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©MWByrne 2006 Responsive Parenting Support During the Prison Nursery and Reentry Years Highlights from a study in progress: “Maternal and Child Outcomes.

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Presentation on theme: "©MWByrne 2006 Responsive Parenting Support During the Prison Nursery and Reentry Years Highlights from a study in progress: “Maternal and Child Outcomes."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©MWByrne 2006 Responsive Parenting Support During the Prison Nursery and Reentry Years Highlights from a study in progress: “Maternal and Child Outcomes of a Prison Nursery Program” (RO1NR ) Mary W. Byrne, PhD, FAAN Professor of Clinical Nursing Columbia University Columbia University

2 Research Team Keosha Bond, MPH Intervention/ Health Ed Keosha Bond, MPH Intervention/ Health Ed Carolynn Bitzer, RN, DNSc cand GRA Nursing (ASUM) Carolynn Bitzer, RN, DNSc cand GRA Nursing (ASUM) Juliette Clark, BS, BA Research Associate Juliette Clark, BS, BA Research Associate David Crandall, PhD Biostatistician David Crandall, PhD Biostatistician Joann Galley, PsyD, JD Neurodev. Psychologist Joann Galley, PsyD, JD Neurodev. Psychologist Lorie Smith Goshin, RN, MSN Community Coord. / Nursing Lorie Smith Goshin, RN, MSN Community Coord. / Nursing Sarah Joestl, MPH cand Project Director / Public Health Sarah Joestl, MPH cand Project Director / Public Health

3 Acknowledgments: Funders and Supporters Cross-sectional studies: Cross-sectional studies: NYS Department of Health, NYS Department of Health, Commissioner’s Priority Award Columbia University Institute for Family and Child Research Columbia University Institute for Family and Child Research Current study: Current study: NIH / National Institute for Nursing Research NIH / National Institute for Nursing Research “Maternal and Child Outcomes of a Prison Nursery Program” RO1 NR00782, and RO1 NR00782S1, RO1 NR00782, and RO1 NR00782S1, NYS DOCS administrators and personnel and Children’s Center civilian and inmate staff NYS DOCS administrators and personnel and Children’s Center civilian and inmate staff

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8 Setting: Prison Nursery “Prison Nursery” “Prison Nursery” Infants / children reside with incarcerated mother Infants / children reside with incarcerated mother Term describes various arrangements in prison-based and community settings Term describes various arrangements in prison-based and community settings Exist globally Exist globally Dearth of accurate and complete information Dearth of accurate and complete information Bedford Hills Correctional Facility (BHCF) Bedford Hills Correctional Facility (BHCF) 100+ years in existence 100+ years in existence Infant stays inside prison with mother for months of her sentence Infant stays inside prison with mother for months of her sentence For 30+ years, associated with a Children’s Center that supports distance parenting through many programs For 30+ years, associated with a Children’s Center that supports distance parenting through many programs Taconic Correctional Facility (TCF) nursery: 1990 Taconic Correctional Facility (TCF) nursery: 1990

9 Research Questions and Approaches What is the culture of a prison nursery from mother, staff and provider perspectives? What is the culture of a prison nursery from mother, staff and provider perspectives? Ethnographic study Ethnographic study What parenting qualities are exhibited by the nursery mothers, and What parenting qualities are exhibited by the nursery mothers, and what is the developmental status of their infants? what is the developmental status of their infants? Cross-sectional study of nursery inmates’ parenting qualities and infants’ development Cross-sectional study of nursery inmates’ parenting qualities and infants’ development  Can parenting, child development, and attachment be enhanced by nurse visits during and following the prison nursery experience?  Longitudinal study of attachment, parenting competency, and child development during prison nursery co-detention and first re-entry year

