Presentation on theme: "University of Michigan Health System"— Presentation transcript:
1 University of Michigan Health System Child DevelopmentUniversity of Michigan Health System
2 Key wordsGross motor: using large groups of muscles to sit, stand, walk, run, etc., keeping balance, and changing positions.Fine motor: using hands to be able to eat, draw, dress, play, write, and do many other things.Language: speaking, using body language and gestures, communicating, and understanding what others say.Cognitive: Thinking skills: including learning, understanding, problem-solving, reasoning, and remembering.Social: Interacting with others, having relationships with family, friends, and teachers, cooperating, and responding to the feelings of others.
3 3 months By 3 months of age does your child: Motor Skills lift head when held at your shoulderlift head and chest when lying on his stomachturn head from side to side when lying on his stomachfollow a moving object or person with his eyesoften hold hands open or loosely fistedgrasp rattle when given to herwiggle and kick with arms and legsSensory and Thinking Skillsturn head toward bright colors and lightsturn toward the sound of a human voicerecognize bottle or breastrespond to your shaking a rattle or bellLanguage and Social Skillsmake cooing, gurgling soundssmile when smiled atcommunicate hunger, fear, discomfort (through crying or facial expression)usually quiet down at the sound of a soothing voice or when heldanticipate being liftedreact to "peek-a-boo" games
4 6 months By 6 months of age does your child: Motor Skills hold head steady when sitting with your helpreach for and grasp objectsplay with his toeshelp hold the bottle during feedingexplore by mouthing and banging objectsmove toys from one hand to anothershake a rattlepull up to a sitting position on her own if you grasp her handssit with only a little supportsit in a high chairroll overbounce when held in a standing positionSensory and Thinking Skillsopen his mouth for the spoonimitate familiar actions you performLanguage and Social Skillsbabble, making almost sing-song soundsknow familiar faceslaugh and squeal with delightscream if annoyedsmile at herself in a mirror
5 12 month By 12 months of age does your child: Motor Skills drink from a cup with helpfeed herself finger food like raisins or bread crumbsgrasp small objects by using her thumb and index or forefingeruse his first finger to poke or pointput small blocks in and take them out of a containerknock two blocks togethersit well without supportcrawl on hands and kneespull himself to stand or take steps holding onto furniturestand alone momentarilywalk with one hand heldcooperate with dressing by offering a foot or an armSensory and Thinking Skillscopy sounds and actions you makerespond to music with body motiontry to accomplish simple goals (seeing and then crawling to a toy)look for an object she watched fall out of sight (such as a spoon that falls under the table)Language and Social Skillsbabble, but it sometimes "sounds like" talkingsay his first wordrecognize family members' namestry to "talk" with yourespond to another's distress by showing distress or cryingshow affection to familiar adultsshow mild to severe anxiety at separation from parentshow apprehension about strangersraise her arms when she wants to be picked upunderstand simple commands
6 Questions?????If you have questions about your child's development or want to have your child tested,call your pediatricianthe local health departmentthe Make-A-Difference Information Network (They can help you find a testing location near your community.)the Parent Helpline (They can help you with questions about child rearing.)
7 18 months By 18 months of age does your child: Motor Skills like to pull, push, and dump thingspull off hat, socks, and mittensturn pages in a bookstack 2 blockscarry a stuffed animal or dollscribble with crayonswalk without helprun stiffly, with eyes on the groundSensory and Thinking Skillsidentify an object in a picture booklaugh at silly actions (as in wearing a bowl as a hat)look for objects that are out of sightput a round lid on a round potfollow simple 1-step directionssolve problems by trial and errorLanguage and Social Skillssay 8-10 words you can understandlook at a person who is talking to himask specifically for her mother or fatheruse "hi," "bye," and "please," with remindersprotest when frustratedask for something by pointing or by using one worddirect another's attention to an object or actionbecome anxious when separated from parent(s)seek attentionbring toys to share with parentact out a familiar activity in play (as in pretending to take a bath)play alone on the floor with toyscompete with other children for toysrecognize herself in the mirror or in picturesseem selfish at times
8 2 years By 2 years of age does your child: Motor Skills drink from a strawfeed himself with a spoonhelp in washing handsput arms in sleeves with helpbuild a tower of 3-4 blockstoss or roll a large ballopen cabinets, drawers, boxesoperate a mechanical toybend over to pick up a toy and not fallwalk up steps with helptake steps backwardSensory and Thinking Skillslike to take things apartexplore surroundingspoint to 5-6 parts of a doll when askedLanguage and Social Skillshave a vocabulary of several hundred wordsuse 2-3 word sentencessay names of toysask for information about an object (asks, "Shoe?" while pointing to shoe box)hum or try to singlisten to short rhymeslike to imitate parentssometimes get angry and have temper tantrumsact shy around strangerscomfort a distressed friend or parenttake turns in play with other childrentreat a doll or stuffed animal as though it were aliveapply pretend action to others (as in pretending to feed a doll)show awareness of parental approval or disapproval for her actionsrefer to self by name and use "me" and "mine"verbalize his desires and feelings ("I want cookie")laugh at silly labeling of objects and events (as in calling a nose an ear)enjoy looking at one book over and overpoint to eyes, ears, or nose when you ask
