Presentation on theme: "Play and Pedagogical Strategies"— Presentation transcript:
1Play and Pedagogical Strategies Cluster TrainingNov ‘13Claire McMonagle , Catherine Cullen NEYAI Professional Pedagogy Project
2AgendaWelcomePresentation and discussion of Pedagogical strategiesGroup workFeedbackReflecting on educators role
3What is PedagogyPedagogy is the interactive process that takes place betweenthe educator and the child to enable learning to take place.Pedagogy is distinct from and complementary to the curriculumCurriculum - describes the ‘what’Pedagogy - describes the ‘how’
4Considering Pedagogy Children need active support from adults who: Are well informed about child developmentAre respectful of and interested in childrenAre knowledgeable about and value the importance of play and the powerful contribution it makes to children’s development and learningUnderstand the importance of relationships with other children and with adultsRecognise learning contexts that are real and meaningful to the child
5Considering Pedagogy Children are often more knowledgeable across a range of interests and experiencesthan the adults with whom they are interacting.This knowledge is crucial in ourimage of the child as a rich andresourceful individual, in whoseabilities we need to trust
6Considering PedagogyEducators who develop the ability to self-reflect learn indifferent ways and are constantly adding to what they know.Educators learn from:Practical researchGeneral evidence from practiceIndividual and group reflectionExploration and enquiryBeing comfortable accepting thatthey are still learning
7Pedagogical Techniques and Strategies ScaffoldingCo-constructingModellingPositioningQuestioningEncouraging and PraisingProblem-solvingDocumentingEmpowering
8ScaffoldingScaffolding is a process by which adults support and guide children’s learning, enabling children to reach to the next level of ability, beyond their own personal capability at that time. The term was coined by Bruner building on Vygotsky’s work (NCCA- Aistear Research papers)
9Scaffolding.........How do I scaffold? 3 Steps to Successful ScaffoldingClosely observe the child’s competencies, abilities and skills. Ask yourself, What can she do alone or with a little assistance? Has she tried to do this before? What activity would challenge her and take her to the next level of competency?Spend time with the child. Support and guide the child to move from one level of competency to the other. Provide the necessary resources, equipment or verbal guidance.Continue to observe the child’s progress, extending understanding, competency and skill through other techniques such as questioning, praising, modelling, confirming
10Co-constructingCo-construction describes how the educator and the child form meaning and build knowledge about the world with each other.Promotes the collaborative nature of children’s learningChildren learn as a direct result of meaningful interaction with their environment (Social Constructivist theory-Vygotsky, Bruner)Co-construction happens when you explore multiple ways of explaining something or working out a problemThe mutual involvement between the educator and the child makes the process exciting, stimulating and enriching.Co-construction techniques emphasise meaning and understanding rather than the acquisition of facts.Through a gradual, shared building of knowledge, through symbolic languages such as music, drama, art, story or movement.
11Co-constructing in Practice Key functions in enabling co- constructionUncover, read and acknowledge the child’s understandingsEnable the child Co- constructors: partners, guides, nurtures, solves problems, learns, hypothesizes to express and share their understandings with othersCollaborate children’s understandings with othersBuild on the child’s understandings
12Co-constructing-Co-construction refers to adults and children making meaning and knowledge together (MacNaughton and Williams, 2004). Co-construction recognises the child’s expertise and in order to understand this, the practitioner needs to interact with the child and become aware of the child’s thoughts and thereby to establish intersubjectivity. (NCCA-Aistear Research papers)Jordan (2004) concludes that the two concepts, scaffolding and co-construction have different applicability depending on whether the goal of the practitioner is the exploration of thinking or the achievement of pre-specified learning goals.Intersubjectivity - shared meaning
14ModellingModelling is a process by which children learn how to behave by copying the behaviour of others.The educator leads by example over a period of time.Children will be more motivated to imitate adult behaviours when they have developed a secure positive relationship with the educator.
