Presentation on theme: "CHILD DEPRIVATION AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN 2012 Gill Main and Jonathan Bradshaw Social Policy Research Unit University of York 19-20 June 2014 Third Peter."— Presentation transcript:
CHILD DEPRIVATION AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN 2012 Gill Main and Jonathan Bradshaw Social Policy Research Unit University of York June 2014 Third Peter Townsend Memorial Conference Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK
Outline Omnibus survey established socially perceived necessities for children How we established a child deprivation index – Gordon method Fixing thresholds Who lacks (2 and 5) items How does deprivation overlap with other elements of social exclusion
Child socially perceived necessities: 18/23 items and 7/8 activities included Proportion viewing item/activity as a necessity (2012) CI (2012) A warm winter coat (coat) Fresh fruit or vegetables at least once a day (veg) Three meals a day (3 meals) New, properly fitting, shoes (shoes) A garden or outdoor space nearby where they can play safely (garden) Books at home suitable for their ages (books) Meat, fish or vegetarian equivalent at least once a day (meat) A suitable place to study or do homework (study) Indoor games suitable for their ages (games) Enough bedrooms for every child of 10 or over of a different sex to have their own bedroom (bedroom) Computer and internet for homework (computer) Some new, not second hand, clothes (clothes) Outdoor leisure equipment (leisure) At least four pairs of trousers, leggings, jeans or jogging bottoms (trousers) Money to save (save) Pocket money (money) Construction toys (toys) A bicycle (bike) Clothes to fit in with friends (style) A mobile phone for children aged 11 or over (mobile) An MP3 player (mp3)86-10 Designer/brand name trainers (pumps)65-8 Celebrations on special occasions (celebrations) A hobby or leisure activity (hobby) Toddler group or nursery or play group at least once a week for pre-school aged children (nursery) Children’s clubs or activities such as drama or football training (clubs) Day trips with family once a month (family trip) Going on a school trip at least once a term (school trip ) A holiday away from home for at least one week a year (holiday) Friends round for tea or a snack once a fortnight (snack)
Validity analysis Most adults say they are generally poor Household in relative income poverty Estimate95% Confidence Interval Estimate95% Confidence Interval LowerUpperLowerUpper 3 meals Shoes Clothes Veg Leisure Bedroom Coat Books Garden Meat Study Games Trousers Lego Money Savings PC Hobby Celebrate Holiday Playgroup School trip Day trips Clubs For each item lacking adults are more likely to say they are generally poor and are also more likely to be income poor.
Reliability analysis alpha=0.826 very satisfactory Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted Three meals a day (children) New, properly fitting shoes (children) Some new, not second-hand clothes (children) Fresh fruit or vegetables at least once a day (children) Outdoor leisure equipment, e.g. roller skates, skateboard, football, etc. (children) Enough bedrooms (10+) A warm winter coat (children) Books (2+) A garden or outfoor space nearby where they can play safely (children) Meat, fish or vegetarian equivalent at least once a day (children) Place to study (5+) Indoor games suitable for their ages (e.g.building blocks, board games, computer games, etc) (children) At least four pairs of trousers, leggings, jeans or jogging bottoms (children) Construction toys such as Duplo/Lego etc (children) Pocket money (5+) Savings (5+) Computer & internet (5+) Hobby (5+) Celebrations on special occasions, e.g. birthdays, Christmas or other religious festivals (Children) A holiday away from home at least one week a year (Children) Play groups, etc. (under 5) School trips (5+) Day trips with family once a month (Children) Clubs/activities (2+)
Results HasDoes not have, does not want Does not have, can't afford Not allocat ed Coat97110 Veg95230 Meal97210 Shoes94241 Garden92251 Meat94131 Games95211 Clothes95140 Trousers93151 Lego Leisure Bedroom Study92251 PC90262 Money Savings Books97120 Celebrate97120 Holiday Day trip Play group School trip79579 Hobby86563 Clubs711198
Mean income (AHC) by items lacking
Number of items lacking 31% lacking 2+ 11% lacking 5+ % Child ren % Househ olds with children None One Two Three Four Five Six Seven1.3 Eight Nine Ten or more
Higher deprivation rates unemployment, living with a lone parent, having a low equivalent income, living in a large family, being black or other Asian (Pakistani/Bangladeshi), being a social tenant and living in England.
Majority of deprived were/had someone in employment (50% full-time), couple families, are in the bottom two quintiles of the income distribution, have only one or two children, are white. Nearly a third of deprived children are owners and of course most live in England.
Overlaps between income poverty and deprivation Not deprived 2+ Deprived 2+ Not income poor AHC Income poor AHC15 18 Not deprived 5+Deprived 5+ Not income poor AHC 644 Income poor AHC257 ?protected by parents, gifts, new income poor not yet deprived ?puritan parents, recently moved out of poverty
Overlaps between household and child deprivation Child not deprived 2+ Child deprived 2+ Household not deprived 452 Household deprived 2429 Child not deprived 5+ Child deprived 5+ Household not deprived 470 Household deprived 4211 Protected by parents Very few
Deprived children more likely to lack services (odds non deprived=1.0)
Deprived children more likely to have socially excluded adults: (odds non deprived=1.0) Except isolation
Deprived children more likely to suffer poor outcomes: (odds non deprived=1.0)