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Child Growth and Development TECA 1354

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1 Child Growth and Development TECA 1354
Nita Thomason, Ed.D.

2 Information Name Email (use Cougar Mail) Phone Major Career Plan
Experience with Children

3 History, Theories, and Methods of Child Development
CHAPTER 1 History, Theories, and Methods of Child Development Chapter and Title Page

4 Learning Outcomes LO1 Outline the development of the field of child development. LO2 Outline and evaluate the various theories of child development. LO3 Discuss controversies in child development. LO4 Describe ways in which researchers study child development, including the strengths and weaknesses of each. These correlate to the Learning Outcomes, and serve as a preview of what the students can expect to cover in this chapter. © Jose Manuel Gelpi Diaz/

5 TRUTH OR FICTION? T F During the Middle Ages, children were often treated as miniature adults. T F Nail biting and smoking cigarettes are signs of conflict experienced during early childhood. T F Research with monkeys has helped scientists understand the formation of attachment in humans. T F To learn how a person develops over a lifetime, researchers have tracked some individuals for more than 50 years. These are the “Truth or Fiction” statements. They may be used as an opener for the class to encourage class discussion by having students offer answers and opinions. Answers will be given as topics are encountered throughout the chapter. ©

6 LO1 The Development of the Study of Child Development
© Jose Manuel Gelpi Diaz/

7 The History of Child Development (1)
Science of Child Development Only about a century old Ancient times & Middle Ages Children seen as innately evil Discipline was harsh Considered as property and servants Age of 7 considered “age of reason” and expected to work alongside adults Note for discussion: The answer to T/F? #1 - Truth. Good opportunity to compare the current attitudes and expectations of children with those of the Middle Ages. Excellent class discussion topic.

8 The History of Child Development (2)
Transition to modern thinking 18th & 19th century philosophers Locke Tabula rasa = blank tablet Focus on role of environment & experience Social approval/disapproval powerful shapers of behavior Rousseau Children inherently good Would naturally develop into moral adults

9 The History of Child Development (3)
Industrial Revolution Advent of “nuclear family” Consisting of mother, father, children Children more visible: childhood seen as unique time of life Still labored in factories through early 20th century 20th century saw laws enacted to: Protect from strenuous labor Require attendance at school until certain age Prevent marriage until certain age Protect from sexual exploitation and parental abuse Establish Juvenile Courts to deal with children in the criminal justice system

10 The History of Child Development (4)
Pioneers in study of Child Development Darwin Theory of Evolution Kept a “baby biography” of infant son Hall Credited with the founding of child development as an academic discipline Labeled adolescence a time of “storm and stress” Binet and Simon Developed first standardized intelligence testing to help identify academically “at risk” school children in France The Zeitgeist of 19th & early 20th centuries saw a burgeoning of scientific study in the field of Child Development. Many of the pioneers in Psychology contributed to the newfound interest in how children develop and grow into adulthood. The APA was founded in July 1892 at Clark University by a group of 26 men. Its first president was G. Stanley Hall.

11 LO2 Theories of Child Development
© Jose Manuel Gelpi Diaz/

12 Psychoanalytic theories Behavioral and Social Cognitive theories
THEORIES of Child Development help us to EXPLAIN, PREDICT, and INFLUENCE Psychoanalytic theories Freud - Erickson Behavioral and Social Cognitive theories Watson - Gesell - Skinner - Bandura Cognitive theories Piaget Biological theories Darwin - Lorenz - Tinbergen Ecological theories Bronfenbrenner Sociocultural theories Vygotsky This slide is an overview of the topic of Developmental Theories, and gives some of the major researchers and developers names. It serves as an introduction to the various theories that will be reviewed individually in the following slides. All theories have the purpose of assisting scientific investigation in explaining, predicting, and influencing behaviors in order to better understand the process of human development. We will discuss the premises of each and it’s variations along with the primary developers and researchers of each.

