Presentation on theme: "Child Abuse Everyday and perhaps every minute a child suffers from maltreatment. Effects can be seen for a lifetime. Children are abused for a variety."— Presentation transcript:
1 Child AbuseEveryday and perhaps every minute a child suffers from maltreatment.Effects can be seen for a lifetime.Children are abused for a variety of reasons.Whatever the reason it is on the rise according to the National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse
2 Viewed very differently today than in the past Viewed differently in the US than other countries and has changed over timeViewed very differently today than in the pastLaws have been enacted to address these issuesEthnic and cultural groups have differing views as to what is or is not child abuseAbuse occurs without regard for ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geography, religion and occupation.Abuses knows no boundaries!
3 Most recent national study reported over 3 million children were reported for some sort of maltreatment in 1997.More troubling is that not all cases are reported!Everyday in the US more than 3 children die as result of abuse and neglect.
4 Definitions and Types of Abuse Child AbuseAny maltreatment of a minorAbusive ActAn act in which physical and/or emotional harm occursChild Abuse is not usually just one instance…but rather a pattern of behaviors that are detrimental to a child’s well-being.Usually takes place over a period of timeEffects add upLonger the abuse continues, the more serious it becomes, the more damage, the more difficult to stop and the more likely it will be repeated in another generation.
5 4 Types of Abuse Physical Abuse Characterized by inflicting physical injuryHittingPunchingBeatingKickingSlappingBitingBurningOtherwise harming the childThe injury is NOT an accident even if the adult may not have intended to hurt the child!May have resulted from physical punishment or over-discipline that is inappropriate for the child’s age.
6 Physical Abuse Easiest to identify Although not all injuries are visibleA single bruise may be inflicted inadvertently; however, old and new bruises in combination ORBruises on several areas of the face and/or body may suggest physical abuseAny punishment that involvesHitting with a closed fist or an instrument, kicking inflicting burns, or throwing a child is considered child abuse regardless of the severity of the injury sustainedAny injury resulting from physical punishment that requires medical treatment is considered outside the realm of normal disciplinary measures
7 Child Neglect Child Neglect Characterized by failure to provide for a child’s basic needs.Can be:PhysicalIncludes abandonment, inadequate supervision and refusal or failure to seek health careEducationalRefers to inattention to educational needs and/ore failure to seek health careEmotionalIncludes chronic or extreme spousal abuse in the presence of the child or failure to provide for a child’s psychological careSometimes refereed to as psychological neglect
8 Sexual Abuse Sexual Abuse Includes a wide range of behavior Fondling IntercourseRapeExhibitionismCommercial exploitationProstitutionPornographic materials
9 Sexual Abuse One of the most common forms of child abuse Nationwide poll by LA times said that 22% of Americans have been victims of child sexual abuse27% of women and 16% men who participated in a random poll said they were victims of child abuseApproximately 1/3 of our children will experience some form of sexual abuse before they are 18 yrs old (Johnson, 1992)
10 Emotional Abuse Emotional Abuse Includes acts and omissions by an adult responsible for the child’s care that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, emotional or mental disorders.Can include use of extreme or bizarre forms of punishment, habitual scapegoating, belittling or rejectingSometimes referred to as mental abuse or verbal abuse
11 Emotional Abuse Mental abuse occurs when a child is made to feel worthlessUnwantedUnlovedEmotional abuse occurs when someone continually puts the child down byyellingname callingMaking them feel ‘no good’Many feel the scars from emotional abuse lasts much longer than scars from physical abuseEmotional abuse leaves the victim with insecurity, low self-esteem and self-doubt that may linger throughout his/her lifetime
12 Emotional Abuse The most difficult to identify Effects of emotional abuseLags on physical developmentLearning problemsSpeech disorders
13 Although any of the forms of child abuse may be found alone, they are often occur in combination Emotional abuse is almost always present when other forms of maltreatment are identified
14 Factors Contributing to Child Abuse Understanding the nature and causes of child abuse and neglect is a challengeNo single cause exists although a variety of factors contribute to the likelihood can be identifiedNote: just because some factors exist does not always result in child abuse and neglect.
15 Factors Contributing to Child Abuse Substance AbuseAbusers were once abused themselvesParentsChildrenFamilyEnvironmentalSocietal Values
16 Parents More likely if they use drugs and alcohol Emotionally immature or needyIsolatedWere emotionally deprivedAbused or neglected as childrenFeel worthlessHave never been loved or cared aboutIn poor health
17 Children More likely to be at risk if They are unwanted Resemble someone the parent dislikesHave physical or behavioral traits that make them different or especially difficult to care for
18 Family Interaction may cause abusive situations Family size Changes in marital statusChanges in family structureLife crises such asDeath of a loved oneNatural disaster
19 Environmental Financial conditions and employment status Poverty Poor housingLimited community resources
20 Societal Values Accepting violence as a way of life Conviction that parents have the right to treat children as they please
21 Child Protection Act of 1993 AKA Oprah Winfrey ActBrought attention to the issue of criminal history background checks as a way to protect children in youth-serving organizationsEstablishes procedures of allowing criminal background checks based on fingerprints of volunteers and staff who have access to children
22 Abuse in Youth SportsWhy is it important for administrators to understand abuse?Can happen in the sport environmentChildren come to us (in sport) being abusedWE must strive to make our programs free of abuse….AND recognize when children arrive to our programs abused!ExamplesCan you think of any?
