Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Child Poverty in the United States: Trends, Consequences, and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd, Senior Research Scientist June 9, 2014 National Joint Committee.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Child Poverty in the United States: Trends, Consequences, and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd, Senior Research Scientist June 9, 2014 National Joint Committee."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Child Poverty in the United States: Trends, Consequences, and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd, Senior Research Scientist June 9, 2014 National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities: Seventh Annual Symposium

2 2 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Presentation Overview About Child Trends Child poverty by the numbers How poverty harms children Potential solutions Discussion

3 3 About Child Trends Child Trends is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research center that improves the lives and prospects of children and youth by conducting high-quality research and sharing the resulting knowledge with practitioners and policymakers. childtrends.org We... 1.take a whole child approach 2.study children in the real world 3.want children to flourish 4.value objectivity and rigor 5.pursue knowledge development and knowledge transfer Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd

4 4 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Research Areas 4 FATHERHOOD AND PARENTING EARLY CHILDHOOD Poverty INDICATORS EDUCATION (K-12) DATA DEVELOPMENT YOUTH DEVELOPMENT FERTILITY AND FAMILY STRUCTURE

5 5 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd What We Do Develop and track data on children and youth Help to design, implement, and evaluate youth- serving programs Analyze and synthesize data and literature Provide training and technical assistance Design, field, and analyze surveys Design and conduct implementation and qualitative studies

6 6 Partners, Funders, Clients Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd

7 7 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd “What Works” Resources LINKS Database Lifecourse Interventions to Nurture Kids Successfully: A continually updated database of What Works LINKS synthesis “What Works” fact sheets synthesize the lessons learned from experimentally evaluated programs in the LINKS database

8 8 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Outcomes and Indicators Survey and Assessment Tools Performance Management Resources 8

9 9 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Self-Sufficiency Research and Resources Growing online library with over 3000 research-based resources focusing on low-income self-sufficiency Designed for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers Funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services https://www.opressrc.org

10 10 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd What are the demographic and family background characteristics of poor children?

11 11 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Poverty Trends among Children (17 and under)

12 12 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Poverty among Infants and Toddlers

13 13 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Poverty Trends, Children and Adults

14 14 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Poverty by Race/Ethnicity

15 15 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Poverty among Children, by Family Structure and Race/Ethnicity

16 16 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Learning Disabilities among Children 3-17, by Poverty Status (2011/12)

17 17 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Learning Disabilities among Adolescents, by Poverty Status (2011/12)

18 18 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd ADHD/ADD among Children 3-17, by Poverty Status (2011/12)

19 19 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd ADHD/ADD among Children 12-17, by Poverty Status (2011/12)

20 20 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd What are the Consequences of Child Poverty?

21 21 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd 5 ways poverty harms children 1.Poverty harms the brain and other body systems Poverty can negatively affect how the body and mind develop, and alter the fundamental architecture of the brain. Children who experience poverty have an increased likelihood, extending into adulthood, for numerous chronic illnesses, and for a shortened life expectancy.

22 22 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd 5 ways poverty harms children 2. Poverty leads to poor physical, emotional, and behavioral health. Growing up poor increases the likelihood that children will have poor health, including poor emotional and behavioral health. Poor children are more likely to experience "food insecurity," as well as have diets that are deficient in important nutrients. Rates of several chronic health conditions, such as asthma, are higher among poor children. They are less likely to receive preventive medical and dental care.

23 23 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd 5 ways poverty harms children 3. Poor children are more likely to live in neighborhoods with concentrated poverty, which is associated with numerous social ills. Growing up in neighborhoods with concentrated poverty is associated with negative academic outcomes, more social and behavioral problems, and poorer health and physical fitness outcomes. Poor children are more likely to live in neighborhoods where they are exposed to environmental toxins and crime and violence Poor children are also disproportionately likely to attend schools in districts with fewer resources, with facilities that are grossly inadequate, and with school leadership that is more transient.

24 24 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd 5 ways poverty harms children 4. Poverty can harm children through the negative effects it has on their families and the home environment. Poor parents report higher stress,aggravation, and depressive symptoms than do higher-income parents. Parents with scarce economic resources face difficulty planning, preparing, and providing for their families material needs. Children in poor families have fewer books and other educational resources at home, and they are less likely to experience family outings, activities, and programs that can enrich learning opportunities

25 25 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd 5 ways poverty harms children 5. Poverty creates and widens achievement gaps. Young children growing up in poverty, when compared with higher income peers, fall behind early. Poor children lag behind their peers at entry to kindergarten, in reading ability at the end of third grade, and in school attendance in eighth grade. Poor children are more likely to drop out of school, or fail to attain post- secondary credentials.

26 26 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Effects are more negative and long-lasting for children who experience deep poverty, persistent poverty, or poverty during their early years. Intergenerational connection: children who grow up in persistent poverty are more likely to experience poverty as adults compared to children who do not. Effects of poverty can be long-lasting

27 27 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd What are Potential Solutions? Prevent or Reduce Poverty Buffer Negative Effects of Poverty

28 28 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Poverty prevention policy considerations Experimental evidence that welfare reform program that increased family income led to improvements in children’s social and academic outcomes Census analyses provide data on safety net and tax subsidy programs that help to lift families with children out of poverty (Supplemental Poverty Measure) o Earned Income Tax Credits helps to make work pay o Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP or Food Stamps) o Child care subsidies

29 29 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Family support policy considerations Voluntary, evidence-based home visiting for new and expectant mothers at risk for negative child outcomes. Two-generation approaches integrate services for parents and children. Models differ, but often include programs that provide education, employment or social service supports for parents and early child care services for children. Parenting education and parent-child interaction programs that are linguistically and culturally sensitive.

30 30 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Promising and evidence-based program approaches High-quality early childhood education has been proven to improve outcomes for disadvantaged children. Integrated student supports that target academic and non-academic supports in more than 3,000 schools are promising approaches for improving educational outcomes. Investments in effective teen pregnancy prevention programs may reduce poverty.

31 31 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Promising and evidence-based program approaches Well-implemented, high-quality programs targeting children and youth can be effective in improving learning outcomes: Summer learning programs Out-of-school time programs with individualized tutoring and academic enrichment components Volunteer mentoring programs with intensive case management School-based programs targeting social and emotional learning outcomes

32 32 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Promising and evidence-based program approaches—best practices Program quality matters o youth engagement, peer interactions, materials and space, structure and management, intentionality of programming, staff-youth interactions, etc. Participation matters o Regular participation for longer durations associated with better outcomes Stronger effects for more disadvantaged subgroups Performance management and monitoring

33 33 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Recommendations With one in five children under age 18 and one in four children under 5 living in poverty, effective prevention strategies are needed. More research is needed to understand why learning disabilities are more prevalent among poor children. Programs, funders, policymakers should consider piloting, testing, and expanding effective and promising approaches for improving children’s educational outcomes. o When sample sizes permit, more studies should examine outcomes for subgroups of children with learning disabilities and ADHD

34 34 Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd Discussion and Questions Contact Information: Zakia Redd, M.P.P. Senior Research Scientist, Youth Development Sign up for our weekly e-news at: Childtrends.org

35 35 Twitter/childtrendsTwitter/childtrends


Download ppt "1 Child Poverty in the United States: Trends, Consequences, and Potential Solutions Zakia Redd, Senior Research Scientist June 9, 2014 National Joint Committee."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google