Presentation on theme: "Child Development University of Michigan Health System."— Presentation transcript:
Child Development University of Michigan Health System
Key words n Gross motor: using large groups of muscles to sit, stand, walk, run, etc., keeping balance, and changing positions. n Fine motor: using hands to be able to eat, draw, dress, play, write, and do many other things. n Language: speaking, using body language and gestures, communicating, and understanding what others say. n Cognitive: Thinking skills: including learning, understanding, problem-solving, reasoning, and remembering. n Social: Interacting with others, having relationships with family, friends, and teachers, cooperating, and responding to the feelings of others.
3 months n By 3 months of age does your child: n Motor Skills n lift head when held at your shoulder n lift head and chest when lying on his stomach n turn head from side to side when lying on his stomach n follow a moving object or person with his eyes n often hold hands open or loosely fisted n grasp rattle when given to her n wiggle and kick with arms and legs n Sensory and Thinking Skills n turn head toward bright colors and lights n turn toward the sound of a human voice n recognize bottle or breast n respond to your shaking a rattle or bell n Language and Social Skills n make cooing, gurgling sounds n smile when smiled at n communicate hunger, fear, discomfort (through crying or facial expression) n usually quiet down at the sound of a soothing voice or when held n anticipate being lifted n react to "peek-a-boo" games
6 months n By 6 months of age does your child: n Motor Skills n hold head steady when sitting with your help n reach for and grasp objects n play with his toes n help hold the bottle during feeding n explore by mouthing and banging objects n move toys from one hand to another n shake a rattle n pull up to a sitting position on her own if you grasp her hands n sit with only a little support n sit in a high chair n roll over n bounce when held in a standing position n Sensory and Thinking Skills n open his mouth for the spoon n imitate familiar actions you perform n Language and Social Skills n babble, making almost sing-song sounds n know familiar faces n laugh and squeal with delight n scream if annoyed n smile at herself in a mirror
12 month n By 12 months of age does your child: n Motor Skills n drink from a cup with help n feed herself finger food like raisins or bread crumbs n grasp small objects by using her thumb and index or forefinger n use his first finger to poke or point n put small blocks in and take them out of a container n knock two blocks together n sit well without support n crawl on hands and knees n pull himself to stand or take steps holding onto furniture n stand alone momentarily n walk with one hand held n cooperate with dressing by offering a foot or an arm n Sensory and Thinking Skills n copy sounds and actions you make n respond to music with body motion n try to accomplish simple goals (seeing and then crawling to a toy) n look for an object she watched fall out of sight (such as a spoon that falls under the table) n Language and Social Skills n babble, but it sometimes "sounds like" talking n say his first word n recognize family members' names n try to "talk" with you n respond to another's distress by showing distress or crying n show affection to familiar adults n show mild to severe anxiety at separation from parent n show apprehension about strangers n raise her arms when she wants to be picked up n understand simple commands
Questions????? n If you have questions about your child's development or want to have your child tested, n call your pediatrician n the local health department n the Make-A-Difference Information Network (They can help you find a testing location near your community.) n the Parent Helpline (They can help you with questions about child rearing.)
18 months n By 18 months of age does your child: n Motor Skills n like to pull, push, and dump things n pull off hat, socks, and mittens n turn pages in a book n stack 2 blocks n carry a stuffed animal or doll n scribble with crayons n walk without help n run stiffly, with eyes on the ground n Sensory and Thinking Skills n identify an object in a picture book n laugh at silly actions (as in wearing a bowl as a hat) n look for objects that are out of sight n put a round lid on a round pot n follow simple 1-step directions n solve problems by trial and error n Language and Social Skills n say 8-10 words you can understand n look at a person who is talking to him n ask specifically for her mother or father n use "hi," "bye," and "please," with reminders n protest when frustrated n ask for something by pointing or by using one word n direct another's attention to an object or action n become anxious when separated from parent(s) n seek attention n bring toys to share with parentact out a familiar activity in play (as in pretending to take a bath) n play alone on the floor with toys n compete with other children for toys n recognize herself in the mirror or in pictures n seem selfish at times
2 years n By 2 years of age does your child: n Motor Skills n drink from a straw n feed himself with a spoon n help in washing hands n put arms in sleeves with helpbuild a tower of 3-4 blocks n toss or roll a large ball n open cabinets, drawers, boxes n operate a mechanical toy n bend over to pick up a toy and not fall n walk up steps with help n take steps backward n Sensory and Thinking Skills n like to take things apart n explore surroundings n point to 5-6 parts of a doll when asked n Language and Social Skills n have a vocabulary of several hundred words n use 2-3 word sentences n say names of toys n ask for information about an object (asks, "Shoe?" while pointing to shoe box) n hum or try to sing n listen to short rhymes n like to imitate parents n sometimes get angry and have temper tantrums n act shy around strangers n comfort a distressed friend or parent n take turns in play with other children n treat a doll or stuffed animal as though it were alive n apply pretend action to others (as in pretending to feed a doll) n show awareness of parental approval or disapproval for her actions n refer to self by name and use "me" and "mine" n verbalize his desires and feelings ("I want cookie") n laugh at silly labeling of objects and events (as in calling a nose an ear) n enjoy looking at one book over and over n point to eyes, ears, or nose when you ask
