Presentation on theme: "Child Behavior & Guidance Part 2: Influences on Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1 Child Behavior & Guidance Part 2: Influences on Behavior Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service November 10, :30-11:00 a.m.Debbie Richardson, Ph.D.Parenting Assistant Extension SpecialistHuman Development & Family ScienceOklahoma State University
2 Introduction Welcome Centra Instructions Overview of In-service Resource Materials
3 In-Service Objectives Extension Educators will be able to identify and understand:linkages between developmental ages/stages and behavior for children between 2 to 12 years of age.factors and contexts that influence children’s behavior.
4 Understanding a Child’s Behavior Developmental stageIndividual differencesEnvironmentTheir knowledge level and readiness to learnUnmet needsChildren are not born knowing what is expected of them. They must learn how to behave.They do not have self-control to act like an adultDo not have cognitive abilities, knowledge, experienceChildren are curious, exploring and experimentingDeveloping independenceParents and older children are models
5 Domains of Development Physical EmotionalCognitive SocialAll areas are developing at the same time.They are related and influence each other.Development may not be even in all domains.Important to respect each child as individual.Body growth, coordination, strengthLanguage skills - ability to form sounds into words, into sentences, and put words together in ways that communicate thoughts, feelings, and needs, and to understand what words mean and how to use them.Brain development – allowing to think, reason more clearly, able to ask meaningful questions, make better decisions, perform complex tasks, become more responsibleDevelop ability to regulate/control emotions and feelingsSocial – develops skills and attitudes toward playing and working with others
6 Developmental Ages & Stages Normal changes in child’s growth and behaviorStages of growth build one upon anotherSwitch back & forth between “comfortable” and “uncomfortable” ages/stagesEach new phase brings new challenges - transitional phases
7 Ages & StagesMuch of young children’s behavior that is annoying to adults is part of their learning process and growthConsider how developmental factors influence behaviorIs it a result of…- physical development?- cognitive development?- social development?- emotional development?
8 Two Year-Olds Changes are hard; likes repetition & predictability Short memoryCurious and explores; may get upset when stoppedCannot sit still; easily distracted, dawdlesCannot make choicesFrustrated when words aren’t understoodImitates othersShows strong sense of self; self-centeredAsserts independence: “me do it”Is negative; says no a lotDoesn’t share well; possessive, “mine”Impatient, hard to wait for turnMay tantrum when things go wrong; extremesToddlers are becoming independent and learning about the world they live in.Need to explore, run, climb, taste, and touch.Often use “social referencing” to check caregivers’ facial expressions to see if a behavior is approved or disapprovedMay have great difficulty transferring rules across situationsMotor abilitieslanguage
9 3 Year-OldsCan sit and listen to stories for up to 10 min. without bothering othersMore aware of others’ feelings & shows concernCan follow brief instructions, accept suggestionsCan make simple choicesHas little reasoning ability – does not relate actions to resultsUnderstands taking turns, but not always willingNot capable of sharingMay struggle with adultsFriendly and eager to pleaseEnjoys talking & conversationEnjoys playing with peers, activities in small groupsThinks world revolves around him/herCan be happy and contented yet also fearful and unhappyExtreme negativism is reducedMotor skills, fluctuating fine motor capabilitiesFull of energyWords and speaking more understandableMay be mature one moment and like a baby the next
10 4 Year-Olds Cooperates with others; Still working at taking turns Makes friends with peersParticipates in group activitiesDoesn’t like being left outSeeks adult approvalCan follow rules, “do’s & don’ts”Talks a lot; asks many questionsDelights in own silliness and humor“Bathroom” talk; words to shockTests limitsMay be bossy, tattle, brag, stretch truth, rough, impatientSharing is more consistentStarting to internalize rules, sense of conscience that is quite strict and rule bound-Strongly identifies and imitates moral models of caregiversSome self-criticism, shame, and guilt if misbehavesMay insist on arguing and trying to negotiate everything, especially about following through on requests of caregivers.
