks orDeliberate contact with a child or teen’s genitals, buttocks or chest/breasts;Penetration of the child or teen’s mouth, anus, or vagina with an object or body part;Making a child or teen touch another person’s anus, penis, or vagina; and,Coercing a child or teen to touch him/herself, the offender or another child.
25Non-Touching Behaviors Can Include: Exposing oneself to a child or a teen;Viewing and violating the private behaviors of a child or teen;Taking sexually explicit or provocative photographs of a child or teen;Showing pornography to a child or teen; and,Communicating with a child or teen about sexually explicit fantasies or experiences (in person, by phone, via or Internet, etc.)
26Indicators of Sexual Abuse Withdrawn BehaviorAngry OutburstsAnxietyDepressionNot wanting to be left alone with a particular individualSexual knowledge, language and/or behaviors that are inappropriate for child’s ageBedwetting and/or inability to control bladder functions
271 in 4 women and 1 in 6 men report Child sexual abuse statistics1 in 4 women and 1 in 6 men reporthaving experienced child sexual abuse.The vast majority (87%) of sexual abuse is never reportedResearch shows that children rarely make up accusations of sexual abuse.Statistic #1:Definition of child sexual abuse used in ACE study:“…During the first 18 years of life, did an adult (… or someone at least 5 years older…), relative, family friend, or stranger ever (1) touch or fondle your body in a sexual way, (2) have you touch or fondle their body in a sexual way, (3) attempt to have any type of sexual intercourse with you (oral, anal, or vaginal), or (4) actually have any type of sexual intercourse with you (oral, anal, or vaginal)?”It is likely that you have seen a range of statistics on this point. There are many challenges to collecting data on the incidence (number of separate occurrences) and prevalence (number of individuals affected) of childhood sexual abuse. These challenges include:Studies use different definitions of child sexual abuse. For example, some studies like the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study avoid using the word ‘abuse’ at all and instead ask questions about specific experiences. This technique allows researchers to identify abuse among individuals who might not label their experiences as abusive.Studies use different populations (for example, college students or convicted perpetrators) that are not representative of the general population. Because most cases of sexual abuse are never reported to child protective services or law enforcement, statistics gathered from these sources greatly underestimate the problem. Not only that, we cannot assume that what we learn from those cases that are reported can be generalized to those cases that aren’t reported.Much of what we know about child sexual abuse comes from retrospective studies in which adults are asked to recall childhood events. Some people who were abused as children might not remember the abuse or the specific details.Citation:Dube SR, Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH. Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse by Gender of Victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2005; 28(5):It is estimated that there are currently XX million survivors of child sexual abuse in the U.S. with 1/3 under the age of 18. (Citation.)According to researchers Finkelhor and Jones, substantiated rates of child sexual abuse are down 49% from 1990 to However, while these rates of confirmed abuse are down, advocates believe the increase of child sexual exploitation through the Internet is climbing significantly. For example, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children’s Cyber Tip Line receives 2,000 reports each week about possible sexual exploitation of children. Ninety percent (90%) of these reports involve suspected images/videos depicting children being sexually exploited. Since 2002, the Center has reviewed 18.5 million images of pornography involving children. Nearly 250,000 children each year are at risk of becoming victims of commercial sexual exploitation or prostitution. The average age of girls involved is 14. Runaway and throwaway kids are at high risk of engaging in “survival sex” after 7 to 10 days on the street.Statistic #2:According to a national phone survey of adolescents (ages 12-17) conducted in 1995, 86% of sexual assaults experienced by these youth were not reported to any authorities (police, CPS, schools, or other). Retrospective studies done with adults have found similarly low reporting rates for childhood sexual victimization.U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Youth Victimization: Prevalence and Implications, Research in Brief. April 2003.Statistic #3:It is a common misconception that children lie about being sexually abused. Researchers have found that false reports are statistically uncommon, and estimates range from less than 1% to 10% of cases, depending partly on whether or not reports based on simple misunderstandings are included. In fact, it is far more common for children to minimize or deny the extent of abuse they have experienced than to overstate what has occurred. Children will often test the waters by disclosing lesser offenses first to see how the adult reacts. There are also many reasons why children recant after a disclosure (don’t want to break up the family, don’t like to see parents upset, feel out of control of events, etc.), and clinicians with expertise in working with child victims consider this to be a common part of the disclosure process rather than an indication that abuse did not occur.Citations:For a good summary titled “How often do children’s reports of abuse turn out to be false?”, visit The Leadership Council website atMikkelson EJ, Gutheil TG, Emens M. False Sexual-Abuse Allegations by Children and Adolescents: Contextual Factors and Clinical Subtypes. American Journal of Psychotherapy 46: , 1992.