13 Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Development
Focus on emotional and social development and origins of personality traits Three parts of personality Id Innate, unconscious, represents biological drives Demands immediate gratification Ego Curbs the Id Compromises drives with social conventions Superego Develops throughout infancy and early childhood Monitors the intentions and actions of the Id and the Ego Serves as the conscience and judges “right” and “wrong” Id = the total self-immersion- “I want it, I want it now, and I don’t care about anyone else” Ego = the arbitrator/mediator - why it’s not a good idea to go directly for the “prize” you seek, without first adjusting to social standards. The Compromise between “I want it, and I want it now regardless of the consequences to others” and “this is not the best way to get what I want”. It’s getting what you want without upsetting the status of the culture you live in Superego = the conscience (right and wrong) - your higher self. Doing what is best and right regardless of whether you get what you want.

14 Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Development
Five stages of Psychosexual Development Oral B -18 mos. - gratification centers on mouth Anal yrs. - gratification centers on anus and functions of elimination Phallic 3 - 6 yrs. - gratification centers on genitals Latency yrs. - puberty - repression of sexual thoughts - develops social and intellectual skills Genital Puberty - adult - renewal of sexual desires - seeks fulfillment through contact with opposite sex Answer to second “T or F?” - This is TRUE according to psychoanalytic theory, but there is no empirical evidence for it. Therefore it is labeled as fiction. Good point to open discussion on the topic of “fixations” at each stage of development and some of the negative aspects each stage comprises. Oral = sucking, biting, etc. If not allowed time to fully express this stage it may develop into an Oral Fixation - resulting in nail biting, smoking, etc. as an adult Anal = control l and elimination of waste products if primary - too harsh or too lax toilet training can lead to Anal-Retentive behaviors such as perfectionism and neatness, or anal-expulsive traits, such as sloppiness and carelessness. Phallic = investigation and pre-occupation with genitals - conflict may arise over masturbation - and it is normal for children to develop strong sexual attachments to the parent of the opposite sex during this stage and to develop rivalries with the same sex parent - (the Oedipus and Electra syndromes) Latency = sexual feelings remain unconscious - children turn to schoolwork - typically preferring playmates of their own sex. Genital = begins with biological changes of puberty. Generally desiring sexual gratification with peers of opposite sex (focus no longer on parent of opposite sex). Freud believed that oral or anal stimulation, masturbation, or homosexual activities were immature forms of sexual conduct that reflect fixations at earlier stages of development.

15 Freud’s ideas Pros Cons Influenced positive toilet-training methods
More sensitivity to emotional needs of children More sensitivity toward understanding misbehaviors in children Cons No direct contact with children in developing the theory Mostly based on contacts with women (adult patients) and may have biased them toward expressing ideas that confirmed his views Good time to discuss the overall impact of Freud’s Theories on Child Development. Do we still use his ideas in our everyday lives when addressing human developmental issues? What parts of his theories would you retain, and what parts would you discard? © Getty Images/© U.P. Images/

16 Also places greater emphasis on the ego, or the sense of self
Psychoanalytic Perspective Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Modified and expanded Freud’s theory from 5 to 8 stages and included adult concerns Focuses more on social relationships and physical maturation rather than sexual or aggressive instincts Also places greater emphasis on the ego, or the sense of self Labeled them after “LIFE CRISES” rather than bodily parts In our culture we are probably most familiar with the “Identity Crisis” that is experienced by adolescents in attempting to determine “who they are” and how they identify themselves. Erikson proposed that every individual works their way through each stage with the support and assistance of parents and caregivers, with each successful transition building upon the next.

17 Contributions of Erikson’s Theory
Emphasizes importance of human consciousness and choice Portray human development as prosocial and helpful Some empirical support that positive outcomes of early life help children cope with life crises at later stages © Sarah Putnam/Indexstock/Photolibrary /© U.P. Images/ / © graham klotz/ Erikson differed from Freud in that he had a more positive and appealing portrayal of human development. Freud portrayed us as selfish and needing to forced to comply with social rules, and emphasized sexuality, which many people find difficult to accept as motivations in the infant and young child.

