Presentation on theme: "Child Protection – Rights, Research and Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1Child Protection – Rights, Research and Policy Anne Smith, NZ-UK Link Foundation Visiting Professor, University of Otago, NZ
2Underlying themesMoral imperative of children’s rights to make a difference in children’s lives;The role that research and researchers can play in promoting reforms to enhance children’s rights;The importance of relationships between researchers, advocates and policy-makers.
3A field fraught with problems Child protection services (in Australia and NZ are) “demoralised, investigation-driven bureaucracies”;Trawling through low income families leaving immense damage;State’s coercive power causes further harm rather than protects. (Prof Dorothy Scott, 2006)
4UNCRC Relevant Articles Protection from all physical and mental violence (19)Standard of living adequate for development (27)Opportunity to have a say and be heard (12/13)Special protection for children deprived of families (20)Best interests of the child (3)Also articles 2, 6, 24, 29,
5Worrying Statistics (PHA Report) Decline in child well-being indicators since 70s;Child injuries, pneumonia, whooping cough, rheumatic fever and child maltreatment Inequality, single parenthood Investment in children
6Other Statistics 3rd highest rate of child maltreatment in OECD (2003) Increasing rates of abuse and neglect (from 44,408 in 2006 to 55, 482 in 2010)46% family/whānau care, 36% with CYF caregivers, 15% CYFS bednight or caregiver homes51.6% children in care are Māori1 in 4 children living in povertySeventh highest rate of poverty in OECD
7More Bad News for NZ from UNICEF Report 2013 Child Health and Safety (24th out of 35) UK 23rdMaterial Well-Being (21st) UK 16thChild Homicide (27th) UK 14thImmunization (24th) UK 18thNEET scores (33rd) UK 28th
8Good NewsNew Zealand ranks 4th out of 33 countries for educational achievement in reading, maths, science and literacy (UK is 14th);[But long tail of underachievement especially in low income areas and for Māori and Pasifika].
9UN CRC Concluding Observations “The Committee remains alarmed at the high prevalence of abuse and neglect of children in the family and at the lack of a comprehensive nation wide strategy in this regard” (UNCRC Concluding Observations, 2011, para 34).
10Policy Context CYPF Act 1989 (positive framework) Radical economic restructuring (Rogernomics or Thatcherism);Mother of all budgets 1990Reduction to benefits, decline of collective bargainingChildren and families bear the brunt of economic changes (especially Māori and Pasifika)
11Philosophy of CYPF Act“..wherever possible, a child’s or young person’s family, whanau, hapu, iwi or family group should participate in the making of decisions affecting that child or young persons, and accordingly that, wherever possible, regard should be had to the views of that family, whanau, hapu, iwi, and family group” (CYPF Act, 1989, 5a).
12CP Process in NZ Notification (toll free Call Centre); Intake, assessment, investigation;Family Group Conference, no further action, or informal whānau agreement;FGC – information-sharing, deliberation by family, reaching an agreement with SW;If no agreement goes to Family Court.
13Views on FGCs In Favour Innovative, family empowerment Avoidance state powerWidely adopted throughout worldAgainst‘New Right’ fiscally drivenFamilies lack social capital and resourcesLack of focus on children’s rightsA lot of countries have two tiers of staff in ECE – nursery nurses and nursery teachers and we were saying 100% teachers.
14Childhood Studies/Rights Perspective Children hidden because of focus on family;Children constructed as dependents and “becomings”– masking individuality and agency;Children often don’t attend FGCs;No provision for a child advocate (except if it gets to court).
15Munro Report UK“Children and young people are a key source of information about their lives and the impact any problems are having on them in the specific culture and values of their family. It is therefore puzzling that the evidence shows that children are not being adequately included in child protection work” (UK Munro Review of Child Protection, 2012, p.25
16Families – Helping them cope Most children want to be with their families;The state an ineffective parent;Economic and social context of families - housing, poverty, mental health, unemployment;In NZ lack of balance family autonomy and child protection;Intensive intervention plus strong universal services and additional funding for some children needed (especially ECE).
