7The History of Child Development (1) Science of Child DevelopmentOnly about a century oldAncient times & Middle AgesChildren seen as innately evilDiscipline was harshConsidered as property and servantsAge of 7 considered “age of reason” and expected to work alongside adultsNote for discussion: The answer to T/F? #1 - Truth. Good opportunity to compare the current attitudes and expectations of children with those of the Middle Ages. Excellent class discussion topic.
8The History of Child Development (2) Transition to modern thinking18th & 19th century philosophersLockeTabula rasa = blank tabletFocus on role of environment & experienceSocial approval/disapproval powerful shapers of behaviorRousseauChildren inherently goodWould naturally develop into moral adults
9The History of Child Development (3) Industrial RevolutionAdvent of “nuclear family”Consisting of mother, father, childrenChildren more visible: childhood seen as unique time of lifeStill labored in factories through early 20th century20th century saw laws enacted to:Protect from strenuous laborRequire attendance at school until certain agePrevent marriage until certain ageProtect from sexual exploitation and parental abuseEstablish Juvenile Courts to deal with children in the criminal justice system
10The History of Child Development (4) Pioneers in study of Child DevelopmentDarwinTheory of EvolutionKept a “baby biography” of infant sonHallCredited with the founding of child development as an academic disciplineLabeled adolescence a time of “storm and stress”Binet and SimonDeveloped first standardized intelligence testing to help identify academically “at risk” school children in FranceThe Zeitgeist of 19th & early 20th centuries saw a burgeoning of scientific study in the field of Child Development. Many of the pioneers in Psychology contributed to the newfound interest in how children develop and grow into adulthood.The APA was founded in July 1892 at Clark University by a group of 26 men. Its first president was G. Stanley Hall.
12Psychoanalytic theories Behavioral and Social Cognitive theories THEORIES of Child Development help us to EXPLAIN, PREDICT, and INFLUENCEPsychoanalytic theoriesFreud - EricksonBehavioral and Social Cognitive theoriesWatson - Gesell - Skinner - BanduraCognitive theoriesPiagetBiological theoriesDarwin - Lorenz - TinbergenEcological theoriesBronfenbrennerSociocultural theoriesVygotskyThis slide is an overview of the topic of Developmental Theories, and gives some of the major researchers and developers names. It serves as an introduction to the various theories that will be reviewed individually in the following slides.All theories have the purpose of assisting scientific investigation in explaining, predicting, and influencing behaviors in order to better understand the process of human development.We will discuss the premises of each and it’s variations along with the primary developers and researchers of each.
13Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Development Focus on emotional and social development and origins of personality traitsThree parts of personalityIdInnate, unconscious, represents biological drivesDemands immediate gratificationEgoCurbs the IdCompromises drives with social conventionsSuperegoDevelops throughout infancy and early childhoodMonitors the intentions and actions of the Id and the EgoServes as the conscience and judges “right” and “wrong”Id = the total self-immersion- “I want it, I want it now, and I don’t care about anyone else”Ego = the arbitrator/mediator - why it’s not a good idea to go directly for the “prize” you seek, without first adjusting to social standards. The Compromise between “I want it, and I want it now regardless of the consequences to others” and “this is not the best way to get what I want”. It’s getting what you want without upsetting the status of the culture you live inSuperego = the conscience (right and wrong) - your higher self. Doing what is best and right regardless of whether you get what you want.
14Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Development Five stages of Psychosexual DevelopmentOralB -18 mos. - gratification centers on mouthAnalyrs. - gratification centers on anus and functions of eliminationPhallic3 - 6 yrs. - gratification centers on genitalsLatencyyrs. - puberty - repression of sexual thoughts - develops social and intellectual skillsGenitalPuberty - adult - renewal of sexual desires - seeks fulfillment through contact with opposite sexAnswer to second “T or F?” - This is TRUE according to psychoanalytic theory, but there is no empirical evidence for it. Therefore it is labeled as fiction.Good point to open discussion on the topic of “fixations” at each stage of development and some of the negative aspects each stage comprises.Oral = sucking, biting, etc. If not allowed time to fully express this stage it may develop into an Oral Fixation - resulting in nail biting, smoking, etc. as an adultAnal = control l and elimination of waste products if primary - too harsh or too lax toilet training can lead to Anal-Retentive behaviors such as perfectionism and neatness, or anal-expulsive traits, such as sloppiness and carelessness.Phallic = investigation and pre-occupation with genitals - conflict may arise over masturbation - and it is normal for children to develop strong sexual attachments to the parent of the opposite sex during this stage and to develop rivalries with the same sex parent - (the Oedipus and Electra syndromes)Latency = sexual feelings remain unconscious - children turn to schoolwork - typically preferring playmates of their own sex.Genital = begins with biological changes of puberty. Generally desiring sexual gratification with peers of opposite sex (focus no longer on parent of opposite sex). Freud believed that oral or anal stimulation, masturbation, or homosexual activities were immature forms of sexual conduct that reflect fixations at earlier stages of development.
16Also places greater emphasis on the ego, or the sense of self Psychoanalytic Perspective Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial DevelopmentModified and expanded Freud’s theory from 5 to 8 stages and included adult concernsFocuses more on social relationships and physical maturation rather than sexual or aggressive instinctsAlso places greater emphasis on the ego, or the sense of selfLabeled them after “LIFE CRISES” rather than bodily partsIn our culture we are probably most familiar with the “Identity Crisis” that is experienced by adolescents in attempting to determine “who they are” and how they identify themselves.Erikson proposed that every individual works their way through each stage with the support and assistance of parents and caregivers, with each successful transition building upon the next.
18The Learning Perspective: Behavioral & Social Cognitive Theories Behaviorism - John B. WatsonBelieved in the objective, scientific approach - that only observable behavior was relevantDid not include any cognitive or introspective aspectsWas in opposition to the ideas of Arnold Gesell who believed “biological MATURATION” was the main focus of developmentWatson emphasized BEHAVIOR PATTERNSGesell emphasized PHYSICAL ASPECTS
19Terms and Concepts of Behavioral Theory Classical Conditioning: developed by Pavlov; reflex response is associated with a new stimulusOperant Conditioning: developed by Skinner; learning occurs due to its reinforcement effectReinforcementStimuli that increases the frequency of the behavior they followPositive ReinforcersIncrease the frequency of behaviors when they are APPLIEDNegative ReinforcersIncrease the frequency of behaviors when they are REMOVEDExtinctionNo longer reacting to a previous stimulus due to lack of reinforcementInstructor may take time to explain Pavlov’s classic experiment with dogs if so desired at this point.Good place to ask class for examples they can think of for types of reinforcers and how well they think they work.Positive: rewards of food, praise, special privileges, etc. for desired behaviorNegative: removing unpleasant stimuli - aspirin is a negative reinforcer - when a parent quits nagging a child to take out the garbageExtinction: example - a dog quits salivating at the sound of bell when it no longer receives the food in conjunction with the sound.
20Issues with punishment: Punishment: aversive events that decrease the frequency of the behavior they followIssues with punishment:Does not offer alternative acceptable behaviorsTends to suppress behavior only when its delivery is guaranteed (must be consistent and immediate)Can create feelings of anger and hostilityMost students are resistant to the fact that punishment is not a valid deterrent to undesirable behaviors. This issue of whether to spank children or not is a good topic of class discussion for this slide. Spanking is entrenched in our culture as an acceptable and indeed even expected form of behavior control for children. Discussion of the banning of spanking in the school system and not in the home is excellent here…also the other countries that have banned spanking of children even in the homes.
