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Child Behavior & Guidance Part 2: Influences on Behavior

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Presentation on theme: "Child Behavior & Guidance Part 2: Influences on Behavior"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Behavior & Guidance Part 2: Influences on Behavior
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service November 10, :30-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson, Ph.D. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University

2 Introduction Welcome Centra Instructions Overview of In-service
Resource Materials

3 In-Service Objectives
Extension Educators will be able to identify and understand: linkages between developmental ages/stages and behavior for children between 2 to 12 years of age. factors and contexts that influence children’s behavior.

4 Understanding a Child’s Behavior
Developmental stage Individual differences Environment Their knowledge level and readiness to learn Unmet needs Children are not born knowing what is expected of them. They must learn how to behave. They do not have self-control to act like an adult Do not have cognitive abilities, knowledge, experience Children are curious, exploring and experimenting Developing independence Parents and older children are models

5 Domains of Development
Physical Emotional Cognitive Social All areas are developing at the same time. They are related and influence each other. Development may not be even in all domains. Important to respect each child as individual. Body growth, coordination, strength Language skills - ability to form sounds into words, into sentences, and put words together in ways that communicate thoughts, feelings, and needs, and to understand what words mean and how to use them. Brain development – allowing to think, reason more clearly, able to ask meaningful questions, make better decisions, perform complex tasks, become more responsible Develop ability to regulate/control emotions and feelings Social – develops skills and attitudes toward playing and working with others

6 Developmental Ages & Stages
Normal changes in child’s growth and behavior Stages of growth build one upon another Switch back & forth between “comfortable” and “uncomfortable” ages/stages Each new phase brings new challenges - transitional phases

7 Ages & Stages Much of young children’s behavior that is annoying to adults is part of their learning process and growth Consider how developmental factors influence behavior Is it a result of… - physical development? - cognitive development? - social development? - emotional development?

8 Two Year-Olds Changes are hard; likes repetition & predictability
Short memory Curious and explores; may get upset when stopped Cannot sit still; easily distracted, dawdles Cannot make choices Frustrated when words aren’t understood Imitates others Shows strong sense of self; self-centered Asserts independence: “me do it” Is negative; says no a lot Doesn’t share well; possessive, “mine” Impatient, hard to wait for turn May tantrum when things go wrong; extremes Toddlers are becoming independent and learning about the world they live in. Need to explore, run, climb, taste, and touch. Often use “social referencing” to check caregivers’ facial expressions to see if a behavior is approved or disapproved May have great difficulty transferring rules across situations Motor abilities language

9 3 Year-Olds Can sit and listen to stories for up to 10 min. without bothering others More aware of others’ feelings & shows concern Can follow brief instructions, accept suggestions Can make simple choices Has little reasoning ability – does not relate actions to results Understands taking turns, but not always willing Not capable of sharing May struggle with adults Friendly and eager to please Enjoys talking & conversation Enjoys playing with peers, activities in small groups Thinks world revolves around him/her Can be happy and contented yet also fearful and unhappy Extreme negativism is reduced Motor skills, fluctuating fine motor capabilities Full of energy Words and speaking more understandable May be mature one moment and like a baby the next

10 4 Year-Olds Cooperates with others; Still working at taking turns
Makes friends with peers Participates in group activities Doesn’t like being left out Seeks adult approval Can follow rules, “do’s & don’ts” Talks a lot; asks many questions Delights in own silliness and humor “Bathroom” talk; words to shock Tests limits May be bossy, tattle, brag, stretch truth, rough, impatient Sharing is more consistent Starting to internalize rules, sense of conscience that is quite strict and rule bound -Strongly identifies and imitates moral models of caregivers Some self-criticism, shame, and guilt if misbehaves May insist on arguing and trying to negotiate everything, especially about following through on requests of caregivers.

