Presentation on theme: "Child trafficking Invisible children Seminar at Groningen University May 8, 2014 By Günay Salazar Volkmann Equity for Children/The New School."— Presentation transcript:
Child trafficking Invisible children Seminar at Groningen University May 8, 2014 By Günay Salazar Volkmann Equity for Children/The New School
Understanding Child trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of children for the purpose of exploitation UN Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children (2000)
Magnitude Between people are trafficked cross borders every year In total 27 million people held in slavery (Kevin Bales) Around 50 % are under 18 years old (US State Department report) 1.2 million girls and boys are trafficked internally and cross borders – every year. (ILO 2005).
Invisible children 1. Sexual exploitation mostly known (43 %) but difficult to trace due to hidden nature. 2. Forced labor is underreported (37%). Domestic workers (mostly girls), agriculture, fishery, factories, begging, camel jockeys, drug dealing and child soldiers 3. Trafficking of boys has been underreported. 4. Internal “trafficking” often not counted as trafficking versus cross border trafficking.
Question: What types of trafficking do exist and why are children particularly vulnerable?
Types of child trafficking Labor trafficking Restaurants Bars Hotels Agriculture Construction Mining Factories Domestic work Child soldiers Begging etc. Sex trafficking/Marriage Brothels Massage salons Pimp controlled prostitution On the internet/pornography On the street
Why are children particularly vulnerable? High demand for children because: Cheap goods -> Cheap labor Less risk of HIV infection Easier to manipulate Show more obedience More open to risk taking behavior
The geography of child trafficking
Looking for answers Child trafficking from Vietnam to Cambodia
Most current patterns Girls 1.Are recruited in their community, leave with recruiter directly to Cambodia 2.Are recruited to work first in other city in Vietnam. Recruiter knows at risk families and dreams of girls and provides concrete job prospects and better life. 3.Leave alone to Cambodia or first to local cities and are then recruited and forced into sex work
Why does child trafficking exist? Example for misunderstanding of causes: “ …because they are poor, not educated and greedy” (official in Ministry of Public Security, Ho Chi Minh City)
Main structural causes – or what makes certain groups of children more vulnerable than others? 1.Poverty plus acute debt/loss of land/family disruption 2.Early drop out of school (especially girls), limited job and education opportunities 3.Social norms (gender/children) 4.Lack of information 5.Domestic Violence 6.Tradition of communities to cross border for seasonal work 6.Increase of Entertainment sector with high demand for girls 7.Lack of equitable access to services
Complex mix of risk behaviors Parents Parents don’t seek information in advance, don’t discuss among themselves and with their daughters before decision and take first opportunity Most want children safe but want to believe in positive quick solutions. Don’t see other way out. Girls Obey parents, sacrify themselves, following recruiters even if knowing that there is risk involved/follow offers. Community Don’t report on recruiters, let them do, indifference, think that girls should obey parents and that ultimately money is sent back to community.
A closer look at demand side behaviors Consumers - sex clients Mostly Khmer men, but also tourists prefer young girls for fear of HIV, prefer Vietnamese as they are said to be docile Local recruiters Mostly women from district or same community, often same profile as victims, often “protected” by community Want to make money to survive, don’t feel empathy with girls though they often know girls. End exploiters Owners of casinos, karaoke bars, restaurants, brothels, hair salons Want more profit, see low risk of being denounced and don’t fear law, don’t have empathy with girls, have low esteem for children and girls.
How to prevent child trafficking? Going beyond information campaigns and address: Demand side Ending Impunity Monitoring of the implementation of labor standards where standards exist Introducing labor laws that are in line with international standards Changing social norms, attitudes and behaviors of consumers Supply side Promote education for children, work for youth and adults Strong protection networks/protection system Changing social norms, practices that perpetuate discrimination Increase equitable participation of children Empowering families and children to make safe decisions
Where do we stand today? 1.Better understanding worldwide about nature, extent and patterns of child trafficking and local situations. 2.More concern in public and on agenda of governments 3.2/3 of countries have ratified the Trafficking in Persons Protocol (147 countries), Vietnam in Half of these countries have anti-trafficking legislation 5.Regional Mechanisms 6.UN Global Plan of Action 7.UN Trust Fund established for victims 8.Equipped with programming guidance on how to better prevent child trafficking, how to better protect victims and how to investigate these crimes
Three dimensions of interventions Creating a protective environment for children: Prevention Response Reintegration/Prevention of further exploitation of survivors
More focus on prevention and hereby more emphasis also on demand side as part of prevention More standardized and complete data collection/dissemination mechanisms Strengthen law enforcement – fighting corruption and impunity Putting in place child protection systems – linked with health and education services. Creating trust among actors working to combat trafficking such as between the law enforcement actors and that of agencies working to support the victims Related to this point: More efficient implementation of coordinated action rather than more and more coordination bodies. More attention to internal trafficking and trafficking for labor exploitation (Inter-Agency Coordination Group against Trafficking in Persons, 2010 Challenges or the way forward
What can you do? Support Research on best practices to address demand side. Advocate for establishment of social protection systems that cover all children, including most vulnerable ones. Establish Partnership between your institution/company/university and comprehensive Child Protection Programs Thank you