17Developments since 2008Shocking cases of Child Abuse (aftermath of deaths of Kahui twins and Nia Glassie)Expert Forum on Child Abuse 2009Green Paper 2011White Paper 2012 and Children’s Action Plan 2013PM’s challenge to public service 2012 “supporting vulnerable children” and “reducing the number of assaults on children”
18Green Paper on Vulnerable Children 2011 Written by an “independent expert”Focus on vulnerable children – at risk because of abuse, neglect, disability, not doing well (15%);Dominant themes in submissions, criticised:-Narrow definitionsFocusing on deficitsAbsence of children’s rights focusSurveillance of families over support
19Childhood Studies Lens on Risk Discourse Discourses of concern, risk and vulnerability …”can lead to a very partial and distorted concern – to protect a child from abuse at virtually any cost. This renders invisible all other concern about other ‘needs’ the child may have (such as access to information) and, indeed, about their fundamental human rights” (Stainton-Rogers, 2004, p. 131)
20Outcomes of Risk/Deficit Discourse Creation of a climate of fearLoss of privacyRestriction of children’s playSuppression of affectionate contactDeskilling children, undermine self-efficacy and resilienceDiversion of attention from serious risks(Kennedy, 2010; Boothby et al, 2012)
21White Paper 2012 Compulsory child abuse notifications by agencies Child Protect telephone lineVulnerable Children Information SystemNew Risk Predictor toolChildren’s Teams of community professionalsEvidence-base for interventions
22Critique of WP Narrow focus, tweaking current systems Lack of attention to primary preventionLack of focus on MāoriLack of attention to poverty/unemploymentFew details of implementationLack of new fundingTOTAL ABSENCE OF MENTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS
23Research Evidence and Policy Research Vacuum on Child ProtectionWelfare rather than surveillance worksSocial workers overwhelmed by investigatory functionsSocial workers – heavy caseloads, lack of training, lack of rights focusEarly investment cost effective
24Research on State Care Importance of high quality alternative care; Significance of relationships foster carers and child protection workers;Lack of support for carers (especially kinship);Health and education issues for children unattended to.
25Dunedin StudyQualitative study of children in kinship or foster care. Children did not know about:why they were in care;their birth families;role of professionals in their lives;processes (such as Family Group Conferences).(Smith, Gollop & Taylor, 2000)
26Nicola Atwool study (2010) – the quality of caregiving environment Children’s views of:What is good or bad about being in care?Social workers;Listening and consultation;Education.
27What did the studies show? Most children profoundly affected by separation and not all were in caring stable environments;Huge variation in children’s adjustment to their placement;Much more attention needed to be focused on appropriate placements, increased engagement of social workers, and children’s involvement.
28Atwool“They [children] wanted to be provided with information and listened to by adults prepared to act on what they have heard.. Children very clearly said that adults do not listen, but despite this they wanted the adults they lived with and trusted to be the ones with the most say about day-to-day decisions that affect them … They did not want strangers making decisions about them” (Atwool, 2010, p. 53).
29Questions about the ‘Evidence-Base’ Government wants to fund those programmes that make a difference;Withdrawal of funding from existing services to fund governments’s new proposals;Assessments, validity of tools; short-term vs long-term;Negative effects of regimes of assessment.
30Swampy LowlandsIn the varied topography of professional practice, there is a high hard ground, where practitioners can make use of research-based theory and techniques, and there is a swampy lowland where the situations are confusing ‘messes’ incapable of technical solution. The difficulty is that the problems of the high ground, however great their technical interest, are often relatively unimportant to clients in the larger society while in the swamp are the problems of greatest human concern. (Schon, 1983, cited by Scott, 2006, p. 18):
31Conclusions Alarming statistics on child abuse and children’ s health; Family empowerment model needs overhaul;Fiscal restraint means minimal progress;Children should be treated as social actors, be listened to, provided with supportive responsive framework;Way forward a public health model with empirical base.