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CHILD RIGHTS IN INDIA Shaishav Child Rights. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child  Enshrines 4 major rights all children should hold 1. Right to.

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Presentation on theme: "CHILD RIGHTS IN INDIA Shaishav Child Rights. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child  Enshrines 4 major rights all children should hold 1. Right to."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHILD RIGHTS IN INDIA Shaishav Child Rights

2 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child  Enshrines 4 major rights all children should hold 1. Right to Survival: includes child’s right to life and the most basic of needs, such as nutrition, shelter, and access to medical services 2. Right to Development: includes right to education, play, leisure, cultural activities, access to information, and freedom of thought

3 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 3. Right to Protection: ensures children are safeguarded against all forms of abuse, neglect, and exploitation 4. Right to Participation: freedom to express opinions, have a say in matters affecting their own lives, to join organisations and to assemble peacefully

4 General Measures of Implementation  In addition to the UNCRC, national laws and policies designed to protect children include  The right to free and compulsory education for all children aged 6-14 (Article 21a)  The right to be protected from any hazardous employment until the age of 14 (Article 24)  The right to be protected from being forced to enter occupations unsuited to their age or strength (Article 39e)

5 General Measures of Implementation  The right to equal opportunities, and facilities to develop in a healthy manner, with guaranteed protection against exploitation, and moral and material abandonment (Article 39f)  The right to early childhood care and education for all children under 6 years old (Article 45)  Poor implementation of existing laws and no common definition of childhood prevents any real change

6 Early Childhood  Just 1.66% of the Union Budget was allocated to children under the age of 6  Integrated Child Development Services scheme is the only programme specifically targeting the care, education, health, and nutritional concerns of children  World’s largest early child development programme  Reaches more than 34m children and 7m pregnant and nursing mothers  However, more than 26m children are still unable to benefit from ICDS programmes

7 Early Childhood: Caste Issues  Strong anecdotal evidence that Dalit children are being regularly excluded from feeding programmes  Proportion of malnourished children among Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) is significantly higher than under the rest of the population  52.2% of SC children and 57.6% of ST children aged under 3 are underweight, compared to 37.3% outside of these groups

8 Early Childhood: Availability  Many areas have no access to ICDS services, and there are strong disparities between rural and urban areas, with little representation in urban slums  Approximately 75% of children aged 0-6 receive no form of supplementary food from the centres  46% of children under 3 are underweight, and 50% of children under 5 are moderately or severely malnourished  These children have a high risk of developing vitamin deficiencies such as rickets, scurvy, anaemia, spina bifida and osteoporosis

9 Health  India’s public health expenditure ranks 171 st out of 175  Current health expenditure is just 1% of GDP, well below the 2-3% required to provide basic healthcare to everyone in India, and the 5% recommended by the WHO  Almost 80% of total healthcare costs are met through private expenditure, seriously reducing availability for the poor  About 16% of Indian families have been pushed below the poverty line by high healthcare costs

10 Health  The infant mortality rate in India remains unacceptably high at deaths per 1000 live births  There are wide interstate variations between Kerala (14/1000) and Orissa (96/1000), and large rural-urban variations  Diarrhoea is the single most common cause of death amongst children under 5 worldwide, and 20% of deaths are in India  Most deaths from diarrhoea can be easily prevented by taking oral rehydration salts

11 Health  Over 300,000 children are orphaned by TB each year in India  In 2006 almost 65,000 children suffered from TB and thousands more had to leave school to care for others  10% of children are born with or acquire a disability, 75% of which are preventable  The child malnutrition rate in India is double that in Sub- Saharan Africa, and 63% of children under 5 are undernourished

12 Education  Over half of children in India either don’t attend school, or drop out before 8 th standard  21m primary school aged children (17%) don’t attend school  Though this has dropped from 87m in 2001, many children continue to face exclusion from the education system due to their socio-economic status  At upper primary level, the number of girls enrolled is less than 85% of the number of boys

13 Education: State of Schools  Approx. 32,000 schools in India have no students at all  Mostly state schools located in rural areas  In majority of cases this is due to schools having no teachers  23,000 schools were yet to be provided with a teacher, while 130,000 were single teacher schools  25% of state primary school teachers were absent from work, and only 50% are actually engaged in teaching while at work  Many schools are lacking proper classrooms, desks, toilets, and drinking water