18 The Learning Perspective: Behavioral & Social Cognitive Theories
Behaviorism - John B. Watson Believed in the objective, scientific approach - that only observable behavior was relevant Did not include any cognitive or introspective aspects Was in opposition to the ideas of Arnold Gesell who believed “biological MATURATION” was the main focus of development Watson emphasized BEHAVIOR PATTERNS Gesell emphasized PHYSICAL ASPECTS

19 Terms and Concepts of Behavioral Theory
Classical Conditioning: developed by Pavlov; reflex response is associated with a new stimulus Operant Conditioning: developed by Skinner; learning occurs due to its reinforcement effect Reinforcement Stimuli that increases the frequency of the behavior they follow Positive Reinforcers Increase the frequency of behaviors when they are APPLIED Negative Reinforcers Increase the frequency of behaviors when they are REMOVED Extinction No longer reacting to a previous stimulus due to lack of reinforcement Instructor may take time to explain Pavlov’s classic experiment with dogs if so desired at this point. Good place to ask class for examples they can think of for types of reinforcers and how well they think they work. Positive: rewards of food, praise, special privileges, etc. for desired behavior Negative: removing unpleasant stimuli - aspirin is a negative reinforcer - when a parent quits nagging a child to take out the garbage Extinction: example - a dog quits salivating at the sound of bell when it no longer receives the food in conjunction with the sound.

20 Issues with punishment:
Punishment: aversive events that decrease the frequency of the behavior they follow Issues with punishment: Does not offer alternative acceptable behaviors Tends to suppress behavior only when its delivery is guaranteed (must be consistent and immediate) Can create feelings of anger and hostility Most students are resistant to the fact that punishment is not a valid deterrent to undesirable behaviors. This issue of whether to spank children or not is a good topic of class discussion for this slide. Spanking is entrenched in our culture as an acceptable and indeed even expected form of behavior control for children. Discussion of the banning of spanking in the school system and not in the home is excellent here…also the other countries that have banned spanking of children even in the homes.

21 Social Cognitive Theory
Developed by Bandura; learning occurs by observing other people, by reading, by viewing characters in different media Observational learning occurs through modeling the same behavior of another person. Observational learning can lie latent until the behavior observed is needed or applicable. The people after whom we pattern our behavior are called models. Instructor may want to discuss the famous BoBo Doll experiment done by Albert Bandura. The key thought to Bandura’s theory is the old adage: “monkey see, monkey do”. Parents often admonish children to: “do as I say, not as I do”, these are both examples of our cultural assimilation of this theory. Instructor may want to open class discussion on the effects of violence in the media on young children. You may also open discussion regarding who they think are positive role models and negative role models in our culture.

22 Cognitive-Developmental Theory Jean Piaget
Observed and based his theory of child development on the consistent (although sometimes illogical) mental processes of children Terms and concepts Scheme Pattern of action or mental structure involved in acquiring and organizing knowledge Adaptation Interaction between the organism and the environment includes: Assimilation: responding to new objects or events using existing schemes Accommodation: adjusting or creating new schemes when something new doesn’t fit old scheme Equilibration Assimilation allows cognitive harmony (equilibrium/balance) when assimilation cannot take place, the equilibrium is disturbed, and accommodation may be employed. Equilibration is at the heart of a child’s natural curiosity. Totally different from the strict Behaviorist views of Watson and Skinner, Piaget brought the ideas of cognitions back into the realm of theory in Child Development.

23 Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage 1 – Sensorimotor, (birth to 2 years); focus on sensory exploration; object permanence mastered Stage 2 – Preoperational (2 to 7 years); focus on language and symbolic expression through play; children are egocentric Stage 3 – Concrete operational (7-12 years); focus on mastering concepts such as reversibility Stage 4 – Formal operational (12 years and older); ability to reason abstractly © U.P. Images/© AFP/Getty Images/© Stefan Klein/

24 Evaluation of Piaget’s ideas
He may have underestimated the ages of children’s capabilities. Many cognitive skills may develop gradually and not in distinct stages. He has however, provided a strong theoretical basis for further research in cognitive development. Good discussion topic: did he underestimate the ages of children’s abilities, or…are children today more advanced in their abilities than they were when he was doing his research in the early part of the 20th century ( ’s).