11 Summary: Most 2, 3 & 4 year olds
Pay no attention to what they are asked to do Say no, refuse to do what is expected or asked Are pokey, waste time eating, dressing, etc. Wiggle and don’t sit still Laugh, squeal, jump around Grab toys, shove, hit, attack others Refuse to share Cry, sulk easily Ask “unnecessary” questions Seek attention by showing off, look for praise Tattle and boss others Speak indistinctly Are hard to reason with Refuse food & naps

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14 5 Year-Olds Affectionate and caring toward others Enjoys friendships
Understands sharing toys Takes turns but still may not be willing Generally follows directions of adults; cooperates with requests Wants to be “good”, yet unable to admit wrongdoing and does not always tell the truth Likes to help with chores and feel important Boasts about accomplishments; likes praise and wants to please Can sit and pay attention for min. Likes to act like grown-ups, serious, demands Comfortable with what he/she knows how to do Likes to show off Identify with parents and want to be just like them, including dressing and chores When noncompliance occurs, it is generally within the context of an attempt to reason or negotiate to get their own way.

15 6 Year-Olds Emotions up and down Thrives on approval
Possessive with belongings; not yet able to distinguish “mine” & “yours” Responds negatively at first then cooperates Has trouble compromising Difficulty making choices Likes to help with routines Wants to learn Plays best with one friend rather than large group Needs to be reminded of instructions Resists punishment Money and rewards of greater interest Capable & independent Love-hate Can be much confusion and trouble between self and others then quiets down

16 7 Year-Olds Procrastinates, easily distracted, short memory, “tunes out”; loses interest suddenly Very competitive and does not know how to lose Lies because of immaturity Immature sense of ownership Fights with words Sifts/sorts information to make sense; growing reasoning ability Plays easily with others Wants to be part of a group May be self-absorbed, moody, Becoming more aware of self and others Sensitive to others’ feelings; may feel others dislike them, are critical or poking fun Does not listen or take correction well Dislikes individual praise Responds well to rewards Tests limits with determination

17 8 Year-Olds More outgoing and self-confident
More self-aware and self-judging; dislikes being teased about shortcomings Can respond rapidly to instructions Prefers hint/cue rather than a direct order; responds to glance Asks for praise; wants time, attention, affection, approval Tells tales with some truth Dramatic, impatient, demanding Likes to argue, compete, criticize Easily disappointed if people don’t behave as wished Talks a lot and gossips Cannot lose gracefully Behavior improves after brief isolation from a group Interested in & concerned about possessions Beginning to think abstractly Friends of same sex important Signs of growing independence – test growing knowledge with back talk and rebellion Learns through others’ mistakes

18 9 Year-Olds Great interest in fairness
Group standards more important than parental standards Demanding /critical of others and self Self-involved; may not hear when spoken to; may appear absent-minded or indifferent Shows anger at parents but is loyal to family, friends Takes criticism or commands better if carefully phrased Quieter; more self-control; can spend more time alone Increasingly self-confident, independent, responsible, dependable, cooperative Likes to please Likes organized activities; likes to be chosen Friendships are more solid Sometimes temperamental May resist/rebel authority and being told what to do Interests expanding beyond home and family

19 10 Year-Olds Emotionally direct, simple Less anxious & demanding
More often good-natured; moodiness is short-lived and infrequent Can show sharp, violent temper Can be very affectionate and concerned about others

20 11 & 12 Year-Olds May grow rapidly; activity, appetite & energy levels increase; some start to mature sexually May be tired, moody, anxious, and bicker Can be loud, rude, obnoxious; personal habits and manners take on less importance Like to take chances and defy rules Like to argue with adults, yet can be cooperative & friendly Friends & groups are more important Opposite sex interests emerge Tend to avoid complicated tasks

21 Influences on Behavior
Individual Differences ***** Why Children Misbehave

22 Temperament Traits of temperament Individual differences
Activity level Rhythmicity, regularity Adaptability to new situations (approach or withdrawal Adaptability in general Sensory threshold Quality of mood Intensity of reaction, response Distractability Persistence, attention span Individual differences Biological factors Also consider adult’s traits Patterns Easy child Difficult child Slow to warm up child