14 Violence  India has the most sexually abused children in the world  Child abuse and violence against children have emerged as some of the biggest problems facing the country  Laws are ineffective, and there is no accurate figure on the number of children requiring special protection  In 2006 the national conviction rate for crimes against children was just 35.4%

15 Violence: Study on Child Abuse 2007  Physical Abuse  2 out of 3 children were physically abused  Out of children physically abused in family situations, 88.6% were abused by their parents  65% of school going children reported facing corporal punishment  Most children did not report the abuse to anyone  Sexual Abuse  53.2% of children reported facing sexual abuse  21.9% reported severe forms of sexual abuse

16 Violence: Study on Child Abuse 2007  5.69% reported being sexually assaulted  50% of abuses come from a person in a position of trust  Most children did not report the abuse to anyone  Emotional Abuse  50% of children reported facing emotional abuse  Equal percentages of girls and boys reported facing emotional abuse  In 83% of cases, parents were the abusers  48.4% of girls wished they were boys

17 Violence: Female Infanticide  For every 1000 boys under the age of 6, there are just 914 girls  Each year 12m girls are born, of which 3m do not survive to see their 15 th birthday  Every 6 th female death is due to gender discrimination  Clear correlation between the number of sonography centres and a decline in the child sex ratio  Female foeticide is most prolific in wealthier areas, where people can afford to check the sex of foetus’s

18 Violence: Child Marriage  Child marriage is one of the worst forms of violence, not only violating the basic rights of girls, but exposing them to sexual violence, unsafe motherhood, and sometimes resultant death  This violence is sanctioned by the social norms of India, which still encourages child marriage  Approx. 45% of girls are married before the legal age of 18, and almost 30% of boys are married before they reach the legal age of 21

19 Juvenile Justice  Of the total number of children involved in crimes in 2006, 64.3% were either illiterate or only had a primary education  Overcrowding, violence and abuse is the reality of most custodial institutions  A large number of drugs are taken by adolescents in observation homes, and bullying and beatings are a constant feature  Children have no-one to talk to, and no opportunity for education

20 Child Labour  Number of child labourers varies depending on definition  Official statistics show 20m children working in labour, while most NGOs estimate 50-60m and some up to 100m  India has the largest number of child labourers in the world  Children’s working conditions can be very severe, with little of the stimulation needed for physical and mental development, and a high chance of injury  Child labour law is weak and easily bypassed, merely putting a ban on certain occupations and processes

21 Child Labour: Banned Occupations  The current legislation only prohibits under 14 year olds from working in hazardous industries, including work involving:  Exposure to excessive heat or cold  Food processing  Beverage industry  Timber handling and loading  Mechanical lumbering  Stone grinding  Slate mining  Quarrying  Diving

22 Child Labour  Approx. 66% of child labourers work in the agricultural sector, 13% in manufacturing and repair work, 11% in industry, and 7% in mining and quarrying  Many girls are engaged in unrecorded domestic work, reported to be the main reason for girls to not attend school  At least 2 million children work in hazardous industries, and more than 20% of child labourers suffer from illness or injury related to their work

23 Child Trafficking  Next to gun and drug trafficking, human trafficking is the third largest criminal industry in the world, with annual profits of US$10-12bn  Across the world, 1.2m children are trafficked every year  Trafficking of children occurs for a variety of purposes, such as labour, begging, sexual exploitation, pornography, child marriage, adoption, and organ trade  Only 0.034% of the Union Budget is spent on child protection schemes

24 Shaishav  Since 1992, Shaishav has been working in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, to realise the basic rights of children, particularly the underprivileged  Due to Shaishav’s constant efforts in the community:  Over 10,000 children have been admitted into mainstream schooling  Several of Shaishav’s materials and activities have been adopted on state and national levels  Children have participated in state, national, and international processes, demonstrating their leadership  One of Gujarat’s first educational programmes for the safety and training of adolescent girls has been created  By leading child rights initiatives in their communities, children are becoming their own change makers in society

25 Contact us  Website:   Telephone: +91 (0)  Post: Shaishav 601/B “Shanti Sadan” Opp. Shivshakti Hall, Sir Pattni Road, Near Crescent Circle Bhavnagar – Gujarat, India  Or Parul Sheth at


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