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau. (1999). Child Maltreatment 1997: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
28Why Children Won’t Tell if They are Being Sexually Abused The abuser convinces the child that they won’t believed, and they are somehow responsible for the abuse and will be punishedThe child may care about or feel protective of the abuserChildren remain silent in order to protect the non- abusive parentA child may be confused by the abuse if they experience physical pleasure, arousal or emotional intimacy from the abuseA child may feel they allowed the abuse to happen and should be able to stop it
29Why Children Won’t Tell (con’t) People who abuse children may give them gifts and treats and may threats about what will happen if the child says “no” or tells someoneIn order to keep the abuse secret, the abuser will play on the child’s fear, embarrassment or guilt about what is happening
30Secrets May Not Be Good For Children But Surprises Are You are a special person and deserve to be treated with love and respect.
31Common Deficits of People who Sexually Abuse Children CommunicationDifficulty discussing emotions and needsEmpathyInsensitivity to needs of othersAccountabilitySense of entitlement
32Characteristics of Male Offenders : Fewer than 5% have a psychotic mental illnessMany who sexually abuse children do not meet the criteria for pedophiliaThe vast majority are heterosexualMore than half report committing their first offense before the age of 18; avg. age 25-3440% high school grads50% under supervision for property or drug offenseMost of what we know about sexual abusers is based on studies of individuals who have been convicted of child sexual abuse. As we discussed earlier, those who have been caught and convicted are not necessarily representative of those individuals who sexually abuse but have not been caught or convicted.Psychosis = loss of contact with realityPedophilia: “Although virtually all pedophiles are child molesters, not all child molesters are pedophiles. Pedophiles have a clear sexual attraction for children. The focus of a pedophile is a child or children generally under the age of 13. Pedophiles often report they are attracted to children in a particular age range (DSM-IV). Child molesters are sexual offenders who have committed either intra-familial sexual offense (incest) against a child victim or extra-familial sexual offenses against a child victim or both.” see citation #2.Citations:#1 :Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers. Ten Things You Should Know about Sex Offenders & Treatment. (2001) Available at#2:Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers. Pedophiles and Child Molesters – The Differences. (2001) Available at#3 & #4:Abel GG, Harlow, N. The Stop Child Molestation Book. (2001) Xlibris books.#5:Juvenile Sexual Offending. (1997) Edited by Ryan, G & Lane, S. Jossey-Bass, Inc. San Francisco.
33Characteristics of Female Offenders 50% report prior abuse by spouse, boy friend.1/3 report abuse by parent89% report drug usage; PTSD prominentLike men, tend to abuse children they knowVictims may have an even harder to find supportPredisposed: Histories of incestuous sexual victimization, psychological difficulties and deviant sexual fantasies are common among these women who generally act alone in their offending. Some may see themselves as psychologically fused with their children and unable to function as a maternal figure. The majority are not mentally ill, but may experience depression or personality disorders. They tend to victimize their own children or other young children within their families or who they are close to.Male-Coerced: These women tend to be passive and dependent individuals with histories of sexual abuse and relationship difficulties. Fearing abandonment, they are pressured by male partners to commit sex offenses often against their own children.Teacher/Lover: At the time of their offending, these women are often struggling with peer relationships. They perceive themselves as having romantic or sexually mentoring "relationships" with under-aged adolescent victims of their sexual preference, and therefore, do not consider what they are doing to be wrong or criminal in nature.Citation:Predators: Pedophiles, Rapists, and Other Sex Offenders – Who They Are, How They Operate, and How We Can Protect Ourselves and Our Children. Salter, Anna Basic Books. New York (2003).
