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Effective Global Indicators of Child Maltreatment Effective Global Indicators of Child Maltreatment: The “Best Interest” of the Child in the Convention.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Global Indicators of Child Maltreatment Effective Global Indicators of Child Maltreatment: The “Best Interest” of the Child in the Convention."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Global Indicators of Child Maltreatment Effective Global Indicators of Child Maltreatment: The “Best Interest” of the Child in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Sook Hyun Kim, MSW Boston University School of Social Work June, 2007

2 Purpose of the Study To explore why there is no universal indicator that allows child maltreatment to be measured globally To examine the CRC as an international indicator for child maltreatment

3 Definition of Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment is defined as “all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development of dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. (WHO, 1999)

4 Definition of Child Maltreatment Narrow definition of child maltreatment: CAN (physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) Broadly defined child maltreatment: Including child poverty, child labor, child trafficking, street children, and children in armed conflict

5 No Valid Definition of Child Maltreatment Definitions of child maltreatment differ significantly between countries and cultures. There is a lack of social consensus about what constitute unacceptable and acceptable forms of parenting or caring.

6 Constraints in Measuring Child Maltreatment Cultural Contextual Constraints 1. Cultural, socioeconomic, and religious factors 2. A country’s social norms such as low value on children and general support for use of physical punishment 3. Poverty

7 Constraints in Measuring Child Maltreatment Practical Constraints 1. Existing administrative data/indicators cannot measure international comparison accurately. 2. Existing child maltreatment indicators in one country may be contextually inappropriate to the different social structure and cultural setting. 3. Difficulties of transfer of international measures to a local context

8 Constraints in Measuring Child Maltreatment Resource Constraints 1. A country’s limited economic and social resources 2. Limited social service infrastructure 3. A lack of effective systems to investigate child maltreatment

9 Key Data of Child Maltreatment  Child Poverty: 30 percent of children (600 million) live on less than $1 a day  Child Mortality: 11 million children a day die before the age of five  Children Living with HIV/AIDS: 1,800 children under 15 are infected a day  Child Homicide: 31,000 deaths each year  Child Labor: 218 million children are engaged in child labor  Child Trafficking: 1.2 million children are trafficked each year  Street Children: Tens of millions or higher  Children in Armed Conflict: 300,000 children under 18 are exploited in armed conflicts

10 Conceptual Framework: 1. Paradigm Shift Traditional Concept of Children New Concept of Children  Views of the Child: Subordinate,dependent member of the family  Approach: Psychopathological, Medical approach  Solution: Single-factor, Territorial approach  Views of the Child: Independent human being, a subject of rights, a participant in action  Approach: Child-centered, Rights-based approach  Solution: Ecological, Multilateral, Transnational approach

11 Conceptual Framework: 2. Ecological Model of Child Maltreatment Child Family Societal/National International Child maltreatment as a multidimensional phenomenon resulting from the interaction of several factors

12 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) A full range of rights for children: civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights As a framework to develop child-centered indicators and national policy to protect the rights of the children in the world Article 19: “State Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parents, legal guardians, or any other person who has the care of the child.”

13 UN CRC

14 Reporting & Monitoring Process of CRC Countries that ratify the Convention are required to report progress every 5 years.(Committee on the Rights of the Child) The nature and quality of reports varies in each country. The interpretation of the Convention in any social and cultural context varies.

15 “Best-Interests” of the Child Article 3: “In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.”

16 “Best-Interests” of the Child 2. “Right to Participation” 1. “Treating Child as a Person”

17 Global Indicators for Child Maltreatment & Child’s Rights

18 Global Indicators for Child Maltreatment and Child’s Rights GlobalIndicatorsGlobalIndicators Child-centeredIndicatorsChild-centeredIndicators DisaggregatingIndicatorsDisaggregatingIndicators Ecological concept of IndicatorsEcological Indicators Cultural-sensitivityIndicatorsCultural-sensitivityIndicators

19 For more information, Contact: Sook Hyun Kim Boston University School of Social Work


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