23 Goodness of Fit Match between a child’s temperament and the demands of his/her environment (family, school, child care setting) Demands and expectations of family members and others are compatible with the child’s temperament, abilities, and characteristics Match/mismatch between a child and parent or caregiver determines harmony between them

24 Special Concerns Developmental delays – physical, cognitive, socioemotional Disabilities – physical, learning, cognitive Brain trauma

25 Why Children Misbehave
Unmet physical needs - tired, hungry, doesn’t feel good Unmet emotional needs – love, attention, angry, afraid, disappointed, feel inadequate, lack confidence, discouraged, rejected, upset, insecure, bored Power – testing limits, asserting self & independence, protect themselves, to get what they want, revenge Changes – routines, new situations Understanding – lack of knowledge, experience, unclear directions Imitation – of parents, peers, media Rewarded - for their misbehavior

26 Why Children Misbehave
Children may not be able to tell us “why” and may not have words to express their feelings. Behaviors produce a certain reaction from the adult. To decide why the child is behaving a certain way, identify your feelings first. Then match it with the reason behind the behavior.

27 influence each other’s behavior
Child ↔ Parent influence each other’s behavior Bi-directional

28 Influences on Behavior
Parenting **** Environment

29 Major Aspects Parenting Behavior
Parental Responsiveness Parental Demandingness Love Warmth Nurturance Discipline Control Responsiveness – extent to which parents respond to child’s needs in an accepting, supportive manner. Nurturance helps children feel loved, secure, cared about and fosters children’s acceptance of discipline and demands. Demandingness is extent to which parent expects and demands responsible behavior from children.

30 Parenting Styles Authoritarian – autocratic, highly demanding and directive but not responsive. Authoritative – both demanding and responsive, firm and supportive rather than punitive. Permissive – indulgent, nondirective, more responsive than demanding. Unengaged – uninvolved, low responsiveness and low demanding. Baumrind, 1991

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32 Effects of Parenting on Child’s Self-Regulation
Parental warmth, high responsiveness, and synchrony → current and later compliance Warmth, empathy, and supportiveness → later capacity for empathy, negotiation, social competence, and prosocial behavior Hostile and conflictual interactions → defiance, extreme disobedience, and conduct problems Children in authoritative families → more competent, socially responsive, and have higher grades than authoritarian or permissive

33 Early Bonds are Beneficial
Infants/toddlers with close, positive, and mutually responsive bond with mother during first 2 years are better able to follow mother’s requests not to do something and control their actions at age 4 than children without parental bond Such bonds include coordinated routines, mutual cooperation, harmonious communication, and sharing positive emotions and interactions Reduced need for forceful discipline Similar findings for father-child link, yet reasons less clear Kochanska, Aksan, Prisco, & Adams (2008)

34 Father Involvement Children with involved dads tend to: be more social
handle stress easier have higher cognitive development, IQs longer attention spans be eager to learn have more self-control be confident in their individuality and values develop greater empathy engage in less risky behavior later in childhood & adolescence

35 Other Environmental Factors
Home or child care setting – types of toys, stimulation, crowding, stability, safety, conflict Peers Television, media Culture Neighborhood and community

36 Discussion & Applications

37 Wrap-up Wrap-Up Questions Discussion In-service evaluation Follow-up
Next Session: Tues. November 17 – Behavior Problems Submit questions or comments about this session or for next session. Consider the definitions, theoretical frameworks with own upbringing, teaching, curricula, written resources, etc. In-service evaluation - weblink Post recording of session.

38 References Landy, S. (2002). Pathways to competence: Encouraging healthy social and emotional development in young children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Fact sheets, article abstracts, and other resource materials provided separately Various textbooks and other reference materials


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