34Who Sexually Abuses Children 93% of victims were abused by someone they knew.34% of victims were abused by family members.40% of victims were abused by peers or older children.* Bureau of Justice Statistics report: Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics, July 2000.
35Witnessing violence, cultural messages, unsafe community Experience: Why do some children sexually offend?Exposure:Witnessing violence, cultural messages, unsafe communityExperience:Things which happen to the childDeficits:Failure to develop skills, lack of supportive environmentDeviance:Genetic or neurobiological differencesURSBCDeficits:Failure to develop skills like empathy, communication and accountabilityDeviance:IMPORTANT – We are NOT saying that there is a genetic or biological excuse for perpetrating. Some children have cognitive, developmental or psychiatric issues that can contribute to their motivations for sexually abusing.Citation:Understanding & Responding to the Sexual Behaviors of Children. Curriculum developed by Ryan, Blum, Sandau Christopher, Law, Weber, Sundine, Astler, Teske & Dale, 1988 (Revised Ryan & Blum, 1993; Ryan 1997) Additional Revisions/Additions By Gail Ryan, 4/2000; 9/2002. Kempe Children’s Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.
36Let’s Educate Ourselves Developmentally Expected Sexual Behaviors in Children
37Developmentally expected behaviors Early childhood (ages 3 – 5):Touch genitals for pleasure (masturbate)Play games like doctor to explore physical differences between boys and girlsAsk questions about where babies come from and how they are bornSources:The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada:Advocates for Youth:Developmentally expected behaviorsPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
38Developmentally expected behaviors Middle childhood (ages 6-8):Engage in sexual exploration with peersBegin looking to peers and media for information about sex and gender expectationsDevelop more complex understanding of sex and sexualityMasturbateSocialize mainly with own gender and maintain rigid expectations for behavior based on genderDevelopmentallyexpected behaviors#3:Understand distinctions between homosexuality, heterosexuality and bisexuality.Understand that sex isn’t just about making a baby.Sources:The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada:Advocates for Youth:Developmentally expected behaviorsPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
39Developmentally expected behaviors Preoccupation with sexuality Late childhood (ages 9-12):Preoccupation with sexualityDevelop crushes and may begin datingHave concerns about being ‘normal’MasturbateReluctant and/or embarrassed to ask questions of caregiversValue privacyKids this age are starting to go through puberty and are likely to have many questions about what to expect and about whether or not they are ‘normal’. At the same time that they are experiencing this anxiety about sex, they are also increasingly private and unwilling to discuss sensitive topics with caregivers.Sources:The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada:Advocates for Youth:Developmentally expected behaviorsPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
40Developmentally expected behaviors Express their sexuality Masturbate Adolescence (ages 13-17):Express their sexualityMasturbateHave the capacity to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy relationshipsUnderstand that media messages influence views about sexUnderstand consequences of sexual activity (pregnancy, STDs, etc.)Adapted from “Growth and Development, Ages 13 to 17 –What Parents Need to Know”Developmentallyexpected behaviorsSources:The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada:Advocates for Youth:Developmentally expected behaviorsPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
41Developmentally expected behaviors Express their sexuality Masturbate Adolescence (ages 13-17):Express their sexualityMasturbateHave the capacity to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy relationshipsUnderstand that media messages influence views about sexUnderstand consequences of sexual activity (pregnancy, STDs, etc.)Adapted from “Growth and Development, Ages 13 to 17 –What Parents Need to Know”Developmentallyexpected behaviorsSources:The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada:Advocates for Youth:Developmentally expected behaviorsPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
42ScenarioYou walk into the other room to find your son and one of his friends with their pants down, touching each other’s genitals.ScenarioPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
