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Assessment of Parenting Stress and the PSI-4 SF. Parenting Stress A set of processes that lead to aversive psychological and physiological reactions arising.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment of Parenting Stress and the PSI-4 SF. Parenting Stress A set of processes that lead to aversive psychological and physiological reactions arising."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of Parenting Stress and the PSI-4 SF

2 Parenting Stress A set of processes that lead to aversive psychological and physiological reactions arising from attempts to adapt to the demands of parenthood

3 Causes and Effects: Theories of Parenting Stress

4 Parent-Child-Relationship (P-C-R) Stress P=those aspects of parenting stress that arise from within the parent C=those aspects of parenting stress that arise from the child’s behavior R=those aspects of parenting stress that arise within the parent-child relationship

5 Daily Hassles (DH) Theory Complements and extends P-C-R Theory Cumulative effect of daily stressors Effects are serious in more extreme forms Creates potential threat to parent’s identity or role

6 Stability and Change External stressors Individual differences Stability vs. Change

7 Perception, Cognition, Emotion, and Physiology

8 Four Components External causal event or agent— stressor Cognitive appraisal Coping mechanisms Stress reaction

9 The Child and the Parenting Role as Causes of Stress What makes parenting stress different from other types of stress? Chronic daily hassles Dependency Attributes of the parent Parenting role Societal expectations

10 Appraisal Valence Controllability Changeability Ambiguity

11 Coping Emotion-focused Problem-focused Perception of Control

12 Information Processing Model of Coping Gathering and Accumulation of Resources Objects (material goods) Conditions (status, social capital) Personal Attributes (personality) Energy (money, knowledge) Threats to Resources Conscious and Unconscious Approach and Avoidance Initial Appraisal Formulation Secondary Appraisal Feedback

13 Information Processing Model (cont.) Forethought Intentional Behavior Self-reflection

14 The Stress Reaction Parenting behaviors (e.g., parental discipline, maltreatment, and abuse) Social cognitions (attitudes about and feelings toward the child) Psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety) Biological mechanisms of stress

15 Parenting Stress and the Parent

16 Transition to Parenthood Age of Parent Gender of Parent Individual Differences Depression and Psychopathology Temperament and Personality Self-referent Social Cognitions

17 Parenting Stress and the Child

18 Prematurity and Low Birth Weight Child Illness Developmental Disabilities and Disorders Behavioral and Emotional Problems Externalizing Problems Internalizing Problems Diagnosis, Stigma, and Blame Temperament Gender and Age

19 Parenting Behavior and the Parent- Child Relationship

20 The Parent-Child Relationship Parent-Child “Co-regulation” Child-rearing Practices Parenting Style Discipline Practices Child Abuse Physical Abuse Psychological Abuse Sexual Abuse

21 The Parent-Child Relationship Parents’ Social Cognitions Schematic Event-dependent Knowledge, Goals, Attributions Biological Factors Psychophysiology

22 Parent and Child Effects

23 Bi-directionality and Causality Longitudinal Studies Experiments Quasi-experimental Designs

24 Family, Culture, Community

25 Family Parents as Partners Parent Gender Family Structures and Types Single Parents Step-parent Families Gay or Lesbian Parent Families Adoptive and Foster Families Grandparents as Parents

26 Community as Culture Collectivism vs. Individualism Cultural Differences Community as Workplace Demands and Resources Community as Nation Socioeconomic Resources Family Leave and Child Care

27 Coping and Intervention

28 Coping Strategies Problem-Focused Coping Emotion-Focused Coping Approach Coping Avoidance Coping Relationship-Focused Coping Emotional Support Normalizing Instrumental Support Empathy

29 Coping Strategies Goals, Planning, Assessment, and Evaluation Individual Differences Preemptive Coping Ongoing Process

30 Intervening to Reduce Parenting Stress Expanding repertoire of child-rearing behaviors Clinical interventions Counseling Teaching Individual Family Targets Family situation Parental functioning Child behavior

31 Community Resources

32

33 Parenting Stress Child Characteristics Child Outcomes Dysfunctional Parenting Parental Characteristics Social Eco- Environment Parenting Stress Model

34 Parenting Stress Child Characteristics Adaptability Acceptability Demandingness Mood Hyper/Distract Reinforces Parent Child Characteristics Adaptability Acceptability Demandingness Mood Hyper/Distract Reinforces Parent Child Outcomes Dysfunctional Parenting Parental Characteristics Depression Sense of Competence Perceived Role Restrictions Parental Attachment Physical Health Parental Characteristics Depression Sense of Competence Perceived Role Restrictions Parental Attachment Physical Health Social Eco- Environment Social Isolation Relatives/Spouse Social Eco- Environment Social Isolation Relatives/Spouse Parenting Stress Model

35 Domain and Subscales (101 items) Child Characteristics Adaptability Demandingness Mood Distractibility/Hyperact ivity Acceptability – Child to parent Child’s reinforcement of parent Parent Characteristics Depression/Guilt Attachment to child Social Isolation Sense competence as a parent Relationship spouse/partner Role restrictions Parental health

36 Domains and Sub scales

37 PSI – Short Form Total Score (36 items) Parental Distress (12) Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (12) Difficult Child (12)

38 Total Stress Score Designed to provide an indication of the overall level of parenting stress that an individual is experiencing

39 Parental Distress (PD) Subscale Determines the level of distress a parent is experiencing in his or her role as a parent as a function of personal factors that are directly related to parenting.

40 Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (P-CDI) Subscale Focuses on the parent’s perception that the child does not meet his or her expectations and that his or her interactions with the child are not reinforcing to him or her as a parent.

41 Difficult Child (DC) Subscale Focuses on some of the basic behavioral characteristics of children that make them either easy or difficult to manage.

42 Defensive Responding Scale Assesses the extent to which the respondent approaches the questionnaire with a strong bias to present the most favorable impression of himself or herself or to minimize indications of problems or stress in the parent-child relationship.

43 Validity Long form: manual refers to >250 studies documented on the PAR website Short form: manual uses the correlations between PSI-4 and PSI-4 SF to support validity

44 Uses of the PSI Screening/Triage Assessment Planning/Focus Treatment Planning and Evaluation Research

45 Interpretation Literal Clinical cutoff (90% ile) Profiles – Relative elevations Computer generated interpretive reports

46 Validity With Different Cultures Translated into 42 languages Normed and published 10 countries Multiple replications of factor structure Replications of predictive studies

47 Prediction and Association to Observed Behavior and Objective Criteria Warmth and sensitivity Parental intrusiveness Parental negativity, hostility, rejection Child development, child behavior objective criteria

48 Intervention Studies Early termination of treatment Treatment outcomes Non-adherence to medical treatments

49 Topically Arranged PSI References (1983 – 2011) fo/PSI_Bibliography.pdf fo/PSI_Bibliography.pdf


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