15Modelling in PracticeModelling techniques can be used with just about any behaviour the educator wants children to learnThink about.....Social BehavioursPromote healthy and positive attitudesBuilding socially inclusive environmentsSpending time with older peersDisability and Additional NeedsGender, Ethnicity and Culture
16Appropriate intervention in children’s play Observe the children’s play before joining in, unless you have been invited from the beginning.Don’t be afraid to join in, but be aware of what your involvement does to the quality of play. If play stagnates and conversation stops when you enter an area or game, find a way to politely leave! Then continue to observe from a distance.Listen carefully to the language the children are using and think about how to introduce new vocabulary as part of the play.
17Appropriate intervention in children’s play Model being a learner by talking out loud, asking children for help with problems and trying out their ideas and suggestions.You could join in play as a character – for example, the safety inspector visiting the garage – in order to model aspects of play or to model writing for a purpose.Intervention and modelling might be useful if play becomes repetitive or resources are being mishandled.Play alongside the shy child, slowly including him or her in your game through conversation.
18PositioningAs a teaching technique, positioning involves placing learning materials to safely and ethically support and enhance children’s learning.
22QuestioningFrom an early age children use questioning as a means of communicating with each other and with adultsQuestioning is an effective pedagogical technique for the educator to promote learning and development with all children
23Questioning in Practice Share ideas and understandingsWhat happens in your house?Voice feelingsHow do you think he will feel?Guess and predictWhat is going to happen next?Recall experiencesWho were the people in the story?
24Questioning ‘Where do you think the snails are going?’ A child’s intense interest in watching some snails when he is playing in the garden can be sustained by an adult sharing his interest and asking questions or making comments as they observe the snails together. Using questions such as:‘Where do you think the snails are going?’‘How do the snails move?’‘Look Oliver, can you see a trail where the snail has been?’will help to keep Oliver interested and extend his understandings about snails.
25Encouraging and Praising As a teaching technique praise shows children that they deserve recognition, acceptance and approval. Praise can be verbal or non-verbalEducators use encouraging as a teaching technique to support children when attempting new or difficult tasksEncouragement helps children persevere with a task, learn new skills or to develop positive dispositions such as respect or co-operation.
26How to encourage and praise Be sincere and specific with your praisePraise should be seen as encouragement, as part of a continuing processUse descriptive praise that conveys realistic, attainable goalsBeware of over-praising children for doing things they like anywayAvoid praise that compares a child to others
27Problem solvingAs a teaching technique, problem-solving describes how the educator helps children to find answers to problems, questions, dilemmas and issues that children face everyday.Problems can be either physical or social.
28Learning how to problem solve To enable this educators:Facilitate a problem-solving climateAllow time and space to problem-solveProvide materials to encourage problem-solvingPrompt appropriate problems to solve
30Problem solving findings The Study of Pedagogical Effectiveness in Early Learning (SPEEL), conducted by Janet Moyle’s team found that effective early years practitioners created many different opportunities for children to define their own problems, with the practitioner’s role being to clarify and model ways in which problems might be solved. By taking a supportive role, practitioners encouraged individual children to discuss the processes of problem-solving. Listening to children discussing their own understanding and hypothesising and valuing children’s theories, gave practitioners insight into children’s thought processes. These insights are then used to inform future teaching.
31DocumentingDocumenting children’s learning describes all the ways in which information is gathered and presented to build a unique and lively picture of the child including their progress in learning and development over a period of time.
32DocumentingDocumentation is displayed or easily accessible to teachers, children and families to:provide a record of the learning processreveal connections between eventsreview past experiencesplan future experiencesmake learning visible to children and familieshonour children's wordshonour children's families
33DocumentingIt was really fascinating to watch them make documentation decisions! They reflected about the experience, and tried their best to choose pieces of work that would tell their classmates and visitors what they did. Talk about ownership!!"
34EmpoweringEmpowering is about helping children gain a sense of inner confidence, courage and strength to successfully surmount whatever life presents. The act of empowering children is a process of guiding them to feel and believe that they are powerful. As a teaching technique empowerment involves giving children the power to develop dispositions such as confidence, self-image, and resilience.