Presentation on theme: "Child Care Chapter Eleven. Objectives Identify five areas of basic needs for which children depend on their caregivers Give examples of three ways to."— Presentation transcript:
Child Care Chapter Eleven
Objectives Identify five areas of basic needs for which children depend on their caregivers Give examples of three ways to childproof a home List eleven common childhood injuries Describe four types of substitute child care Identify four areas in which a child has needs beyond physical needs Explain how to guide children's behavior Summarize how play promotes a child's development
Children's Basic Needs A caregiver is anyone who takes care of a child Parents often need the help of others since parenting is such a big job Parenting is the process of caring for children and helping the grow and develop Parenting includes providing care, guidance, and support in order to promote a child's growth and development
Meeting Basic Needs The most basic responsibility of caring for children is meeting their physical needs: Food - children need nutritious foods to promote or encourage healthy growth and development. Sleep - infants and young children need more sleep than teens and adults. Getting child to sleep can be challenging. Clothing - infants need basic garments, such as shirts, sleepers and of course, lots of diapers. Cleanliness - infants explore their world by touching and putting objects in their mouths. Be sure to keep toys and other favorite objects clean.
Health Care Infants need regular checkups during the first year. Children need immunizations, which is a shot of a small amount of a dead or weakened disease carrying germ so the body may build a resistance The disease carrying germ is called a vaccine Health care providers can tell you what vaccines are needed at what ages.
Keeping Children Safe To prevent injuries, follow these safety rules: Keep small objects and all plastic bags away from babies Never leave a baby alone on a raised surface, such as a bed, dresser, or changing table Choose toys that age-appropriate and undamaged. Age-appropriate means it is suitable for the age and developmental needs of a child Make sure the baby's crib and other equipment meet current safety standards
Childproofing the Home To childproof means to take steps to protect a child from possible dangers. You can do this by identifying potential hazards and removing them or keeping them away from children. Put covers over electrical outlets Install safety gates at the top and bottom of stairs Keep scissors, matches, lighters, poisonous substances - cleaning products, paints medicines on high shelves or behind a locking door
Childproofing Make sure there is no risk of furniture such as a dresser or a television stand of falling over Make sure all windows that can be opened have secure screens Move small appliances, such as the toaster and iron, out of reach. Unplug them when not in use Teach children heaters and the stove are hot and keep handles of pots and pans turned towards the center of the stove.
Safety Away from Home For every car journey, no matter how short, secure infants and children in approved safety seats Never let children out of your sight in a public place, like a park Be especially vigilant when near a swimming pool or body of water Teach children about “stranger danger” and to never get into a car with someone they do not know
Preventing Abuse Child abuse can take several forms, including physical, emotional and sexual Neglect, another form of abuse, occurs when caregivers fail to meet children’s basic needs No matter what form it takes, abuse is inexcusable and illegal Every state has a hotline number to report suspected abuse – you can remain anonymous (Riverside County)
Common Injuries ProblemWhat to Do Bites (animal or human)Wash wound with water, cover with sterile gauze, call physician Bites (insect)Wash area, apply antiseptic Broken BoneSeek medical help, do not straighten the limb BruisesCold washcloth, gently apply to bruise BurnsMinor burns, run cold water for 5 minutes – more serious burns go to hospital Cuts and ScrapesApply direct pressure and stop bleeding, wash wound, apply antiseptic and bandage Foreign Object in EyeGently pull lower lid down while person looks up, use lint free cloth to touch object NosebleedKeep person seated and leaning forward. Do not tilt head back (choking) Apply direct pressure for 10 minutes PoisonCall poison control immediately SprainsApply ice to reduce swelling, wrap limb and keep elevated StingsScrape stinger with something flat, like a credit card pulling out venom sac, Wash wound thoroughly and apply ice to prevent swelling. Watch for allergic reaction
Choosing Child Care Services In-Home Care: Parents may arrange for a caregiver to come to their home, this allows child to stay in familiar surroundings Family Child Care: Some caregivers look after children in their own homes, children enjoy a homelike setting Child Care Centers: Offers programs with carefully planned activities in an environment designed for children. Centers must be licensed Before and After-School Care: Working parents of school age children may need care for a few hours before and after school. Programs might be offered by community centers or schools.
Choosing Child Care Services Parents should ask these questions: How many children are assigned to each caregiver? What training and qualifications do the caregivers have? What activities are offered? How will they benefit my child?
Reflection Part I On a separate piece of paper, answer the following questions: 1. Paraphrase what the term ‘parenting’ means 2. List three things a caregiver can do to keep a child safe outside the home. 3. Contrast in-home care and family child-care.
Nurturing Children For children to develop their full potential, they also need a loving, stimulating environment caregivers who provide for their intellectual, emotional, social and moral needs A stimulating environment is one in which there are a wide variety of things to see, taste, touch, smell and hear.
Nurturing Children Intellectual – Research shows importance of an environment that stimulates all five senses of brain development. When you talk, read, play and share with children, you are helping to stimulate their intellectual development. Emotional – All children need to feel loved an valued. They need people who will listen to them, give them smiles and hugs, cheer their accomplishments and comfort them. Children who feel successful and loved have greater confidence and higher self-esteem
Nurturing Children Social – Children need to learn how to make friends, get along with others and express their thoughts, feelings and desires in socially acceptable ways. To develop these skills, they need to be around other children and guidance from their caregivers As they learn to play with others, share and take turns, children are learning valuable life-long lessons Moral – Children need to develop a sense of right and wrong. Consistent, loving guidance helps them do so. Basic values such as fairness and empathy are best taught by example.
Guiding Behavior Guidance means using firmness and understanding to help children learn how to behave Caregivers need to be patient, understanding and gentle as they guide children toward appropriate behavior
Guiding Behavior Promote Good Behavior: Modeling appropriate behavior is the best way to promote it in children. Responding well to a child’s good behavior encourages them to repeat it Set Limits: Children need to know what they may or may not do. Although they may complain about the rules, they feel more secure when they know what is expected of them. State limits clearly and responsibly
Guiding Behavior Handling Misbehavior: Redirect Behavior – With infants and toddlers, misbehavior can often be avoided or stopped by redirecting the child’s attention Give Reminders – All children make mistakes. Reminding a child of good behavior is often all you need. Remove Child From the Situation – Often just putting child in a time out situation gives the child a chance to calm down. Make the punishment appropriate – if a child will not pick up his toys, it is appropriate to not allow them to play with them for an hour. It would not be appropriate to cancel a trip planned for the next week Enforce Consequences – This can be hard for a parent, but it teaches a child that you mean what you say.
Learning Through Play Physical Activities – like playing tag, help develop motor skills, strengthen muscles and improve coordination Intellectual – Reading to children teaches them about letters, words and ideas. Emotional – Play can build bonds. This boosts their self-esteem.
Types of Play Quiet Play – Involves activities that engage the mind and use small motor skills, like using clay, puzzles or crayons. Active Play – involves physical activities that use larger motor skills, like climbing jungle gyms, riding a tricycle or playing soccer. Free Play – also called creative play, is a time when children can choose any safe activity they want.
How to Read to a Child 1. Choose Age-Appropriate Books – Stories should be suitable for child’s age and interests 2. Discuss the Story – talk about the pictures and how the characters may be feeling and what might happen next. 3. Have the Child Participate – Children love to turn pages, choose the books and point at pictures 4. Read it Again – Be prepared to read the same story many times, children love to hear stories over and over. 5. Let Them Read – When a child is old enough, let them read along and help them through tough words, praising them along the way.