9 3 years By 3 years of age does your child: Motor Skills feed himself (with some spilling) open doors hold a glass in one hand hold a crayon well wash and dry hands by himself fold paper, if shown how build a tower of 54 blocks throw a ball overhead try to catch a large ball put on shoes (but not tie laces) dress herself with help use the toilet with some help walk up steps, alternating feet walk on tiptoes if shown how walk in a straight line kick a ball forward jump with both feet pedal a tricycleSensory and Thinking Skillsrecognize sounds in the environment pay attention for about 3 minutes remember what happened yesterday know what is food and what is not food know some numbers (but not always in the right order) know where things usually belong understand what "1" is understand "now," "soon," and "later" substitute one object for another in pretend play (as in pretending a block is a "car") laugh at silly ideas (like "milking" a dog) look through a book alone match circles and squares match an object to a picture of that object match objects that have same function (as in putting a cup and plate together) count 2 to 3 objects avoid some dangers, like a hot stove or a moving car follow simple one-step commands
10 3 years Language and Social Skills use 3-5 word sentences ask short questions use plurals ("dogs," "cars," "hats") name at least 10 familiar objects repeat simple rhymes name at least one color correctly imitate housework or help with simple tasks ask to use the toilet almost every time enjoy being read to talk about feelings and mental states (e.g., remembering) demonstrate some shame when caught in a wrongdoing try to make others laugh play spontaneously with two or three children in a group assign roles in pretend social play ("You be mommy;" "I be daddy") know her first and last name understand "I," "you," "he," and "she" believe everything centers around him ("if I hide my eyes, no one will see me") answer whether she is a boy or girl
11 4 years By 4 years of age does your child: Motor Skills feed herself (with little spilling) try to use a fork hold a pencil try to write name draw with the arm and not small hand movements draw a circle draw a face try to cut paper with blunt scissors sometimes unbutton buttons try to buckle, button, and lace, even though she probably needs help completely undress herself if wearing clothes with simple fasteners brush teeth with help build a tower of 7-9 blocks put together a simple puzzle of 4-12 pieces pour from a small pitcher use the toilet alone try to skip catch a bouncing ball walk downstairs using a handrail and alternating feet swing, starting by himself and keeping himself goingSensory and Thinking Skillsrecognize red, yellow, and blue understand taking turns and can do so without always being reminded understand "big," "little," "tall," "short" want to know what will happen next sort by shape or color count up to 5 objects follow three instructions given at one time ("Put the toys away, wash your hands, and come eat.") distinguish between the real world and the imaginary or pretend world identify situations that would lead to happiness, sadness, or anger
12 4 years Language and Social Skills have a large vocabulary and use good grammar often often talk about action in conversation ("go," "do," "make") enjoy rhyming and nonsense words use regular past tenses of verbs ("pulled," "walked") use "a," "an," and "the" when speaking ask direct questions ("May I?" "Would you?") want explanations of "why" and "how" relate a simple experience she has had recently understand "next to" separate from his parent for a short time without crying help clean up toys at home or school when asked to like to play "dress up" pretend to play with imaginary objects act out elaborate events which tell a story (as in serving an imaginary dinner or going on a "dragon hunt") sometimes cooperate with other children often prefer playing with other children to playing alone, unless deeply involved in a solitary task change the rules of a game as he goes along try to bargain ("I'll give you this toy if you'll give me that one") share when asked enjoy tag, hide-and-seek and other games with simple rules like moderate "rough and tumble" play like to do things for himself know her age and the town where she lives act as though a doll or stuffed animal thinks and feels on its own
13 End of 4th yearMovementHops and stands on one foot up to five secondsGoes upstairs and downstairs without supportKicks ball forwardThrows ball overhandCatches bounced ball most of the timeMoves forward and backward with agilityHand and Finger SkillsCopies square shapesDraws a person with two to four body partsUses scissorsDraws circles and squaresBegins to copy some capital lettersLanguageUnderstands the concepts of "same" and "different"Has mastered some basic rules of grammarSpeaks in sentences of five to six wordsSpeaks clearly enough for strangers to understandTells storiesCognitiveCorrectly names some colorsUnderstands the concept of counting and may know a few numbersApproaches problems from a single point of viewBegins to have a clearer sense of timeFollows three-part commandsRecalls parts of a storyUnderstands the concept of same/differentEngages in fantasy playSocialInterested in new experiencesCooperates with other childrenPlays "Mom" or "Dad"Increasingly inventive in fantasy playDresses and undressesNegotiates solutions to conflictsMore independent
14 End of 4th year Emotional Imagines that many unfamiliar images may be "monsters"Views self as a whole person involving body, mind and feelingsOften cannot distinguish between fantasy and realityDevelopmental Health Watch Because each child develops in his own particular manner, it's impossible to tell exactly when or how he'll perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don't be alarmed if his development takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.Cannot throw a ball overhandCannot jump in placeCannot ride a tricycleCannot grasp a crayon between thumb and fingersHas difficulty scribblingCannot stack four blocksStill clings or cries whenever his parents leave himShows no interest in interactive gamesIgnores other childrenDoesn't respond to people outside the familyDoesn't engage in fantasy playResists dressing, sleeping, using the toiletLashes out without any self-control when angry or upsetCannot copy a circleDoesn't use sentences of more than three wordsDoesn't use "me" and "you" appropriately