25 Another Cognitive Perspective Information Processing Theory
The brain is a sort of biological computer. Information Processing Theory is based on the computer as a metaphor for human cognitive processes. Terms and concepts Encoding: input of information (enter data) Storing: placing it in long term memory files from the short term/working files Retrieving: finding the files and using the data/information to solve problems The human brain is the “hardware” in this metaphor The brain cells called NEURONS - are our “personal computers”. Our strategies for solving problems are our Mental programs” or the “software” we are running.

26 Biological Perspective Ethology
Biological Perspectives relate to all physical developments. Ethology is concerned with inborn, instinctive, behavior patterns. Fixed Action Patterns: built-in or instinctive behaviors (example: birds migrating to same place; sex hormone secretion during prenatal development resulting in masculine or feminine patterned brain) Good topic for class discussion: Are humans “pre-wired” with instincts the same way that other animal species are? If so what are the implications of pre-natal human sex hormones on human behaviors?

27 Ecological Perspective Urie Bronfrenbrenner
Ecology: the branch of biology dealing with relationships between living organisms and their environment. Ecological Systems Theory: incorporates psychological, social, emotional, and biological aspects. Stresses the two-way interactions between parent and child Urie Bronfenbrenner was also instrumental in the development of the Head Start Program initiated by President Lyndon B. Johnson.

28 Ecological Systems Theory
Views settings/contexts of human development as multiple systems within a larger system Terms and concepts Microsystem: interactions of the child with other people in the immediate setting such as the home, school, or peer group Mesosystem: interactions of various settings with the microsystem such as the parent-teacher conference or the school field trip to the zoo Exosystem: institutions which indirectly affect the development of the child such as the school board or the parent’s place of employment Macrosystem: involves the interaction of the child with the beliefs, expectations, and lifestyle of their cultural setting Chronosystem: refers to the influence that the changes over time have on development

29 Sociocultural Perspective Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
People are social beings who are affected by the cultures in which they live. Theory concentrates on the process of transmitting information and cognitive skills from generation to generation. Focus is on child’s social interactions. Views the child as adapting to his/her social and cultural interactions Lev Vygotsky - Russian Child Developmental Researcher. Primary work done while Russia was a closed door to the west. His ideas did not come to the western culture until the U.S. and Russian “Cold War” was disintegrated.

30 Sociocultural Terms & Key Concepts
Zone of Proximal Development Refers to a range of tasks that a child can carry out with the help of a more skilled apprentice When learning with others, children internalize the conversations and lessons that help them gain skills. Scaffolding Temporary skeletal structure enabling someone to work on a permanent structure In the case of Vygotsky’s theory, the scaffolding is other people that provide the child with the help and lessons they need until they have the ability to function on their own. Good opportunity for discussing with class the times they can think of when these terms were used with them growing up. Such as learning to ride a bike. Archives of the History of American Psychology - The University of Akron / © U.P. Images/ / © graham klotz/

31 Human Diversity Sociocultural Perspective promotes understanding the awareness of individual diversity. Examples of diversity Ethnicity Involves cultural heritage, race, language, and common history Gender The psychological state of being male or female Influenced by cultural concepts of gender-appropriate behavior Gender polarization occurs when differences are exaggerated Instructor may want to open class discussion on the effects of diversity on children. How are bi-racial children viewed in today’s world as opposed to a few decades ago? How does being a Hispanic child with English as a second language effect children growing up in the U.S. today. How does being a male or female effect one’s education, and career aspects? Is that also changing in our culture? Are women equal in job opportunity and pay? © Jani Bryson/

32 LO3 Controversies in Child Development
© Jose Manuel Gelpi Diaz/

33 Age old debate of which is more influential in development…
Three Controversies in Child Development (1) Nature/Nurture Controversy Age old debate of which is more influential in development… Nature (heredity) Do we come preprogrammed to be what we become regardless of where, by whom, and how we are raised? Nurture (environmental influences) Or does the environment alone influence how we develop. Are we the tabula rasas simply awaiting someone to write on us? Today’s general opinion… Most researchers agree that both nature and nurture play vital roles in nearly all areas of development. Question students on how they believe? Good class discussion material.

