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Child rights in India Shaishav Child Rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Child rights in India Shaishav Child Rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child rights in India Shaishav Child Rights

2 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
Enshrines 4 major rights all children should hold Right to Survival: includes child’s right to life and the most basic of needs, such as nutrition, shelter, and access to medical services Right to Development: includes right to education, play, leisure, cultural activities, access to information, and freedom of thought

3 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
Right to Protection: ensures children are safeguarded against all forms of abuse, neglect, and exploitation Right to Participation: freedom to express opinions, have a say in matters affecting their own lives, to join organisations and to assemble peacefully

4 General Measures of Implementation
In addition to the UNCRC, national laws and policies designed to protect children include The right to free and compulsory education for all children aged (Article 21a) The right to be protected from any hazardous employment until the age of 14 (Article 24) The right to be protected from being forced to enter occupations unsuited to their age or strength (Article 39e)

5 General Measures of Implementation
The right to equal opportunities, and facilities to develop in a healthy manner, with guaranteed protection against exploitation, and moral and material abandonment (Article 39f) The right to early childhood care and education for all children under 6 years old (Article 45) Poor implementation of existing laws and no common definition of childhood prevents any real change

6 Early Childhood Just 1.66% of the Union Budget was allocated to children under the age of 6 Integrated Child Development Services scheme is the only programme specifically targeting the care, education, health, and nutritional concerns of children World’s largest early child development programme Reaches more than 34m children and 7m pregnant and nursing mothers However, more than 26m children are still unable to benefit from ICDS programmes

7 Early Childhood: Caste Issues
Strong anecdotal evidence that Dalit children are being regularly excluded from feeding programmes Proportion of malnourished children among Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) is significantly higher than under the rest of the population 52.2% of SC children and 57.6% of ST children aged under 3 are underweight, compared to 37.3% outside of these groups

8 Early Childhood: Availability
Many areas have no access to ICDS services, and there are strong disparities between rural and urban areas, with little representation in urban slums Approximately 75% of children aged 0-6 receive no form of supplementary food from the centres 46% of children under 3 are underweight, and 50% of children under 5 are moderately or severely malnourished These children have a high risk of developing vitamin deficiencies such as rickets, scurvy, anaemia, spina bifida and osteoporosis

9 Health India’s public health expenditure ranks 171st out of 175
Current health expenditure is just 1% of GDP, well below the 2-3% required to provide basic healthcare to everyone in India, and the 5% recommended by the WHO Almost 80% of total healthcare costs are met through private expenditure, seriously reducing availability for the poor About 16% of Indian families have been pushed below the poverty line by high healthcare costs

10 Health The infant mortality rate in India remains unacceptably high at deaths per 1000 live births There are wide interstate variations between Kerala (14/1000) and Orissa (96/1000), and large rural-urban variations Diarrhoea is the single most common cause of death amongst children under 5 worldwide, and 20% of deaths are in India Most deaths from diarrhoea can be easily prevented by taking oral rehydration salts

11 Health Over 300,000 children are orphaned by TB each year in India
In 2006 almost 65,000 children suffered from TB and thousands more had to leave school to care for others 10% of children are born with or acquire a disability, 75% of which are preventable The child malnutrition rate in India is double that in Sub- Saharan Africa, and 63% of children under 5 are undernourished

12 Education Over half of children in India either don’t attend school, or drop out before 8th standard 21m primary school aged children (17%) don’t attend school Though this has dropped from 87m in 2001, many children continue to face exclusion from the education system due to their socio-economic status At upper primary level, the number of girls enrolled is less than 85% of the number of boys

13 Education: State of Schools
Approx. 32,000 schools in India have no students at all Mostly state schools located in rural areas In majority of cases this is due to schools having no teachers 23,000 schools were yet to be provided with a teacher, while 130,000 were single teacher schools 25% of state primary school teachers were absent from work, and only 50% are actually engaged in teaching while at work Many schools are lacking proper classrooms, desks, toilets, and drinking water