43Is there an obvious difference in power? Assessing the situationIs there an obvious difference in power?AgeSizeIntelligenceURSBCObvious differences:Age (One child is 3 or more years older.)Size (One child is larger or one is small for his age.)Intelligence (One child may be developmentally disabled.)Citation:Understanding & Responding to the Sexual Behaviors of Children. Curriculum developed by Ryan, Blum, Sandau Christopher, Law, Weber, Sundine, Astler, Teske & Dale, 1988 (Revised Ryan & Blum, 1993; Ryan 1997) Additional Revisions/Additions By Gail Ryan, 4/2000; 9/2002. Kempe Children’s Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.Assessing the situationPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
44Is there a subtle difference in power? Assessing the situationIs there a subtle difference in power?StrengthPopularitySelf-imageURSBCSometimes, however, the differences in power or authority among children are not always obvious to adults. When evaluating the sexual interactions of children, it is important for adults to understand the ways children think about themselves in relation to their peers and older children. Some of the factors that can greatly influence children’s behaviors can be more subtle, for example, when there is a difference in:Strength (One child is physically strong, or the other slight.)Popularity (One child's popularity gives him influence over others.)Self-image (One child has low-self esteem and little confidence.)Citation:Understanding & Responding to the Sexual Behaviors of Children. Curriculum developed by Ryan, Blum, Sandau Christopher, Law, Weber, Sundine, Astler, Teske & Dale, 1988 (Revised Ryan & Blum, 1993; Ryan 1997) Additional Revisions/Additions By Gail Ryan, 4/2000; 9/2002. Kempe Children’s Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.Assessing the situationPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
45Is there a temporary difference in power? Baby-sitting ‘In charge’ Assessing the situationIs there a temporary difference in power?Baby-sitting‘In charge’Fantasy rolesIn addition to these obvious and subtle differences, there are also temporary differences in power or authority that can result from the actions of adults or through child play. For example, when:An older child is put in charge of another child, such as when babysitting; or,Children are playing a game where someone is made the "king" or the "leader".Citation:Understanding & Responding to the Sexual Behaviors of Children. Curriculum developed by Ryan, Blum, Sandau Christopher, Law, Weber, Sundine, Astler, Teske & Dale, 1988 (Revised Ryan & Blum, 1993; Ryan 1997) Additional Revisions/Additions By Gail Ryan, 4/2000; 9/2002. Kempe Children’s Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.Assessing the situationPreventing child sexual abuseThe Enough Abuse Campaign
47What Are Professional Boundaries? Clearly established limits that allow for safe connections between yourself and childrenA clear understanding of the limits and responsibilities of your role
48The Importance of Boundaries Role modeling to the children/youth healthy communication and professional relationshipStaying focused on one’s responsibilities to the youth in your care, the provision of helpful and appropriate services based on your position description
49Consequences of Having Loose/Poor Boundaries Compassion fatigueYouth may not be given appropriate or helpful services, which could affect the youth’s willingness to accept other services availableYouth may feel betrayed, abandoned, and/or poorly servedStaff and/or youth may be emotionally traumatized and/or put in physical danger
50Why Is It Difficult To Establish And Maintain Professional Boundaries? Dual relationshipsValues conflictsVicarious TraumaPlaying the “hero” rolePoor teamworkDual relationships – Facility staff and youth know each other in a personal context from another setting.Values conflicts –The youth choices, history, relationships, feelings, lifestyle/or life circumstances conflict with the staff’s values, beliefs and know of what worksVicarious Trauma – Staff experiences trauma symptoms from hearing about youth experiences. This information may trigger this reaction due to a history similar to the youth’s history.Playing the “hero” role – Staff feels the need to “save” the client.Poor teamwork – Staff does not trust that other team members are fulfilling their responsibilities to the youth and that the staff can do a much better job then others can for the youth. Staff takes on the roles of other team members.
51Techniques for Creating and Maintaining Healthy Professional Boundaries Begin by establishing an appropriate professional relationshipWhen boundary issues or warning signs appear address issue immediatelyUse your supervisor and/or human resources as a sounding board when you have questions.
52Techniques for Creating and Maintaining Healthy Professional Boundaries (con’t) Use your professional judgment when interacting with the youth, youth’s family and others in social settingPromote and role model positive, open communication and respectful sharing of informationTake care of yourself!