23 Examples of Abuse Benching less skilled athletes Grabbing players by their facemasks or equipmentWrapping athletes in plastic wrap to force weight loss to make a weight limitCursing, yelling or using ‘put-downs’ that demean a childUsing excessive physical training to punish/disciplineName callingNot allowing breaks or use restroomDepriving of waterThrowing equipment at playersGrabbing or shaking players in a fit of angerUsing racial slursUsing sexual put-downsMaking cruel comments about body typeStereotypingPaying attention to only the best players, casting aside the less talentedCutting young athletes from the teamHurtful comments and/or participation denial to persons with disabilitiesDemanding unrealistic expectations, perfect performancesInappropriate sexual contact betweenTeaching and/or expecting players to taunt, cheat intimidate, fight or trash talk
24 Minnesota Amateur Sports Study 43% of males and females said they had been called names, yelled at, or insulted while participating in sports17.5% had been hit, kicked or slapped while participating in sports2.1% pressured to play with an injury8.2% pressured to intentionally harm others while playing8% had been called names with sexual connotations while participating in sports3.4% had been pressured into sex or sexual touching
25 Abuse in Youth Sport Physical Abuse Emotional Abuse Does it happen in youth sport?How?Emotional AbuseMost common form of abuse that occurs in youth sports
26 Consider the impact of the following: You’re stupidYou’re clumsyYou’re an embarrassmentYou’re not worth the uniform you play inChildren take the negative things adults say very seriously!
27 Sexual Abuse in Youth Sport Unfortunately, it happens Often involves the misuse of authority and powerMany coaches wield enormous power over their playersMedia focus the most on this form of abuse for obvious reasons
28 Neglect in Youth Sport May involve failure to: PracticesEncourage or work with a young athlete to help them improveLimiting opportunities to participateDepriving of water or use the restroomMay overlap with emotional abuse and other forms of abuse.
29 Philosophical Abuse in Youth Sports Involves inappropriate use of core philosophyWin-at-all-costs mentalitiesEncouraging unsportsmanlike behaviorCondoning or perpetuating inequalities in opportunitiesWhen attitudes override a child’s right to safely participate in sports, it is abusiveAbusive philosophiesNo pain, no gainNo mistakes, no loses
30 Discipline verses Punishment Discipline is a positive method of training a child toward self-control and self-confidenceIf it results from anger it can be abusivePunishment has the effect of discouragement when someone needs encouragement and self-controlEmphasizes failureThere are no failures in youth sports, only learning experiences
31 What can we use instead of punishment in youth sport? Time-outLoss of privilegesBe sure to discuss this will all your staff and volunteers!
32 To utilize effective discipline in youth sports: Set limits and make known what appropriate behavior is.Keep and make rules simple, consistent and few.Be a role model for appropriate behavior.Ignore annoying behaviors that do not cause real problems
33 Administration Issues Define the organization’s position with regard to child protectionIdentify a key person who will act as the main resource to clarify child maltreatment policiesInclude state law, local law, reporting requirements and reporting contacts with phone numbersDefine emergency response procedures and reporting processAddress complaint process and grievance proceduresRequire all all staff (paid and volunteer) to be screenedRequire program to be structured following the National Standards for Youth SportsInclude information form the organization's insurance policy regarding child abuse
34 Legal Issues/Suggestions Address training commitment (require training for all and require to sign ethics pledge).Address supervision and evaluation of all staff (paid or volunteer)Require all to plan and practice for emergencies, require basic first aid training, require all teams to have a first aid kit and athlete info. Easily accessible.Determine minimum age requirements for volunteers (coaches and officials).Require everyone plays policy.Address participant characteristics (age, weight, size).Address one-on-one contact. (refers to when an adult and youth are alone together)Some agencies recommend that two adults are present at all times.Address supervision ratio: eg. 2 adults per 25 kids, etc.Address take home and pick up policy.