3 years n By 3 years of age does your child: n Motor Skills n feed himself (with some spilling) open doors hold a glass in one hand hold a crayon well wash and dry hands by himself fold paper, if shown how build a tower of 54 blocks throw a ball overhead try to catch a large ball put on shoes (but not tie laces) dress herself with help use the toilet with some help walk up steps, alternating feet walk on tiptoes if shown how walk in a straight line kick a ball forward jump with both feet pedal a tricycle n Sensory and Thinking Skills n recognize sounds in the environment pay attention for about 3 minutes remember what happened yesterday know what is food and what is not food know some numbers (but not always in the right order) know where things usually belong understand what "1" is understand "now," "soon," and "later" substitute one object for another in pretend play (as in pretending a block is a "car") laugh at silly ideas (like "milking" a dog) look through a book alone match circles and squares match an object to a picture of that object match objects that have same function (as in putting a cup and plate together) count 2 to 3 objects avoid some dangers, like a hot stove or a moving car follow simple one-step commands
3 years n Language and Social Skills n use 3-5 word sentences ask short questions use plurals ("dogs," "cars," "hats") name at least 10 familiar objects repeat simple rhymes name at least one color correctly imitate housework or help with simple tasks ask to use the toilet almost every time enjoy being read to talk about feelings and mental states (e.g., remembering) demonstrate some shame when caught in a wrongdoing try to make others laugh play spontaneously with two or three children in a group assign roles in pretend social play ("You be mommy;" "I be daddy") know her first and last name understand "I," "you," "he," and "she" believe everything centers around him ("if I hide my eyes, no one will see me") answer whether she is a boy or girl
4 years n By 4 years of age does your child: n Motor Skills n feed herself (with little spilling) try to use a fork hold a pencil try to write name draw with the arm and not small hand movements draw a circle draw a face try to cut paper with blunt scissors sometimes unbutton buttons try to buckle, button, and lace, even though she probably needs help completely undress herself if wearing clothes with simple fasteners brush teeth with help build a tower of 7-9 blocks put together a simple puzzle of 4-12 pieces pour from a small pitcher use the toilet alone try to skip catch a bouncing ball walk downstairs using a handrail and alternating feet swing, starting by himself and keeping himself going n Sensory and Thinking Skills n recognize red, yellow, and blue understand taking turns and can do so without always being reminded understand "big," "little," "tall," "short" want to know what will happen next sort by shape or color count up to 5 objects follow three instructions given at one time ("Put the toys away, wash your hands, and come eat.") distinguish between the real world and the imaginary or pretend world identify situations that would lead to happiness, sadness, or anger
4 years n Language and Social Skills n have a large vocabulary and use good grammar often often talk about action in conversation ("go," "do," "make") enjoy rhyming and nonsense words use regular past tenses of verbs ("pulled," "walked") use "a," "an," and "the" when speaking ask direct questions ("May I?" "Would you?") want explanations of "why" and "how" relate a simple experience she has had recently understand "next to" separate from his parent for a short time without crying help clean up toys at home or school when asked to like to play "dress up" pretend to play with imaginary objects act out elaborate events which tell a story (as in serving an imaginary dinner or going on a "dragon hunt") sometimes cooperate with other children often prefer playing with other children to playing alone, unless deeply involved in a solitary task change the rules of a game as he goes along try to bargain ("I'll give you this toy if you'll give me that one") share when asked enjoy tag, hide-and-seek and other games with simple rules like moderate "rough and tumble" play like to do things for himself know her age and the town where she lives act as though a doll or stuffed animal thinks and feels on its own
End of 4 th year n Movement n Hops and stands on one foot up to five seconds n Goes upstairs and downstairs without support n Kicks ball forward n Throws ball overhand n Catches bounced ball most of the time n Moves forward and backward with agility n Hand and Finger Skills n Copies square shapes n Draws a person with two to four body parts n Uses scissors n Draws circles and squares n Begins to copy some capital letters n Language n Understands the concepts of "same" and "different" n Has mastered some basic rules of grammar n Speaks in sentences of five to six words n Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand n Tells stories n Cognitive n Correctly names some colors n Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers n Approaches problems from a single point of view n Begins to have a clearer sense of time n Follows three-part commands n Recalls parts of a story n Understands the concept of same/different n Engages in fantasy play n Social n Interested in new experiences n Cooperates with other children n Plays "Mom" or "Dad" n Increasingly inventive in fantasy play n Dresses and undresses n Negotiates solutions to conflicts n More independent
End of 4 th year n Emotional n Imagines that many unfamiliar images may be "monsters" n Views self as a whole person involving body, mind and feelings n Often cannot distinguish between fantasy and reality n Developmental Health Watch Because each child develops in his own particular manner, it's impossible to tell exactly when or how he'll perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don't be alarmed if his development takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range. n Cannot throw a ball overhand n Cannot jump in place n Cannot ride a tricycle n Cannot grasp a crayon between thumb and fingers n Has difficulty scribbling n Cannot stack four blocks n Still clings or cries whenever his parents leave him n Shows no interest in interactive games n Ignores other children n Doesn't respond to people outside the family n Doesn't engage in fantasy play n Resists dressing, sleeping, using the toilet n Lashes out without any self-control when angry or upset n Cannot copy a circle n Doesn't use sentences of more than three words n Doesn't use "me" and "you" appropriately
