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REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 1 of 53 Child Abuse  Everyday and perhaps every minute a child suffers from maltreatment.  Effects.

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Presentation on theme: "REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 1 of 53 Child Abuse  Everyday and perhaps every minute a child suffers from maltreatment.  Effects."— Presentation transcript:

1 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 1 of 53 Child Abuse  Everyday and perhaps every minute a child suffers from maltreatment.  Effects can be seen for a lifetime.  Children are abused for a variety of reasons.  Whatever the reason it is on the rise according to the National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse

2 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 2 of 53  Viewed differently in the US than other countries and has changed over time  Viewed very differently today than in the past Laws have been enacted to address these issues  Ethnic and cultural groups have differing views as to what is or is not child abuse  Abuse occurs without regard for ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geography, religion and occupation. Abuses knows no boundaries!

3 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 3 of 53  Most recent national study reported over 3 million children were reported for some sort of maltreatment in 1997. More troubling is that not all cases are reported!  Everyday in the US more than 3 children die as result of abuse and neglect.

4 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 4 of 53 Definitions and Types of Abuse  Child Abuse Any maltreatment of a minor  Abusive Act An act in which physical and/or emotional harm occurs  Child Abuse is not usually just one instance…but rather a pattern of behaviors that are detrimental to a child’s well-being. Usually takes place over a period of time Effects add up  Longer the abuse continues, the more serious it becomes, the more damage, the more difficult to stop and the more likely it will be repeated in another generation.

5 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 5 of 53 4 Types of Abuse Physical Abuse Characterized by inflicting physical injury Hitting Punching Beating Kicking Slapping Biting Burning Otherwise harming the child The injury is NOT an accident even if the adult may not have intended to hurt the child! May have resulted from physical punishment or over-discipline that is inappropriate for the child’s age.

6 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 6 of 53 Physical Abuse  Easiest to identify Although not all injuries are visible  A single bruise may be inflicted inadvertently; however, old and new bruises in combination OR  Bruises on several areas of the face and/or body may suggest physical abuse  Any punishment that involves Hitting with a closed fist or an instrument, kicking inflicting burns, or throwing a child is considered child abuse regardless of the severity of the injury sustained  Any injury resulting from physical punishment that requires medical treatment is considered outside the realm of normal disciplinary measures

7 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 7 of 53 Child Neglect  Characterized by failure to provide for a child’s basic needs.  Can be: Physical Includes abandonment, inadequate supervision and refusal or failure to seek health care Educational Refers to inattention to educational needs and/ore failure to seek health care Emotional Includes chronic or extreme spousal abuse in the presence of the child or failure to provide for a child’s psychological care Sometimes refereed to as psychological neglect

8 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 8 of 53 Sexual Abuse  Includes a wide range of behavior Fondling Intercourse Rape Exhibitionism Commercial exploitation Prostitution Pornographic materials

9 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 9 of 53 Sexual Abuse  One of the most common forms of child abuse  Nationwide poll by LA times said that 22% of Americans have been victims of child sexual abuse  27% of women and 16% men who participated in a random poll said they were victims of child abuse  Approximately 1/3 of our children will experience some form of sexual abuse before they are 18 yrs old (Johnson, 1992)

10 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 10 of 53 Emotional Abuse  Includes acts and omissions by an adult responsible for the child’s care that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, emotional or mental disorders.  Can include use of extreme or bizarre forms of punishment, habitual scapegoating, belittling or rejecting  Sometimes referred to as mental abuse or verbal abuse

11 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 11 of 53 Emotional Abuse  Mental abuse occurs when a child is made to feel worthless Unwanted Unloved  Emotional abuse occurs when someone continually puts the child down by yelling name calling Making them feel ‘no good’  Many feel the scars from emotional abuse lasts much longer than scars from physical abuse  Emotional abuse leaves the victim with insecurity, low self-esteem and self-doubt that may linger throughout his/her lifetime

12 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 12 of 53 Emotional Abuse  The most difficult to identify  Effects of emotional abuse Lags on physical development Learning problems Speech disorders

13 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 13 of 53  Although any of the forms of child abuse may be found alone, they are often occur in combination  Emotional abuse is almost always present when other forms of maltreatment are identified

14 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 14 of 53 Factors Contributing to Child Abuse  Understanding the nature and causes of child abuse and neglect is a challenge  No single cause exists although a variety of factors contribute to the likelihood can be identified Note: just because some factors exist does not always result in child abuse and neglect.