53How to Make the ReportReporting Suspected Child Maltreatment
54Maryland Reporting Requirements Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect CODE OF MARYLANDREGULATIONS, Section Requires reporting child abuse or neglect in thefollowing manner:An individual shall immediately report suspected child abuse or neglect to the local department of social services, or report the suspected incident to a local law enforcement agency.Health practitioners, educators, human service workers, and police officers are required to report, both orally and in writing, any suspected child abuse or neglect, with oral report being made immediately and the written report being made within 48 hours of the contact which disclosed the suspected abuse or neglect.Reports of abuse shall be made to the local departments of social services or the appropriate law enforcement agency. Reports of neglect shall be made to local departments of social services.An employee of a local department of social services who receives a report of suspected child abuse or neglect, shall report the information to the protective services unit within the local department at once so as to initiate prompt handling of the report of suspected child abuse or neglect.
55The Report Why Don’t Some People Report Child Abuse and Neglect? Reasons people don’t report include:Choosing instead to effectively intervene independent of the formal systemFear or unwillingness to get involvedFear that a report will make matters worseReluctance to risk angering the familyConcern that making a report will negatively impact an existing relationship with the child or othersBelief that someone else will speak up and do something
56The Report A report shall include: The name and home address of the child and the parent or other individual responsible for the care of the childThe present location of the childThe age of the childThe names and ages of other children in the homeThe nature and extent of injuries or sexual abuse or neglect of the child, including any information known to the individual making the report of previous possible physical or sexual abuse or neglect
57The ReportIf reporting abuse or neglect of a child involving mental injury, a description of the substantial impairment of the child's mental or psychological ability to function that was observed and identified, and why it is believed to be attributable to an act of maltreatment or omission of proper care and attention
58Your Responsibility as a Reporter A mandated reporter shall make an oral report, by telephone or direct communication, as soon as possible:To the local department or appropriate law enforcement agency if the person has reason to believe that the child has been subjected to abuse or neglectThe mandated reporter shall make a written report to the local department not later than 48 hours after the contact, examination, attention, or treatment that caused the individual to believe that the child had been subjected to abuse or neglect
59Confidentiality of Report The name of the reporter may only be revealed under a court order. However, if the reporter is a professional, he or she may give written permission for his or her identity to be revealed.The identity of any other person whose life or safety is likely to be endangered by disclosing the information must not be disclosed. This is extremely important when sharing information with parents or the person who is suspected of child neglect or abuse.Information should only be disclosed when doing so would be in the best interest of the child who is the subject of the report.Professionals discretion should be exercised to disclose only that information which is relevant for the care or treatment of the child.In 1986, the Maryland confidentiality law was amended to permit the disclosure of information concerning abuse and neglect to licensed practitioners, or an institution which, is providing treatment or care to a child who is the subject of a report of child abuse or neglect. Maryland law also permits information to be shared with members of a multidisciplinary case consultation team who are investigating or providing services in response to a report of suspected abuse or neglect.Maryland Department of Human Resources
61Alternative Response is an approach that: Involves familiesEncourages workers and families to collaborateFocuses on identifying concerns and finding solutionsForms stronger connections with community based agencies
62Alternative Response Assessment Investigation Response All referrals that meet the statutory definitions of maltreatment must be screened in:CPS ResponseAlternative Response AssessmentInvestigation ResponseAll screened in referrals must receive a CPS response according to law
63Investigative Response BothAlternative ResponseFocus on IncidentSafetyFocus on FamilyDetermine FindingsPerformanceFocus on family functioning and healthy child developmentIdentify PerpetratorChild and family well beingEmphasize partnership between parents, DSS, extended family and community supportsUseful in moderate to high risk casesRecognized agency authorityNo findings made, families identified as in need of supportGathers forensic evidence for use in court proceedingsResponds to family unique circumstances
65Resources Maryland Department of Human Resources www.dhr.md.gov Child Abuse Prevention NetworkChildhelp USAPrevent Child Abuse AmericaThe Family TreeChild Welfare League of AmericaThe Enough Abuse Campaign