By the End of 5 Years n Movement n Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer n Hops, somersaults n Swings, climbs n May be able to skip n Hand and Finger Skills n Copies triangle and other geometric patterns n Draws person with body n Prints some letters n Dresses and undresses without assistance n Uses fork, spoon and (sometimes) a table knife n Usually cares for own toilet needs n Language n Recalls part of a story n Speaks sentences of more than five words n Uses future tense n Tells longer stories n Says name and address n Cognitive Milestones n Can count 10 or more objects n Correctly names at least four colors n Better understands the concept of time n Knows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances) n Social n Wants to please friends n Wants to be like her friends n More likely to agree to rules n Likes to sing, dance and act n Shows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor by herself
By the End of 5 Years n Emotional Milestones n Aware of sexuality n Able to distinguish fantasy from reality n Sometimes demanding, sometimes eagerly cooperative n Developmental Health Watch Because each child develops in her own particular manner, it's impossible to predict exactly when or how your own preschooler will perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don't be alarmed if her development takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range. n Exhibits extremely fearful or timid behavior n Exhibits extremely aggressive behavior n Is unable to separate from parents without major protest n Is easily distracted and unable to concentrate on any single activity for more than five minutes n Shows little interest in playing with other children n Refuses to respond to people in general, or responds only superficially n Rarely uses fantasy or imitation in play n Seems unhappy or sad much of the time n Doesn't engage in a variety of activities n Avoids or seems aloof with other children and adults n Doesn't express a wide range of emotions n Has trouble eating, sleeping or using the toilet n Can't differentiate between fantasy and reality n Seems unusually passive n Cannot understand two-part commands using prepositions ("Put the cup on the table"; "Get the ball under the couch.") n Can't correctly give her first and last name n Doesn't use plurals or past tense properly when speaking n Doesn't talk about her daily activities and experiences n Cannot build a tower of six to eight blocks n Seems uncomfortable holding a crayon n Has trouble taking off clothing n Cannot brush her teeth efficiently n Cannot wash and dry her hands
Theories n Piaget n Main articles: Jean Piaget and Theory of cognitive development Jean PiagetTheory of cognitive developmentJean PiagetTheory of cognitive development n Piaget was a French speaking Swiss theorist who posited that children learn through actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience. He suggested that the adult's role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials for the child to interact and construct. He would use Socratic questioning to get the children to reflect on what they were doing. He would try to get them to see contradictions in their explanations. He also developed stages of development. His approach can be seen in how the curriculum is sequenced in schools, and in the pedagogy of preschool centers across the United States. stagesstages n  Vygotsky edit n Main articles: Lev Vygotsky and Cultural-historical psychology Lev VygotskyCultural-historical psychologyLev VygotskyCultural-historical psychology n Vygotsky was a theorist whose ideas emerged in the last few decades from behind what was known as the Iron Curtain, in the former Soviet Union. He posited that children learn through hands-on experience, as Piaget suggested. However, unlike Piaget, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the Zone of Proximal Development) could help children learn new tasks. This technique is called "scaffolding," because it builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help the child learn. An example of this might be when a parent "helps" an infant clap or roll his hands to the pat-a-cake rhyme, until he can clap and roll his hands himself.  n Vygotsky was strongly focused on the role of culture in determining the child's pattern of development. He argued that "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals."  n Many theorists posit stage theories, but Vygotsky did not support stages at all, asserting instead that development was a process.  n  Attachment theory edit n Attachment theory, originating in the work of John Bowlby and developed by Mary Ainsworth, is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for understanding interpersonal relationships between human beings. Attachment theorists consider the human infant to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development will not occur. Attachment theoryJohn BowlbyMary Ainsworthpsychologicalevolutionaryethologicalinterpersonal relationships Attachment theoryJohn BowlbyMary Ainsworthpsychologicalevolutionaryethologicalinterpersonal relationships n  Erik Erikson edit n Main articles: Erik Erikson and Psychosocial development Erik EriksonPsychosocial developmentErik EriksonPsychosocial development n Erikson, a follower of Freud's, synthesized both Freud's and his own theories to create what is known as the "psychosocial" stages of human development, which span from birth to death, and focuses on "tasks" at each stage that must be accomplished to successfully navigate life's challenges. Erikson"psychosocial" Erikson"psychosocial"
Other Sources n n n INTERNET RESOURCES The National Child Care Information Center includes the complete manual Quality Care for Infants and Toddlers from the Zero to Three National Center for Infants and Toddlers. Appendix C of this manual features specific developmental milestones for children from birth to age three. n The Public Broadcasting System's program The Whole Child features a section called The ABC's of Child Development, which provides developmental milestones organized by physical development, social and emotional development, thinking skills, and communication skills. n The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) website offers many resources related to developmentally- appropriate practice, including the position statement "Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8."