15 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 15 of 53 Factors Contributing to Child Abuse  Substance Abuse  Abusers were once abused themselves  Parents  Children  Family  Environmental  Societal Values

16 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 16 of 53 Parents  More likely if they use drugs and alcohol Emotionally immature or needy Isolated Were emotionally deprived Abused or neglected as children Feel worthless Have never been loved or cared about In poor health

17 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 17 of 53 Children  More likely to be at risk if They are unwanted Resemble someone the parent dislikes Have physical or behavioral traits that make them different or especially difficult to care for

18 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 18 of 53 Family  Interaction may cause abusive situations  Family size  Changes in marital status  Changes in family structure  Life crises such as Death of a loved one Natural disaster

19 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 19 of 53 Environmental  Financial conditions and employment status  Poverty Poor housing Limited community resources

20 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 20 of 53 Societal Values  Accepting violence as a way of life  Conviction that parents have the right to treat children as they please

21 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 21 of 53 Child Protection Act of 1993  AKA Oprah Winfrey Act  Brought attention to the issue of criminal history background checks as a way to protect children in youth-serving organizations  Establishes procedures of allowing criminal background checks based on fingerprints of volunteers and staff who have access to children

22 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 22 of 53 Abuse in Youth Sports  Why is it important for administrators to understand abuse? Can happen in the sport environment Children come to us (in sport) being abused  WE must strive to make our programs free of abuse….AND recognize when children arrive to our programs abused!  Examples Can you think of any?

23 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 23 of 53 Examples of Abuse  Benching less skilled athletes  Grabbing players by their facemasks or equipment  Wrapping athletes in plastic wrap to force weight loss to make a weight limit  Cursing, yelling or using ‘put- downs’ that demean a child  Using excessive physical training to punish/discipline  Name calling  Not allowing breaks or use restroom  Depriving of water  Throwing equipment at players  Grabbing or shaking players in a fit of anger  Using racial slurs  Using sexual put-downs  Making cruel comments about body type  Stereotyping  Paying attention to only the best players, casting aside the less talented  Cutting young athletes from the team  Hurtful comments and/or participation denial to persons with disabilities  Demanding unrealistic expectations, perfect performances  Inappropriate sexual contact between  Teaching and/or expecting players to taunt, cheat intimidate, fight or trash talk

24 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 24 of 53 Minnesota Amateur Sports Study  43% of males and females said they had been called names, yelled at, or insulted while participating in sports  17.5% had been hit, kicked or slapped while participating in sports  2.1% pressured to play with an injury  8.2% pressured to intentionally harm others while playing  8% had been called names with sexual connotations while participating in sports  3.4% had been pressured into sex or sexual touching

25 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 25 of 53 Abuse in Youth Sport  Physical Abuse Does it happen in youth sport? How?  Emotional Abuse Most common form of abuse that occurs in youth sports

26 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 26 of 53 Consider the impact of the following:  You’re stupid  You’re clumsy  You’re an embarrassment  You’re not worth the uniform you play in  Children take the negative things adults say very seriously!

27 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 27 of 53 Sexual Abuse in Youth Sport  Unfortunately, it happens   Often involves the misuse of authority and power Many coaches wield enormous power over their players Media focus the most on this form of abuse for obvious reasons

28 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 28 of 53 Neglect in Youth Sport  May involve failure to: Practices Encourage or work with a young athlete to help them improve Limiting opportunities to participate Depriving of water or use the restroom  May overlap with emotional abuse and other forms of abuse.

