2ObjectivesIdentify five areas of basic needs for which children depend on their caregiversGive examples of three ways to childproof a homeList eleven common childhood injuriesDescribe four types of substitute child careIdentify four areas in which a child has needs beyond physical needsExplain how to guide children's behaviorSummarize how play promotes a child's development
3Children's Basic Needs A caregiver is anyone who takes care of a child Parents often need the help of others since parenting is such a big jobParenting is the process of caring for children and helping the grow and developParenting includes providing care, guidance, and support in order to promote a child's growth and development
4Meeting Basic NeedsThe most basic responsibility of caring for children is meeting their physical needs:Food - children need nutritious foods to promote or encourage healthy growth and development.Sleep - infants and young children need more sleep than teens and adults. Getting child to sleep can be challenging.Clothing - infants need basic garments, such as shirts, sleepers and of course, lots of diapers.Cleanliness - infants explore their world by touching and putting objects in their mouths. Be sure to keep toys and other favorite objects clean.
5Health Care Infants need regular checkups during the first year. Children need immunizations, which is a shot of a small amount of a dead or weakened disease carrying germ so the body may build a resistanceThe disease carrying germ is called a vaccineHealth care providers can tell you what vaccines are needed at what ages.
6Keeping Children Safe To prevent injuries, follow these safety rules: Keep small objects and all plastic bags away from babiesNever leave a baby alone on a raised surface, such as a bed, dresser, or changing tableChoose toys that age-appropriate and undamaged. Age-appropriate means it is suitable for the age and developmental needs of a childMake sure the baby's crib and other equipment meet current safety standards
7Childproofing the Home To childproof means to take steps to protect a child from possible dangers.You can do this by identifying potential hazards and removing them or keeping them away from children.Put covers over electrical outletsInstall safety gates at the top and bottom of stairsKeep scissors, matches, lighters, poisonous substances - cleaning products, paints medicines on high shelves or behind a locking door
8ChildproofingMake sure there is no risk of furniture such as a dresser or a television stand of falling overMake sure all windows that can be opened have secure screensMove small appliances, such as the toaster and iron, out of reach. Unplug them when not in useTeach children heaters and the stove are hot and keep handles of pots and pans turned towards the center of the stove.
9Safety Away from HomeFor every car journey, no matter how short, secure infants and children in approved safety seatsNever let children out of your sight in a public place, like a parkBe especially vigilant when near a swimming pool or body of waterTeach children about “stranger danger” and to never get into a car with someone they do not know
101-800-442-4918 (Riverside County) Preventing AbuseChild abuse can take several forms, including physical, emotional and sexualNeglect, another form of abuse, occurs when caregivers fail to meet children’s basic needsNo matter what form it takes, abuse is inexcusable and illegalEvery state has a hotline number to report suspected abuse – you can remain anonymous(Riverside County)
11Common Injuries Problem What to Do Bites (animal or human) Wash wound with water, cover with sterile gauze, call physicianBites (insect)Wash area, apply antisepticBroken BoneSeek medical help, do not straighten the limbBruisesCold washcloth, gently apply to bruiseBurnsMinor burns, run cold water for 5 minutes – more serious burns go to hospitalCuts and ScrapesApply direct pressure and stop bleeding, wash wound, apply antiseptic and bandageForeign Object in EyeGently pull lower lid down while person looks up, use lint free cloth to touch objectNosebleedKeep person seated and leaning forward. Do not tilt head back (choking) Apply direct pressure for 10 minutesPoisonCall poison control immediatelySprainsApply ice to reduce swelling, wrap limb and keep elevatedStingsScrape stinger with something flat, like a credit card pulling out venom sac, Wash wound thoroughly and apply ice to prevent swelling. Watch for allergic reaction
12Choosing Child Care Services In-Home Care: Parents may arrange for a caregiver to come to their home, this allows child to stay in familiar surroundingsFamily Child Care: Some caregivers look after children in their own homes, children enjoy a homelike settingChild Care Centers: Offers programs with carefully planned activities in an environment designed for children. Centers must be licensedBefore and After-School Care: Working parents of school age children may need care for a few hours before and after school. Programs might be offered by community centers or schools.
13Choosing Child Care Services Parents should ask these questions:How many children are assigned to each caregiver?What training and qualifications do the caregivers have?What activities are offered? How will they benefit my child?
14Reflection Part IOn a separate piece of paper, answer the following questions:Paraphrase what the term ‘parenting’ meansList three things a caregiver can do to keep a child safe outside the home.Contrast in-home care and family child-care.
15Nurturing ChildrenFor children to develop their full potential, they also need a loving, stimulating environmentcaregivers who provide for their intellectual, emotional, social and moral needsA stimulating environment is one in which there are a wide variety of things to see, taste, touch, smell and hear.
16Nurturing ChildrenIntellectual – Research shows importance of an environment that stimulates all five senses of brain development.When you talk, read, play and share with children, you are helping to stimulate their intellectual development.Emotional – All children need to feel loved an valued. They need people who will listen to them, give them smiles and hugs, cheer their accomplishments and comfort them.Children who feel successful and loved have greater confidence and higher self-esteem
17Nurturing ChildrenSocial – Children need to learn how to make friends, get along with others and express their thoughts, feelings and desires in socially acceptable ways.To develop these skills, they need to be around other children and guidance from their caregiversAs they learn to play with others, share and take turns, children are learning valuable life-long lessonsMoral – Children need to develop a sense of right and wrong. Consistent, loving guidance helps them do so. Basic values such as fairness and empathy are best taught by example.
18Guiding BehaviorGuidance means using firmness and understanding to help children learn how to behaveCaregivers need to be patient, understanding and gentle as they guide children toward appropriate behavior
19Guiding Behavior Promote Good Behavior: Set Limits: Modeling appropriate behavior is the best way to promote it in children. Responding well to a child’s good behavior encourages them to repeat itSet Limits:Children need to know what they may or may not do.Although they may complain about the rules, they feel more secure when they know what is expected of them.State limits clearly and responsibly
20Guiding Behavior Handling Misbehavior: Redirect Behavior – With infants and toddlers, misbehavior can often be avoided or stopped by redirecting the child’s attentionGive Reminders – All children make mistakes. Reminding a child of good behavior is often all you need.Remove Child From the Situation – Often just putting child in a time out situation gives the child a chance to calm down.Make the punishment appropriate – if a child will not pick up his toys, it is appropriate to not allow them to play with them for an hour. It would not be appropriate to cancel a trip planned for the next weekEnforce Consequences – This can be hard for a parent, but it teaches a child that you mean what you say.
21Learning Through PlayPhysical Activities – like playing tag, help develop motor skills, strengthen muscles and improve coordinationIntellectual – Reading to children teaches them about letters, words and ideas.Emotional – Play can build bonds. This boosts their self-esteem.
22Types of PlayQuiet Play – Involves activities that engage the mind and use small motor skills, like using clay, puzzles or crayons.Active Play – involves physical activities that use larger motor skills, like climbing jungle gyms, riding a tricycle or playing soccer.Free Play – also called creative play, is a time when children can choose any safe activity they want.
23How to Read to a Child1. Choose Age-Appropriate Books – Stories should be suitable for child’s age and interests 2. Discuss the Story – talk about the pictures and how the characters may be feeling and what might happen next. 3. Have the Child Participate – Children love to turn pages, choose the books and point at pictures 4. Read it Again – Be prepared to read the same story many times, children love to hear stories over and over. 5. Let Them Read – When a child is old enough, let them read along and help them through tough words, praising them along the way.