21Social Cognitive Theory Developed by Bandura; learning occurs by observing other people, by reading, by viewing characters in different mediaObservational learning occurs through modeling the same behavior of another person.Observational learning can lie latent until the behavior observed is needed or applicable.The people after whom we pattern our behavior are called models.Instructor may want to discuss the famous BoBo Doll experiment done by Albert Bandura.The key thought to Bandura’s theory is the old adage: “monkey see, monkey do”.Parents often admonish children to: “do as I say, not as I do”, these are both examples of our cultural assimilation of this theory.Instructor may want to open class discussion on the effects of violence in the media on young children.You may also open discussion regarding who they think are positive role models and negative role models in our culture.
22Cognitive-Developmental Theory Jean Piaget Observed and based his theory of child development on the consistent (although sometimes illogical) mental processes of childrenTerms and conceptsSchemePattern of action or mental structure involved in acquiring and organizing knowledgeAdaptationInteraction between the organism and the environment includes:Assimilation: responding to new objects or events using existing schemesAccommodation: adjusting or creating new schemes when something new doesn’t fit old schemeEquilibrationAssimilation allows cognitive harmony (equilibrium/balance) when assimilation cannot take place, the equilibrium is disturbed, and accommodation may be employed.Equilibration is at the heart of a child’s natural curiosity.Totally different from the strict Behaviorist views of Watson and Skinner, Piaget brought the ideas of cognitions back into the realm of theory in Child Development.
24Evaluation of Piaget’s ideas He may have underestimated the ages of children’s capabilities.Many cognitive skills may develop gradually and not in distinct stages.He has however, provided a strong theoretical basis for further research in cognitive development.Good discussion topic: did he underestimate the ages of children’s abilities, or…are children today more advanced in their abilities than they were when he was doing his research in the early part of the 20th century ( ’s).
25Another Cognitive Perspective Information Processing Theory The brain is a sort of biological computer.Information Processing Theory is based on the computer as a metaphor for human cognitive processes.Terms and conceptsEncoding: input of information (enter data)Storing: placing it in long term memory files from the short term/working filesRetrieving: finding the files and using the data/information to solve problemsThe human brain is the “hardware” in this metaphorThe brain cells called NEURONS - are our “personal computers”.Our strategies for solving problems are our Mental programs” or the “software” we are running.
26Biological Perspective Ethology Biological Perspectives relate to all physical developments.Ethology is concerned with inborn, instinctive, behavior patterns.Fixed Action Patterns: built-in or instinctive behaviors (example: birds migrating to same place; sex hormone secretion during prenatal development resulting in masculine or feminine patterned brain)Good topic for class discussion: Are humans “pre-wired” with instincts the same way that other animal species are? If so what are the implications of pre-natal human sex hormones on human behaviors?
27Ecological Perspective Urie Bronfrenbrenner Ecology: the branch of biology dealing with relationships between living organisms and their environment.Ecological Systems Theory: incorporates psychological, social, emotional, and biological aspects.Stresses the two-way interactions between parent and childUrie Bronfenbrenner was also instrumental in the development of the Head Start Program initiated by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
28Ecological Systems Theory Views settings/contexts of human development as multiple systems within a larger systemTerms and conceptsMicrosystem: interactions of the child with other people in the immediate setting such as the home, school, or peer groupMesosystem: interactions of various settings with the microsystem such as the parent-teacher conference or the school field trip to the zooExosystem: institutions which indirectly affect the development of the child such as the school board or the parent’s place of employmentMacrosystem: involves the interaction of the child with the beliefs, expectations, and lifestyle of their cultural settingChronosystem: refers to the influence that the changes over time have on development
29Sociocultural Perspective Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory People are social beings who are affected by the cultures in which they live.Theory concentrates on the process of transmitting information and cognitive skills from generation to generation.Focus is on child’s social interactions.Views the child as adapting to his/her social and cultural interactionsLev Vygotsky - Russian Child Developmental Researcher. Primary work done while Russia was a closed door to the west. His ideas did not come to the western culture until the U.S. and Russian “Cold War” was disintegrated.