14 Violence India has the most sexually abused children in the world
Child abuse and violence against children have emerged as some of the biggest problems facing the country Laws are ineffective, and there is no accurate figure on the number of children requiring special protection In 2006 the national conviction rate for crimes against children was just 35.4%

15 Violence: Study on Child Abuse 2007
Physical Abuse 2 out of 3 children were physically abused Out of children physically abused in family situations, 88.6% were abused by their parents 65% of school going children reported facing corporal punishment Most children did not report the abuse to anyone Sexual Abuse 53.2% of children reported facing sexual abuse 21.9% reported severe forms of sexual abuse

16 Violence: Study on Child Abuse 2007
5.69% reported being sexually assaulted 50% of abuses come from a person in a position of trust Most children did not report the abuse to anyone Emotional Abuse 50% of children reported facing emotional abuse Equal percentages of girls and boys reported facing emotional abuse In 83% of cases, parents were the abusers 48.4% of girls wished they were boys

17 Violence: Female Infanticide
For every 1000 boys under the age of 6, there are just girls Each year 12m girls are born, of which 3m do not survive to see their 15th birthday Every 6th female death is due to gender discrimination Clear correlation between the number of sonography centres and a decline in the child sex ratio Female foeticide is most prolific in wealthier areas, where people can afford to check the sex of foetus’s

18 Violence: Child Marriage
Child marriage is one of the worst forms of violence, not only violating the basic rights of girls, but exposing them to sexual violence, unsafe motherhood, and sometimes resultant death This violence is sanctioned by the social norms of India, which still encourages child marriage Approx. 45% of girls are married before the legal age of 18, and almost 30% of boys are married before they reach the legal age of 21

19 Juvenile Justice Of the total number of children involved in crimes in 2006, 64.3% were either illiterate or only had a primary education Overcrowding, violence and abuse is the reality of most custodial institutions A large number of drugs are taken by adolescents in observation homes, and bullying and beatings are a constant feature Children have no-one to talk to, and no opportunity for education

20 Child Labour Number of child labourers varies depending on definition
Official statistics show 20m children working in labour, while most NGOs estimate 50-60m and some up to 100m India has the largest number of child labourers in the world Children’s working conditions can be very severe, with little of the stimulation needed for physical and mental development, and a high chance of injury Child labour law is weak and easily bypassed, merely putting a ban on certain occupations and processes

21 Child Labour: Banned Occupations
The current legislation only prohibits under 14 year olds from working in hazardous industries, including work involving: Exposure to excessive heat or cold Food processing Beverage industry Timber handling and loading Mechanical lumbering Stone grinding Slate mining Quarrying Diving

22 Child Labour Approx. 66% of child labourers work in the agricultural sector, 13% in manufacturing and repair work, 11% in industry, and 7% in mining and quarrying Many girls are engaged in unrecorded domestic work, reported to be the main reason for girls to not attend school At least 2 million children work in hazardous industries, and more than 20% of child labourers suffer from illness or injury related to their work

23 Child Trafficking Next to gun and drug trafficking, human trafficking is the third largest criminal industry in the world, with annual profits of US$10-12bn Across the world, 1.2m children are trafficked every year Trafficking of children occurs for a variety of purposes, such as labour, begging, sexual exploitation, pornography, child marriage, adoption, and organ trade Only 0.034% of the Union Budget is spent on child protection schemes

24 Shaishav Since 1992, Shaishav has been working in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, to realise the basic rights of children, particularly the underprivileged Due to Shaishav’s constant efforts in the community: Over 10,000 children have been admitted into mainstream schooling Several of Shaishav’s materials and activities have been adopted on state and national levels Children have participated in state, national, and international processes, demonstrating their leadership One of Gujarat’s first educational programmes for the safety and training of adolescent girls has been created By leading child rights initiatives in their communities, children are becoming their own change makers in society

25 Contact us Website:
Telephone: +91 (0) Post: Shaishav 601/B “Shanti Sadan” Opp. Shivshakti Hall, Sir Pattni Road, Near Crescent Circle Bhavnagar – Gujarat, India Or Parul Sheth at

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