11 Summary: Most 2, 3 & 4 year olds Pay no attention to what they are asked to doSay no, refuse to do what is expected or askedAre pokey, waste time eating, dressing, etc.Wiggle and don’t sit stillLaugh, squeal, jump aroundGrab toys, shove, hit, attack othersRefuse to shareCry, sulk easilyAsk “unnecessary” questionsSeek attention by showing off, look for praiseTattle and boss othersSpeak indistinctlyAre hard to reason withRefuse food & naps
14 5 Year-Olds Affectionate and caring toward others Enjoys friendships Understands sharing toysTakes turns but still may not be willingGenerally follows directions of adults; cooperates with requestsWants to be “good”, yet unable to admit wrongdoing and does not always tell the truthLikes to help with chores and feel importantBoasts about accomplishments; likes praise and wants to pleaseCan sit and pay attention for min.Likes to act like grown-ups, serious, demandsComfortable with what he/she knows how to doLikes to show offIdentify with parents and want to be just like them, including dressing and choresWhen noncompliance occurs, it is generally within the context of an attempt to reason or negotiate to get their own way.
15 6 Year-Olds Emotions up and down Thrives on approval Possessive with belongings; not yet able to distinguish “mine” & “yours”Responds negatively at first then cooperatesHas trouble compromisingDifficulty making choicesLikes to help with routinesWants to learnPlays best with one friend rather than large groupNeeds to be reminded of instructionsResists punishmentMoney and rewards of greater interestCapable & independentLove-hateCan be much confusion and trouble between self and others then quiets down
16 7 Year-OldsProcrastinates, easily distracted, short memory, “tunes out”; loses interest suddenlyVery competitive and does not know how to loseLies because of immaturityImmature sense of ownershipFights with wordsSifts/sorts information to make sense; growing reasoning abilityPlays easily with othersWants to be part of a groupMay be self-absorbed, moody,Becoming more aware of self and othersSensitive to others’ feelings; may feel others dislike them, are critical or poking funDoes not listen or take correction wellDislikes individual praiseResponds well to rewardsTests limits with determination
17 8 Year-Olds More outgoing and self-confident More self-aware and self-judging; dislikes being teased about shortcomingsCan respond rapidly to instructionsPrefers hint/cue rather than a direct order; responds to glanceAsks for praise; wants time, attention, affection, approvalTells tales with some truthDramatic, impatient, demandingLikes to argue, compete, criticizeEasily disappointed if people don’t behave as wishedTalks a lot and gossipsCannot lose gracefullyBehavior improves after brief isolation from a groupInterested in & concerned about possessionsBeginning to think abstractlyFriends of same sex importantSigns of growing independence – test growing knowledge with back talk and rebellionLearns through others’ mistakes
18 9 Year-Olds Great interest in fairness Group standards more important than parental standardsDemanding /critical of others and selfSelf-involved; may not hear when spoken to; may appear absent-minded or indifferentShows anger at parents but is loyal to family, friendsTakes criticism or commands better if carefully phrasedQuieter; more self-control; can spend more time aloneIncreasingly self-confident, independent, responsible, dependable, cooperativeLikes to pleaseLikes organized activities; likes to be chosenFriendships are more solidSometimes temperamentalMay resist/rebel authority and being told what to doInterests expanding beyond home and family
19 10 Year-Olds Emotionally direct, simple Less anxious & demanding More often good-natured; moodiness is short-lived and infrequentCan show sharp, violent temperCan be very affectionate and concerned about others
20 11 & 12 Year-OldsMay grow rapidly; activity, appetite & energy levels increase; some start to mature sexuallyMay be tired, moody, anxious, and bickerCan be loud, rude, obnoxious; personal habits and manners take on less importanceLike to take chances and defy rulesLike to argue with adults, yet can be cooperative & friendlyFriends & groups are more importantOpposite sex interests emergeTend to avoid complicated tasks
21 Influences on Behavior Individual Differences ***** Why Children Misbehave
