How do they make you feel? How does this impact your relationship with a child and his family?
Be prepared to support family and staff from the first day of enrollment Keep lines of communication open between program and families Support and encourage parental involvement in activities Learn from family members about their culture, and home and family life
Caucasian Puerto Rican Filipino Eat Solid Food 8.210.1 6.7 Training Cup 12.0 17.1 21.9 Utensils 17.7 26.5 32.4 Finger Foods 8.9 9.4 9.5 Wean 16.8 18.2 36.2 Sleep by Self 13.8 14.6 38.8 Sleep all Night 11.4 14.5 32.4 Choose Clothes 31.1 44.2 33.1 Dress Self 38.2 44.2 39.2 Play Alone 25.0 24.8 12.3 Toilet Trained Day 31.6 29.0 20.4 Toilet Trained Night 33.2 31.8 34.2
Share resources with parents about how to support the child’s development Share positive things the child did at the program Conduct meetings with parents in an environment and time convenient for them Assure parents about confidentiality and privacy rights
Minimize large open spaces Minimize obstacles Have clear boundaries so that children know where a center begins/ends Have enough centers for the number of children and enough materials so that children are engaged and not continually arguing over materials Consider the size and location of centers
Develop a schedule that promotes child engagement and success Balance activities: active and quiet, small and large group, teacher directed and child directed Teach and post a visual schedule Establish a routine and follow it consistently When a change is necessary prepare children ahead of time
Minimize the number of transitions Give a warning before a transition occurs Post and teach class rules with visuals Schedules, Routines and Transitions
ANYTHING we SAY or DO: Focus on what is observable rather than intentions HOW WE REACT to our environment Behaviors are LEARNED and continue because they serve a PURPOSE or FUNCTION We engage in behaviors because we have learned that a DESIRED OUTCOME occurs
Behavior Sequences Are Critical. Simple as ABC! A ntecedent: what’s going on before a person engages in a targeted behavior B ehavior: what exactly the person does C onsequence: what happens following an occurrence of a targeted behavior
Antecedent: Teacher tells Stewie to clean up his centers Behavior: Stewie punches Meg Consequence: Teacher gives Stewie a cookie
Antecedents and consequences that immediately precede and follow behavior are, ultimately, what affect behavior (and whether or not the behavior is likely to occur again) Antecedents and consequences are things we can change and things we control
Who else present? What time? Where? Antecedent What was said? What happened immediately before the student engaged in the behavior? Behavior What exactly did the student do? Consequence What did you do? Praise? Scold? Ignore? Yell? Gave something? Time-out?
Most Ethical Antecedent-based interventions are ways to prevent/or reduce behavior from occurring. Examples: ◦ Pre-assignment attention ◦ Moving seats, line order, environmental manipulations ◦ Frequent breaks and positive attention ◦ Teaching and prompting alternative/incompatible behaviors ◦ Rehearsal and teaching of Replacement Behaviors
Change what you do in order to change what they do. Be careful of exclusion Self esteem may become problematic if always criticized, tell what to do in a positive way. Get buy in whenever possible Establish consistent limits and boundaries Establish enforceable, relevant rules
Reduce or eliminate attention directed to the inappropriate behavior, maximize attention given to the replacement behavior. ◦ Sprick Ratio: 4 positive statements to 1 redirection ◦ hand raising – talk to the student when they raise a quiet hand ◦ Use Pivot Praise – ignore junk behavior, praise students doing the right thing ◦ consider using “chat breaks” ◦ Pre-Assignment Attention ◦ Give the student a helper job ◦ Remember: Attention is your most valuable reinforcer… Praise is a limitless, inexpensive and powerful positive consequence for attention-seeking behavior
Match the instructional level to the student’s ability level. Premack Principle – do the least preferred before the more preferred activity is accessed Break tasks into smaller steps Follow through with your directions, Be the Broken Record! Use “choice” language Remind the student to ask for a break upon completion of some portion of work Remind the student to ask for help Intersperse hard tasks with easy ones Establish consistent routines Remember, timeout for task escape behavior could result in a continuation of the inappropriate behaviors!
Follow the Premack Principle Allow students to earn things they want, contingent on following classroom rules. Star chart, sticker chart or other token systems. Use “if…then” or “when…then” statements
Teach alternative behaviors: ◦ Use fidget toys in replacement of hand flapping ◦ Reinforce student for keeping hands in pockets ◦ Build in times for movement Enriched environment: high levels of access to preferred items or activities, lots of attention Antecedent-Based Intervention
Must know why behavior is occurring to develop an effective intervention plan When you understand what is happening at your center and why it is happening, your team will be able to change how things work (the system) to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behavior
Think ◦ Function ◦ ABC’s ◦ Premack Principle- use the most preferred to get the least preferred accomplished ◦ Sprick Ratio- 4 positive comments for every 1 negative comment