15 By the End of 5 Years Movement Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longerHops, somersaultsSwings, climbsMay be able to skipHand and Finger SkillsCopies triangle and other geometric patternsDraws person with bodyPrints some lettersDresses and undresses without assistanceUses fork, spoon and (sometimes) a table knifeUsually cares for own toilet needsLanguageRecalls part of a storySpeaks sentences of more than five wordsUses future tenseTells longer storiesSays name and addressCognitive MilestonesCan count 10 or more objectsCorrectly names at least four colorsBetter understands the concept of timeKnows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances)SocialWants to please friendsWants to be like her friendsMore likely to agree to rulesLikes to sing, dance and actShows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor by herself
16 By the End of 5 Years Emotional Milestones Aware of sexuality Able to distinguish fantasy from realitySometimes demanding, sometimes eagerly cooperativeDevelopmental Health Watch Because each child develops in her own particular manner, it's impossible to predict exactly when or how your own preschooler will perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don't be alarmed if her development takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.Exhibits extremely fearful or timid behaviorExhibits extremely aggressive behaviorIs unable to separate from parents without major protestIs easily distracted and unable to concentrate on any single activity for more than five minutesShows little interest in playing with other childrenRefuses to respond to people in general, or responds only superficiallyRarely uses fantasy or imitation in playSeems unhappy or sad much of the timeDoesn't engage in a variety of activitiesAvoids or seems aloof with other children and adultsDoesn't express a wide range of emotionsHas trouble eating, sleeping or using the toiletCan't differentiate between fantasy and realitySeems unusually passiveCannot understand two-part commands using prepositions ("Put the cup on the table"; "Get the ball under the couch.")Can't correctly give her first and last nameDoesn't use plurals or past tense properly when speakingDoesn't talk about her daily activities and experiencesCannot build a tower of six to eight blocksSeems uncomfortable holding a crayonHas trouble taking off clothingCannot brush her teeth efficientlyCannot wash and dry her hands
17 TheoriesPiagetMain articles: Jean Piaget and Theory of cognitive developmentPiaget was a French speaking Swiss theorist who posited that children learn through actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience. He suggested that the adult's role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials for the child to interact and construct. He would use Socratic questioning to get the children to reflect on what they were doing. He would try to get them to see contradictions in their explanations. He also developed stages of development. His approach can be seen in how the curriculum is sequenced in schools, and in the pedagogy of preschool centers across the United States. VygotskyMain articles: Lev Vygotsky and Cultural-historical psychologyVygotsky was a theorist whose ideas emerged in the last few decades from behind what was known as the Iron Curtain, in the former Soviet Union. He posited that children learn through hands-on experience, as Piaget suggested. However, unlike Piaget, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the Zone of Proximal Development) could help children learn new tasks. This technique is called "scaffolding," because it builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help the child learn. An example of this might be when a parent "helps" an infant clap or roll his hands to the pat-a-cake rhyme, until he can clap and roll his hands himself.Vygotsky was strongly focused on the role of culture in determining the child's pattern of development. He argued that "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals."Many theorists posit stage theories, but Vygotsky did not support stages at all, asserting instead that development was a process. Attachment theoryAttachment theory, originating in the work of John Bowlby and developed by Mary Ainsworth, is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for understanding interpersonal relationships between human beings. Attachment theorists consider the human infant to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development will not occur. Erik EriksonMain articles: Erik Erikson and Psychosocial developmentErikson, a follower of Freud's, synthesized both Freud's and his own theories to create what is known as the "psychosocial" stages of human development, which span from birth to death, and focuses on "tasks" at each stage that must be accomplished to successfully navigate life's challenges.
18 Other Sources http://www.allthedaze.com/tdevelopment.html INTERNET RESOURCES The National Child Care Information Center includes the complete manual Quality Care for Infants and Toddlers from the Zero to Three National Center for Infants and Toddlers. Appendix C of this manual features specific developmental milestones for children from birth to age three.The Public Broadcasting System's program The Whole Child features a section called The ABC's of Child Development, which provides developmental milestones organized by physical development, social and emotional development, thinking skills, and communication skills.The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) website offers many resources related to developmentally-appropriate practice, including the position statement "Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8."