35 TOUCHING PoliciesIs it acceptable or should an organization mandate a no touch policy?Suggested not to adopt a no touch policyEncourage touch is acceptable as long as it is respectful and appropriate
36 TOUCHING PoliciesTouch should be in response to the need of the child, not the need of the adultTouch should be with the child’s permission – resistance from the child should be respectedTouch avoid the breasts, buttocks and groinTouch should be open and not secretiveTouch or other physical contact should be governed by the age and developmental stage of the childEx: sitting in an adult’s lap may be appropriate for a 3 year old, but less so for an 8 year old (unless it is the child’s parent).(Nonprofit Risk Management Center, 1995)
37 Recognizing Abuse Victims can be: Male Female From any background Very youngVery oldVictims often feel:Ashamed when they realize they have been tricked or taken advantage ofMay feel shame about doing something that was not okMay feel shame about receiving attentionMost victims do not tell others
38 Recognizing Abuse Abusive situations are often difficult to detect Physical indicatorsPhysicalUnexplained fractures, bruises, welts, burns, broken bones or bite marksExplanation for an injury that is inconsistent with the injuryChild’s report of injury by parentsSexualBizarre, sophisticated or unusual sexual behavior or knowledge relative to the child’s agePain or itching, bleeding or bruises in or around the child’s genitalsChild’s report of sexual abuse by parent or other adult
39 NeglectConstant hunger or fatigue, inappropriate dress or poor hygiene (matted hair, dirty skin)Lack of supervision over long periods of timeUnattended physical or dental problemsEvidence of alcohol or drug abuseEmotionalSudden shifts in behavior and attitudesAn outgoing child suddenly builds a protective, closed wallA generally happy child becomes aggressive or angryA trusting child becomes fearfulImpaired sense of self-worthDelayed physical, emotional, or intellectual development or failure to thriveIn sports this may show up as losing interest or a sudden decline in ability or functions
40 NO indicators or symptoms are absolute Remember children do not always tell…they may have been threatened into silence, embarrassed or too frightened to talk about what happened to them
41 Signs of Abuse in Sports Disclosure on the part of the childObservations, complaints or concerns about the behavior of a coach/staff/athlete/parentUnexplained or unlikely explanations for injuriesExtreme fear of a coach/staff/parent/other athleteExtremely low self-esteem
42 A coach/volunteer/staff with extraordinary interest An athlete’s attachment to a coach/volunteer/staff to the point of isolation from othersor the adults expectation of such attachmentA coach/volunteer/staff with extraordinary interestBeyond caring, concern and special interests)An athlete’s desire to drop out without clear explanation, or without one that makes senseAn athlete that misses practices or games with suspicious explanations or excuses
43 Disclosure Best indicator! Children may hint about abuse rather than just saying it right outChild may not realize what is happening is abuseWhy?Try to make the child feel comfortable, safe in a non-threatening place free from disruptions.Put the child at ease and sit near the child when talking with to themAssure the child they are not in trouble and they have done nothing wrongAssure the child the conversation will not be shared with teammatesRemember if maltreatment is suspected, you are required to report and you should explain this to the child!Reassure the child that you will remain their supporter throughout the process!
44 Disclosure Use language that the child fully understands Allow the child to explain what happened any way they canDon’t press for answers if the child is unwilling to give themNever suggest answers to childrenBe aware of facial expressions, gestures and body languageRemain calm and attentive without appearing alarmed or upset
45 Reporting Everyone’s responsibility 2 most common reasons given for not reporting:Unfamiliarity with state reporting lawsIgnorance of the dynamics of abuse and neglectOthersFrustration with lack of response by child welfareUnwillingness to get involvedNot wanting to make things worse for the childDon’t want to testifyReluctance to risk angering the familyObtain a copy of your state’s Laws!!!
46 Professionals who work with children are required to report! This includes all of youth organizations and those affiliated/working within the organization!This means volunteers too!They have no discretion on whether to report or not to reportIn many states charges can be filed against those who do not report suspected abuse
47 Making the Report Document the data. Write info down to get it organized in your mindConsider what causes you to suspect abuse or neglect.List the symptoms or indicatorsPhysical or behavior that you may have observedHave you observed the child? Or interaction between the adult in question and the child?In writing describe any interactions you have witnessed and be prepared to give examplesDo you have reason to suspect abuse and/or neglect?Why?Write notes on what you hear the child say or do
48 Making the Report Know the procedure for reporting. Do you have the necessary information to make the report?Have the exact telephone number and address of the agency to which the report should be madeMake the reportBe sure that the organization’s policy regarding child maltreatment is clear and that the reporter will have the organization’s support
49 When you report suspicions to the local child protection agency Be prepared to provide information aboutthe abuse and/or neglectThe child andThe familyMake sure all staff and volunteers are aware of the organization’s policies and of the procedures on how to report!
50 Most states will require the following to be filed with the report child’s name and address,parent’s names and address,the nature and extent of the injury or condition observed,prior injuries and when observedreporters name and locationReports can be made in writing or by phoneCan be made anonymously, but the name of the reporter can be extremely valuable to the CPS staff
51 After the report is made, the process of investigation begins In most states CPS will responded within 24 hoursOnce a report is made to CPS, a staff member will talk to the child and family and others involved to determine abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occurThey also determine if the child’s life or health is threatened
52 Resolving ProblemsSometimes inappropriate behavior does not warrant involving the authorities, but still needs to be addressedUse your code of ethics to deal with these problemsPeer pressureUse suspensionsRevoke licenses/certificationsPermanent revocationOrientation and Training:Be sure you require all to sign a pledge and code of ethics every year/season
53 Prevention Creating awareness Unlearning violence Developing resiliency in childrenDiscouraging the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD’s)Reduce the chances for injuries