34 Continuous perspective (no specific “stages”)
Three Controversies in Child Development (2) Continuity/Discontinuity Controversy Continuous perspective (no specific “stages”) Views development as a gradual process with no major qualitative changes Discontinuous perspective (stage theories) Views development as a series of rapid qualitative changes ushering in new stages of development Freud and Piaget were discontinuous (stage) theorists. Certain aspects of physical development do occur in stages (early and adolescent growth spurts). Cognitive development remains in disagreement with researchers. Ask class if they can name any other discontinuous or stage theorists? Or any of the theorists that leaned more toward the continuous theory.

35 Three Controversies in Child Development (3) Active/Passive Controversy
Active perspective Maintains children are actively engaged in their own development Assumes children have a natural love of learning Proponents of open education that encourages children to explore and pursue their own unique talents adhere to this perspective Passive perspective Maintains that children are passive and the environment acts on them to influence development Assumes children must be “motivated” by their teachers Such educators typically adhere to rigorous traditional teaching regimens that use rewards and punishments to promote learning. Ask students to name different examples of educational systems that fall into these categories. Montessori, Head Start, and traditional Public Schooling.

36 LO4 How We Study Child Development
© Jose Manuel Gelpi Diaz/

37 How We Study Child Development Gathering Information
Scientists value evidence that is obtained only by using the empirical approach. There are a number of research approaches that provide valid empirical data. Other types of conclusions that rely solely on strong argumentation, or reference to authority figures are not evidence. These are referred to as anecdotal, and do not provide valid conclusions. Define Empirical - The doctrine that all knowledge is derived from experience through the senses - relating to or based on experience and observation rather than on theory or principle. Define Anecdotal - interesting or entertaining, not based in scientific investigation. Explain to the students the value of employing CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS when viewing studies or reading the daily paper, or watching the news on television. Understanding the concepts of valid research methods provides a strong foundation for sifting thorough all sorts of information and publications.

38 Types of Developmental Research Methodologies
Naturalistic observation Case study Correlation Experiment Longitudinal Cross-sectional Cross-sequential This slide serves as an overview of the types that will be discussed from the text. Each one will then be discussed individually.

39 Naturalistic Observation
These studies are conducted in “the field” “real-life” settings: homes, schools, playgrounds, etc. Researchers observe the natural behavior of the subjects They try to be as unobtrusive as possible and “blend-in” without being noticed. Ask class why they think the researchers using this method do not want to be noticed as they are observing. Remind them one of the drawbacks to this method is the fact that an observer is present may inadvertently change the behavior of the subject. That is why one-way mirrors work well when available. More information on this method in Chapter 5.

40 Case Study A careful in depth account of the behavior of a single individual. It may include direct observations, questionnaires, standardized tests, and interviews or information from public records. Researchers are cautious in drawing conclusions when using this method. This method can provide many exacting details but may not be generalizable.