29 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 29 of 53 Philosophical Abuse in Youth Sports  Involves inappropriate use of core philosophy Win-at-all-costs mentalities Encouraging unsportsmanlike behavior Condoning or perpetuating inequalities in opportunities  When attitudes override a child’s right to safely participate in sports, it is abusive  Abusive philosophies No pain, no gain No mistakes, no loses

30 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 30 of 53 Discipline verses Punishment  Discipline is a positive method of training a child toward self-control and self- confidence If it results from anger it can be abusive  Punishment has the effect of discouragement when someone needs encouragement and self-control Emphasizes failure There are no failures in youth sports, only learning experiences

31 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 31 of 53  What can we use instead of punishment in youth sport? Time-out Loss of privileges Be sure to discuss this will all your staff and volunteers!

32 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 32 of 53 To utilize effective discipline in youth sports:  Set limits and make known what appropriate behavior is.  Keep and make rules simple, consistent and few.  Be a role model for appropriate behavior.  Ignore annoying behaviors that do not cause real problems

33 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 33 of 53 Administration Issues  Define the organization’s position with regard to child protection  Identify a key person who will act as the main resource to clarify child maltreatment policies  Include state law, local law, reporting requirements and reporting contacts with phone numbers  Define emergency response procedures and reporting process  Address complaint process and grievance procedures  Require all all staff (paid and volunteer) to be screened  Require program to be structured following the National Standards for Youth Sports  Include information form the organization's insurance policy regarding child abuse

34 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 34 of 53 Legal Issues/Suggestions  Address training commitment (require training for all and require to sign ethics pledge).  Address supervision and evaluation of all staff (paid or volunteer)  Require all to plan and practice for emergencies, require basic first aid training, require all teams to have a first aid kit and athlete info. Easily accessible.  Determine minimum age requirements for volunteers (coaches and officials).  Require everyone plays policy.  Address participant characteristics (age, weight, size).  Address one-on-one contact. (refers to when an adult and youth are alone together) Some agencies recommend that two adults are present at all times.  Address supervision ratio: eg. 2 adults per 25 kids, etc.  Address take home and pick up policy.

35 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 35 of 53 TOUCHING Policies  Is it acceptable or should an organization mandate a no touch policy? Suggested not to adopt a no touch policy Encourage touch is acceptable as long as it is respectful and appropriate

36 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 36 of 53 TOUCHING Policies  Touch should be in response to the need of the child, not the need of the adult  Touch should be with the child’s permission – resistance from the child should be respected  Touch avoid the breasts, buttocks and groin  Touch should be open and not secretive  Touch or other physical contact should be governed by the age and developmental stage of the child Ex: sitting in an adult’s lap may be appropriate for a 3 year old, but less so for an 8 year old (unless it is the child’s parent). (Nonprofit Risk Management Center, 1995)

37 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 37 of 53 Recognizing Abuse  Victims can be: Male Female From any background Very young Very old  Victims often feel: Ashamed when they realize they have been tricked or taken advantage of May feel shame about doing something that was not ok May feel shame about receiving attention  Most victims do not tell others

38 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 38 of 53 Recognizing Abuse  Abusive situations are often difficult to detect  Physical indicators Physical Unexplained fractures, bruises, welts, burns, broken bones or bite marks Explanation for an injury that is inconsistent with the injury Child’s report of injury by parents Sexual Bizarre, sophisticated or unusual sexual behavior or knowledge relative to the child’s age Pain or itching, bleeding or bruises in or around the child’s genitals Child’s report of sexual abuse by parent or other adult

39 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 39 of 53  Neglect Constant hunger or fatigue, inappropriate dress or poor hygiene (matted hair, dirty skin) Lack of supervision over long periods of time Unattended physical or dental problems Evidence of alcohol or drug abuse  Emotional Sudden shifts in behavior and attitudes An outgoing child suddenly builds a protective, closed wall A generally happy child becomes aggressive or angry A trusting child becomes fearful Impaired sense of self-worth Delayed physical, emotional, or intellectual development or failure to thrive  In sports this may show up as losing interest or a sudden decline in ability or functions

40 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 40 of 53  NO indicators or symptoms are absolute  Remember children do not always tell…they may have been threatened into silence, embarrassed or too frightened to talk about what happened to them

