Presentation on theme: "Child Abuse & Neglect Training. Program Agenda 1. Reasons for Training 2. Training Objectives 3. Types of Child Abuse 4. Definitions 5. Recognizing Abuse."— Presentation transcript:
Program Agenda 1. Reasons for Training 2. Training Objectives 3. Types of Child Abuse 4. Definitions 5. Recognizing Abuse 6. Reporting Abuse
Reasons for Training First, you see both children & parents and are in a position to see changes, problems, possible child abuse and to help parents find resources Second, Anyone in a caregiving position can abuse or be accused of abuse. Awareness creates protection for everyone involved.
Training Objectives Define 4 types of child abuse. Explain how to recognize child abuse. Know how to report suspected child abuse. How to prevent becoming an abuser
Physical Abuse The inappropriate, excessive, and/or inconsistent corporal punishment causing severe or frequent injury(s). Non- accidental physical injury Indicators: location, shape, color, physical, behavioral, parent explanation Comprises about 25% of all child abuse in the U.S. Infants are the most vulnerable and often die from being shaken (More in FCC homes than in center based) Mongolian spots (cupping) Nurse Maid elbow – grabbing a child’s wrist Spanking: is it abuse?
How to Recognize Physical Abuse GIVE OUT STICK FIGURE and show pictures Demonstrate how a child falls and where they would hurt themselves Normal Bruises in children Facial scratches in babies from long fingernails Knee and shin bruises Forehead bruises Bruises over bony prominences Bruises that may be caused by physical abuse – typical sites Buttocks an lower back (paddling) Genitals and inner thighs Cheek (slap marks) Ear lobe (pinch marks) Upper lip and frenulum (forced feeding) Neck (choke marks) Cupping Petechial hemorrhages (racoon eyes) Munchhausen’s syndrome by proxy – a parent purposely invents symptoms & falsifies records resulting in unnecessary levels of tests, hospitalization or even surgery. The parents is mentally ill.
How to Recognize Physical Abuse Human Hand Marks (pressure bruises) –Oval grab marks (finger tips) –Trunk encirclement bruises –Linear Marks (fingers) –Hand print –Pinch marks –Nurse Maid elbow –Issue of developing bones in a child’s wrist
Emotional Abuse/Neglect Emotional Abuse Pattern of active, intentional berating, disparaging, making a child engage in destructive, antisocial behavior or other behavior which results in impaired emotional and/or educational development Comprises 10% of all child abuse/neglect in the U.S. Frequently occurs as verbal abuse or excessive demands on the child’s performance. This form of abuse is the hardest to prove legally. Indicators: physical, behavioral Video clip – china doll
How to Recognize Emotional Abuse Difficult to recognize but utterances such as the following are indicators, (will at times be reflected by the child):“ These indicators mimic other medical & psychological conditions and complicate its diagnosis. “Come here, and right now!" "Don't you ever do that again!" "Are you stupid or something? I've told you a million times not to do that!" "Can't you do anything right?" You are just like your dumb daddy "Quit snacking between meals. Do you want to be a fat pig all your life?" Talking to anybody in that way is rude and cruel. Communication that is heavy with harsh orders, threats, and insults destroys any relationship. Belittling,ridicule, teasing, unfair treatment, excessive demands, verbal attacks, inadequate nurturance
Sexual Abuse Any sexual activity between adult and child (or older child) done for adult’s sexual gratification or financial benefit. This variety includes sexual molestation, fondling, incest and exploitation for prostitution or the production of pornographic materials. Indecent exposure Of the four types, reports of sexual abuse are increasing most rapidly. Particularly in poor nations. Cambodia, Thailand (rape in the Congo) but also in the US for the right amount of $ you can buy a child for sexual purposes Involvement of a child in any sexual act or situation that includes rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation, or the employment, use of persuasion, inducement, enticement, or coercion of a child to engage in or assist in any sexually explicit conduct.
Sexual Abuse continued Comprises 15% of all child abuse/neglect in U.S. –Intrafamilial sexual abuse –Acquaintance perpetrators –Stranger sexual abuse –On-line sexual predators Indicators: physical, behavioral
How to Recognize Sexual Abuse Noticeable fear of a person or certain places Unusual or unexpected response from the child when asked if she was touched by someone Unreasonable fear of a physical exam Drawings that show sexual acts Abrupt changes in behavior, such as bedwetting or losing control of his bowels Sudden awareness of genitals and sexual acts & words Attempting to get other children to perform sexual acts Physical signs of abuse may include sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, or any of the STDs. Changes in the anal or genital areas.
Neglect Neglect – Failure to provide basic physical child care needs: nourishment, clothing, shelter, medical/dental care, education, and/or supervision which results in risk to child’s health and safety (e.g. unsanitary or unsafe living conditions) treatment for illness/ injury not provided, failure to use car seats, leaving a child home unattended,etc. Comprises 50% of all child abuse/neglect in U.S. Indicators: physical, behavioral
How to Recognize Child Neglect Neglect is the failure of the caregivers to provide properly for a child, especially habitually. While generally this is noticed in a lack of proper nutrition, lack of medical care, hygiene, shelter, or clothing, neglect can take many forms, including a failure to meet a child’s emotional needs. Many professionals consider neglect even more of a problem than abuse though it receives less media attention. The pictures I showed of failure to thrive children are representative of one form of neglect.
Federal Legislation 38.1 Introduction Since 1974, federal law has played a major role in the development of state law and policy on child abuse and neglect proceedings. Most of the laws in this area affect the states because they grant or deny federal funds depending on the state’s compliance with certain conditions. 38.2 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Congress began to take an active role in the child welfare system with the adoption of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (CAPTA), P.L. 93-247, 88 Stat. 4, 42 U.S.C. §§5101–5107. The Act created the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, authorized financial assistance to public agencies and private nonprofit agencies for demonstration programs designed to prevent, identify, and treat child abuse and neglect, and provided for grants to states to assist the states in developing, strengthening, and carrying out child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment programs. CAPTA has been amended a number of times over the years and contains a number of requirements that states must meet as a condition of receiving funds under the Act. States are, for example, required to provide for the reporting of abuse or neglect, immunity for persons reporting abuse or neglect, prompt investigation of reports, and methods for preserving confidentiality of records. The Act also requires that states establish citizen review panels, the requirements for which are outlined in the law, and that provisions be in place requiring that guardians ad litem, who have received training appropriate to the role, be appointed to represent children in abuse and neglect proceedings. Fingerprinting and criminal background record checks are required for prospective foster and adoptive parents and for other adults living in the household. 42 U.S.C. §5106a(b)(2).
State Laws on Reporting and Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect Information on state statutes that require mandatory reporting by child care professionals may be located at the Child Welfare Information Gateway website. To see how your State addresses this topic or many the page opens type State Statutes Series in the search box. In the Children’s Bureau Express section choose the topic you would like to review. For example, state laws on reporting and responding to child abuse and neglect. When you click on one of these topics it will lead you to an entire laundry list of reports on the topic.State Statutes Series
Why Do Child Care Workers Abuse Many of the same reasons that parents abuse –Stress –Lack of training/not paying attention during training –Unrealistic expectations of children –Personality conflicts with the child –Immature adult –Taking out hostility/problems –Emotional problems/mental illness What can be done to prevent such abuse Background clearances Child Abuse training Provide relief for worker who says I’m stressed Assign two staff per group of children Staff have a way to handle their stress Stay in shape Get a life