22 Temperament Traits of temperament Individual differences Activity levelRhythmicity, regularityAdaptability to new situations (approach or withdrawalAdaptability in generalSensory thresholdQuality of moodIntensity of reaction, responseDistractabilityPersistence, attention spanIndividual differencesBiological factorsAlso consider adult’s traitsPatternsEasy childDifficult childSlow to warm up child
23 Goodness of FitMatch between a child’s temperament and the demands of his/her environment (family, school, child care setting)Demands and expectations of family members and others are compatible with the child’s temperament, abilities, and characteristicsMatch/mismatch between a child and parent or caregiver determines harmony between them
25 Why Children Misbehave Unmet physical needs - tired, hungry, doesn’t feel goodUnmet emotional needs – love, attention, angry, afraid, disappointed, feel inadequate, lack confidence, discouraged, rejected, upset, insecure, boredPower – testing limits, asserting self & independence, protect themselves, to get what they want, revengeChanges – routines, new situationsUnderstanding – lack of knowledge, experience, unclear directionsImitation – of parents, peers, mediaRewarded - for their misbehavior
26 Why Children Misbehave Children may not be able to tell us “why” and may not have words to express their feelings.Behaviors produce a certainreaction from the adult.To decide why the child is behaving a certain way, identify your feelings first. Then match it with the reason behind the behavior.
27 influence each other’s behavior Child ↔ Parentinfluence each other’s behaviorBi-directional
28 Influences on Behavior Parenting **** Environment
29 Major Aspects Parenting Behavior Parental ResponsivenessParental DemandingnessLoveWarmthNurturanceDisciplineControlResponsiveness – extent to which parents respond to child’s needs in an accepting, supportive manner.Nurturance helps children feel loved, secure, cared about and fosters children’s acceptance of discipline and demands.Demandingness is extent to which parent expects and demands responsible behavior from children.
30 Parenting StylesAuthoritarian – autocratic, highly demanding and directive but not responsive.Authoritative – both demanding and responsive, firm and supportive rather than punitive.Permissive – indulgent, nondirective, more responsive than demanding.Unengaged – uninvolved, low responsiveness and low demanding.Baumrind, 1991
32 Effects of Parenting on Child’s Self-Regulation Parental warmth, high responsiveness, and synchrony → current and later complianceWarmth, empathy, and supportiveness → later capacity for empathy, negotiation, social competence, and prosocial behaviorHostile and conflictual interactions → defiance, extreme disobedience, and conduct problemsChildren in authoritative families → more competent, socially responsive, and have higher grades than authoritarian or permissive
33 Early Bonds are Beneficial Infants/toddlers with close, positive, and mutually responsive bond with mother during first 2 years are better able to follow mother’s requests not to do something and control their actions at age 4 than children without parental bondSuch bonds include coordinated routines, mutual cooperation, harmonious communication, and sharing positive emotions and interactionsReduced need for forceful disciplineSimilar findings for father-child link, yet reasons less clearKochanska, Aksan, Prisco, & Adams (2008)
34 Father Involvement Children with involved dads tend to: be more social handle stress easierhave higher cognitive development, IQslonger attention spansbe eager to learnhave more self-controlbe confident in their individuality and valuesdevelop greater empathyengage in less risky behavior later in childhood & adolescence
35 Other Environmental Factors Home or child care setting – types of toys, stimulation, crowding, stability, safety, conflictPeersTelevision, mediaCultureNeighborhood and community
37 Wrap-up Wrap-Up Questions Discussion In-service evaluation Follow-up Next Session: Tues. November 17 – Behavior ProblemsSubmit questions or comments about this session or for next session.Consider the definitions, theoretical frameworks with own upbringing, teaching, curricula, written resources, etc.In-service evaluation - weblinkPost recording of session.
38 ReferencesLandy, S. (2002). Pathways to competence: Encouraging healthy social and emotional development in young children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Fact sheets, article abstracts, and other resource materials provided separatelyVarious textbooks and other reference materials