41 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 41 of 53 Signs of Abuse in Sports  Disclosure on the part of the child  Observations, complaints or concerns about the behavior of a coach/staff/athlete/parent  Unexplained or unlikely explanations for injuries  Extreme fear of a coach/staff/parent/other athlete  Extremely low self-esteem

42 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 42 of 53  An athlete’s attachment to a coach/volunteer/staff to the point of isolation from others or the adults expectation of such attachment  A coach/volunteer/staff with extraordinary interest Beyond caring, concern and special interests)  An athlete’s desire to drop out without clear explanation, or without one that makes sense  An athlete that misses practices or games with suspicious explanations or excuses

43 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 43 of 53 Disclosure  Best indicator!  Children may hint about abuse rather than just saying it right out  Child may not realize what is happening is abuse Why?  Try to make the child feel comfortable, safe in a non-threatening place free from disruptions.  Put the child at ease and sit near the child when talking with to them  Assure the child they are not in trouble and they have done nothing wrong  Assure the child the conversation will not be shared with teammates Remember if maltreatment is suspected, you are required to report and you should explain this to the child! Reassure the child that you will remain their supporter throughout the process!

44 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 44 of 53 Disclosure  Use language that the child fully understands  Allow the child to explain what happened any way they can  Don’t press for answers if the child is unwilling to give them  Never suggest answers to children  Be aware of facial expressions, gestures and body language Remain calm and attentive without appearing alarmed or upset

45 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 45 of 53 Reporting  Everyone’s responsibility  2 most common reasons given for not reporting: Unfamiliarity with state reporting laws Ignorance of the dynamics of abuse and neglect Others Frustration with lack of response by child welfare Unwillingness to get involved Not wanting to make things worse for the child Don’t want to testify Reluctance to risk angering the family  Obtain a copy of your state’s Laws!!!

46 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 46 of 53  Professionals who work with children are required to report ! This includes all of youth organizations and those affiliated/working within the organization! This means volunteers too! They have no discretion on whether to report or not to report In many states charges can be filed against those who do not report suspected abuse

47 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 47 of 53 Making the Report 1.Document the data. Write info down to get it organized in your mind 2.Consider what causes you to suspect abuse or neglect. List the symptoms or indicators Physical or behavior that you may have observed 3.Have you observed the child? Or interaction between the adult in question and the child? In writing describe any interactions you have witnessed and be prepared to give examples 4.Do you have reason to suspect abuse and/or neglect? Why? Write notes on what you hear the child say or do

48 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 48 of 53 Making the Report 5.Know the procedure for reporting. Do you have the necessary information to make the report? 6.Have the exact telephone number and address of the agency to which the report should be made 7.Make the report 8.Be sure that the organization’s policy regarding child maltreatment is clear and that the reporter will have the organization’s support

49 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 49 of 53  When you report suspicions to the local child protection agency Be prepared to provide information about the abuse and/or neglect The child and The family  Make sure all staff and volunteers are aware of the organization’s policies and of the procedures on how to report!

50 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 50 of 53  Most states will require the following to be filed with the report child’s name and address, parent’s names and address, the nature and extent of the injury or condition observed, prior injuries and when observed reporters name and location  Reports can be made in writing or by phone  Can be made anonymously, but the name of the reporter can be extremely valuable to the CPS staff

51 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 51 of 53  After the report is made, the process of investigation begins  In most states CPS will responded within 24 hours  Once a report is made to CPS, a staff member will talk to the child and family and others involved to determine abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occur They also determine if the child’s life or health is threatened

52 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 52 of 53 Resolving Problems  Sometimes inappropriate behavior does not warrant involving the authorities, but still needs to be addressed Use your code of ethics to deal with these problems Peer pressure Use suspensions Revoke licenses/certifications Permanent revocation  Orientation and Training: Be sure you require all to sign a pledge and code of ethics every year/season

53 REC 4110 Youth Sport Programming & Administration 53 of 53 Prevention  Creating awareness  Unlearning violence  Developing resiliency in children  Discouraging the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD’s)  Reduce the chances for injuries


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