33Age old debate of which is more influential in development… Three Controversies in Child Development (1) Nature/Nurture ControversyAge old debate of which is more influential in development…Nature (heredity)Do we come preprogrammed to be what we become regardless of where, by whom, and how we are raised?Nurture (environmental influences)Or does the environment alone influence how we develop. Are we the tabula rasas simply awaiting someone to write on us?Today’s general opinion…Most researchers agree that both nature and nurture play vital roles in nearly all areas of development.Question students on how they believe? Good class discussion material.
34Continuous perspective (no specific “stages”) Three Controversies in Child Development (2) Continuity/Discontinuity ControversyContinuous perspective (no specific “stages”)Views development as a gradual process with no major qualitative changesDiscontinuous perspective (stage theories)Views development as a series of rapid qualitative changes ushering in new stages of developmentFreud and Piaget were discontinuous (stage) theorists.Certain aspects of physical development do occur in stages (early and adolescent growth spurts).Cognitive development remains in disagreement with researchers.Ask class if they can name any other discontinuous or stage theorists?Or any of the theorists that leaned more toward the continuous theory.
35Three Controversies in Child Development (3) Active/Passive Controversy Active perspectiveMaintains children are actively engaged in their own developmentAssumes children have a natural love of learningProponents of open education that encourages children to explore and pursue their own unique talents adhere to this perspectivePassive perspectiveMaintains that children are passive and the environment acts on them to influence developmentAssumes children must be “motivated” by their teachersSuch educators typically adhere to rigorous traditional teaching regimens that use rewards and punishments to promote learning.Ask students to name different examples of educational systems that fall into these categories.Montessori, Head Start, and traditional Public Schooling.
37How We Study Child Development Gathering Information Scientists value evidence that is obtained only by using the empirical approach.There are a number of research approaches that provide valid empirical data.Other types of conclusions that rely solely on strong argumentation, or reference to authority figures are not evidence. These are referred to as anecdotal, and do not provide valid conclusions.Define Empirical - The doctrine that all knowledge is derived from experience through the senses - relating to or based on experience and observation rather than on theory or principle.Define Anecdotal - interesting or entertaining, not based in scientific investigation.Explain to the students the value of employing CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS when viewing studies or reading the daily paper, or watching the news on television. Understanding the concepts of valid research methods provides a strong foundation for sifting thorough all sorts of information and publications.
38Types of Developmental Research Methodologies Naturalistic observationCase studyCorrelationExperimentLongitudinalCross-sectionalCross-sequentialThis slide serves as an overview of the types that will be discussed from the text. Each one will then be discussed individually.
39Naturalistic Observation These studies are conducted in “the field”“real-life” settings: homes, schools, playgrounds, etc.Researchers observe the natural behavior of the subjectsThey try to be as unobtrusive as possible and “blend-in” without being noticed.Ask class why they think the researchers using this method do not want to be noticed as they are observing.Remind them one of the drawbacks to this method is the fact that an observer is present may inadvertently change the behavior of the subject. That is why one-way mirrors work well when available. More information on this method in Chapter 5.
40Case StudyA careful in depth account of the behavior of a single individual.It may include direct observations, questionnaires, standardized tests, and interviews or information from public records.Researchers are cautious in drawing conclusions when using this method.This method can provide many exacting details but may not be generalizable.