41 Correlation: Putting Things Together
Correlation: attempt to determine whether one behavior or trait being studied is correlated or indicates a relationship with another behavior or trait; never indicates cause and effect Correlation coefficient: this is a statistical index ranging from to +1.00; the closer to or the stronger the correlation

42 Correlation: Putting Things Together
Positive correlation: statistical relationship where increases or decreases in measurement correspond with increases or decreases in the other (example: attendance increased and grades increased) Negative Correlation: statistical relationship where increases in one measure are matched with a decrease in the other (example: attendance increased, however, grades decreased)

43 Figure 1.6 – Examples of Positive and Negative Correlations

44 Limitations of Correlational Information
Correlations can show relationships only; they never show cause and effect Selection factors are a term used to describe a research bias. i.e., it may seem “logical” to assume that violent media makes people more aggressive, but it may also be that more aggressive people choose violent media In conclusion on Correlations be sure to emphasize they show very interesting relationships and can lead to further investigations to see if there are any valid causes and effects. The method to use to determine CAUSE AND EFFECT is the EXPERIMENT METHOD. It is the only way cause and effect can be determined.

45 The Experiment: Trying Things Out
Preferred method for investigating cause and effect © eva serrabassa/

46 The Experiment: Trying Things Out
Defining “Experiment” A method of research where one group of subjects gets a treatment and another group does not Subjects are observed to decide if the treatment changed their behavior Usually undertaken to prove a hypothesis A hypothesis is a proposed answer to a question that the researcher seeks to prove either right or wrong. Example: a researcher might hypothesize that TV violence will cause aggressive behavior in children

47 The Experiment: Trying Things Out
Terminology and concepts Independent and Dependent Variables Independent Variable The thing being manipulated by the experimenters Dependent Variable The measured result Experimental and Control Groups Experimental Group Receive the treatment (independent variable) Control Group Subjects do not receive the treatment (independent variable) Random Assignment Used to avoid the bias of a selection factor Ethical & practical considerations Sometimes research can be done with animals that would not be allowed on human subjects and can be generalized to humans. Answer to “T or F”? # 3 Research with monkeys has helped scientists understand the formation of attachment in humans. TRUE: ethical considerations prevent investigators from carrying out the type of research that was used with monkeys Instructor may want to discuss the famous Harlow Attachment experiment done with baby monkeys.

48 Longitudinal Research: Studying Development Over Time
Seeks to study development over time Some studies have spanned more than 50 years. Most cover only a few months or years. Same people are observed repeatedly over time insuring valid comparisons. Changes are recorded. Drawbacks Can be difficult to find volunteers Many subjects fall out of touch as time passes. Some subjects may die. Answer to “T or F?” # 4: TRUE: To learn how a person develops over a lifetime, researchers have tracked some individuals for more than 50 years. The Terman Studies of Genius, started in 1920’s

49 Cross-Sectional Studies
Cross-sectional research Observes and compares different subjects of different ages at the same time Major obstacles Cohort Effect Cohort is a group of people born around the same time. They experience cultural events unique to their particular age group. In longitudinal studies, they know they have observed the development of the same individuals over a span of time. In cross-sectional research, they can only hope that subjects will be comparable.

50 Cross-Sequential Research
Combines longitudinal and cross-sectional methods to overcome their respective research drawbacks Full span of the ideal longitudinal study is broken up into convenient segments. Minimizes the number of years needed to complete a study Follows subjects of different ages for lesser periods of time Obvious advantage is faster completion of study (cuts time in half). Testing and retesting provides some of the continuity of a longitudinal study; by observing both samples at the same age (a time-lag comparison), it can be determined if they are truly comparable or if the difference is associated with the cohort effect.

51 Figure 1.7 – Example of Cross-Sequential Research

52 Researcher’s Ethical Considerations
Do no physical or psychological harm Informed consent is needed (from guardians if minors). Participation must be voluntary. Participants can withdraw from study at any time for any reason. Participants should be offered information about the results of the study. Identities of participants remain confidential Research plans should be presented to a committee of colleagues for approval before proceeding. The American Psychological Association published a Code of Ethics in the 1950’s. Prior to that there were no specific guidelines for ethical practices. Much research was conducted that could not be done today due to the ethics standards imposed on researchers. The code is updated as applicable. Researchers adhere to ethical standards intended to PROMOTE THE DIGNITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL, FOSTER HUMAN WELFARE, AND MAINTAIN SCIENTIFIC INTEGRITY. They also ensure that no methods or treatments are used that harm subjects.

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