41Correlation: Putting Things Together Correlation: attempt to determine whether one behavior or trait being studied is correlated or indicates a relationship with another behavior or trait; never indicates cause and effectCorrelation coefficient: this is a statistical index ranging from to +1.00; the closer to or the stronger the correlation
42Correlation: Putting Things Together Positive correlation: statistical relationship where increases or decreases in measurement correspond with increases or decreases in the other (example: attendance increased and grades increased)Negative Correlation: statistical relationship where increases in one measure are matched with a decrease in the other (example: attendance increased, however, grades decreased)
43Figure 1.6 – Examples of Positive and Negative Correlations
44Limitations of Correlational Information Correlations can show relationships only; they never show cause and effectSelection factors are a term used to describe a research bias.i.e., it may seem “logical” to assume that violent media makes people more aggressive, but it may also be that more aggressive people choose violent mediaIn conclusion on Correlations be sure to emphasize they show very interesting relationships and can lead to further investigations to see if there are any valid causes and effects. The method to use to determine CAUSE AND EFFECT is the EXPERIMENT METHOD. It is the only way cause and effect can be determined.
46The Experiment: Trying Things Out Defining “Experiment”A method of research where one group of subjects gets a treatment and another group does notSubjects are observed to decide if the treatment changed their behaviorUsually undertaken to prove a hypothesisA hypothesis is a proposed answer to a question that the researcher seeks to prove either right or wrong.Example: a researcher might hypothesize that TV violence will cause aggressive behavior in children
47The Experiment: Trying Things Out Terminology and conceptsIndependent and Dependent VariablesIndependent VariableThe thing being manipulated by the experimentersDependent VariableThe measured resultExperimental and Control GroupsExperimental GroupReceive the treatment (independent variable)Control GroupSubjects do not receive the treatment (independent variable)Random AssignmentUsed to avoid the bias of a selection factorEthical & practical considerationsSometimes research can be done with animals that would not be allowed on human subjects and can be generalized to humans.Answer to “T or F”? # 3 Research with monkeys has helped scientists understand the formation of attachment in humans.TRUE: ethical considerations prevent investigators from carrying out the type of research that was used with monkeysInstructor may want to discuss the famous Harlow Attachment experiment done with baby monkeys.
48Longitudinal Research: Studying Development Over Time Seeks to study development over timeSome studies have spanned more than 50 years.Most cover only a few months or years.Same people are observed repeatedly over time insuring valid comparisons.Changes are recorded.DrawbacksCan be difficult to find volunteersMany subjects fall out of touch as time passes.Some subjects may die.Answer to “T or F?” # 4:TRUE: To learn how a person develops over a lifetime, researchers have tracked some individuals for more than 50 years.The Terman Studies of Genius, started in 1920’s
49Cross-Sectional Studies Cross-sectional researchObserves and compares different subjects of different ages at the same timeMajor obstaclesCohort EffectCohort is a group of people born around the same time.They experience cultural events unique to their particular age group.In longitudinal studies, they know they have observed the development of the same individuals over a span of time.In cross-sectional research, they can only hope that subjects will be comparable.
50Cross-Sequential Research Combines longitudinal and cross-sectional methods to overcome their respective research drawbacksFull span of the ideal longitudinal study is broken up into convenient segments.Minimizes the number of years needed to complete a studyFollows subjects of different ages for lesser periods of timeObvious advantage is faster completion of study (cuts time in half).Testing and retesting provides some of the continuity of a longitudinal study; by observing both samples at the same age (a time-lag comparison), it can be determined if they are truly comparable or if the difference is associated with the cohort effect.
51Figure 1.7 – Example of Cross-Sequential Research
52Researcher’s Ethical Considerations Do no physical or psychological harmInformed consent is needed (from guardians if minors).Participation must be voluntary.Participants can withdraw from study at any time for any reason.Participants should be offered information about the results of the study.Identities of participants remain confidentialResearch plans should be presented to a committee of colleagues for approval before proceeding.The American Psychological Association published a Code of Ethics in the 1950’s. Prior to that there were no specific guidelines for ethical practices. Much research was conducted that could not be done today due to the ethics standards imposed on researchers. The code is updated as applicable.Researchers adhere to ethical standards intended to PROMOTE THE DIGNITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL, FOSTER HUMAN WELFARE, AND MAINTAIN SCIENTIFIC INTEGRITY. They also ensure that no methods or treatments are used that harm subjects.