10 Multiple Methods EthnographicCross-SectionalLongitudinal Participant Observation Broad Selected Focused (Spradley, 1979) Informal InterviewOpen ended Conversational Semi-structured (Spradley, 1980) Semi-structuredAdult Attachment Interview Developmental Assessments Denver II Early Language Milestone Cat/Clams Bayley Scales QuestionnairesSF36, CES-D, SES, SSQ, EWB, abuse, PSI, PSOC,CAPI CES-D SSQ PSOC WGK OtherVideotaping. Prison records Medical records NP / HE visits Video review / coding SSP: Lab attachment measure

11 Getting the research team inside and staying there IRB approved protocol IRB approved protocol Research agreement with NYS DOCS / Research agreement with NYS DOCS / Working relationships with prison administrators in Albany Working relationships with prison administrators in Albany Agreements / Working relationships with local prison administrators and staff Agreements / Working relationships with local prison administrators and staff Establishment of trust with inmates Establishment of trust with inmates Funding Funding

12 Retaining long-term participants and following them on the outside Building on trust Building on trust Informed consent from alternate caregiver Informed consent from alternate caregiver Maintaining contact: Maintaining contact: Creative and vigorous attention to address and phone changes Creative and vigorous attention to address and phone changes Frequent phone contact Frequent phone contact Birthday and holiday mailings Birthday and holiday mailings Timely requests for change of address, name, phone Timely requests for change of address, name, phone

13 Longitudinal Sample to Date N=100 dyads (100% of target) N=100 dyads (100% of target) Maternal age Maternal age 18 to 45 years; mean 28 (+/- 6.5) 18 to 45 years; mean 28 (+/- 6.5) Maternal race/ethnicity Maternal race/ethnicity Varies by source of data Varies by source of data 39% Black, 34% White, 39% Black, 34% White, 21% Hispanic, 6% biracial 21% Hispanic, 6% biracial Infant age now Infant age now 3 months to 47 months 3 months to 47 months

14 Data Collection Settings  PRISON Recreation room Recreation room Inmate cell Inmate cell Child Care Center Child Care Center COMMUNITY COMMUNITY One or more private homes following reentry One or more private homes following reentry Transitional housing Transitional housing Office of Family and Child Research Office of Family and Child Research

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17 NIDA meeting aim # 1: “Provide a picture…” What do prison nursery studies add to emerging knowledge of children with incarcerated parents?  Mother-child pairs who are not separated by mother’s imprisonment Nursery inmate mothers and their babies are a small but unique subset of incarcerated women who are not separated from at least one infant whom they raise during their sentence from birth through up to one year, and sometimes longer. Nursery inmate mothers and their babies are a small but unique subset of incarcerated women who are not separated from at least one infant whom they raise during their sentence from birth through up to one year, and sometimes longer.

18 What do prison nursery studies add…. cont’d Broader, richer, scientifically accurate descriptions Broader, richer, scientifically accurate descriptions even demographic reports are sparse even demographic reports are sparse past nursery studies: short-term, small convenience samples, little contextual data past nursery studies: short-term, small convenience samples, little contextual data Models of relationships to do research of significance to inmates Models of relationships to do research of significance to inmates Byrne, M. (2005) Conducting research as a visiting scientist in a women’s prison. Journal of Professional Nursing. 21(4), Byrne, M. (2005) Conducting research as a visiting scientist in a women’s prison. Journal of Professional Nursing. 21(4), US ponders unlocking the gates to prisoner research. Nature Medicine 12, 3 (2006) US ponders unlocking the gates to prisoner research. Nature Medicine 12, 3 (2006) Trials for interventions Trials for interventions

19 NIDA meeting aim # 2: “Examine trajectories to target interventions” What have we learned about family and child functioning of prison nursery participants that is amenable to intervention? Parenting values and cognitions are embedded in history and culture and are not inherently different for incarcerated women Parenting values and cognitions are embedded in history and culture and are not inherently different for incarcerated women Build on strengths Build on strengths Observe, inform, model, reflect, repeat, and allow time for changes Observe, inform, model, reflect, repeat, and allow time for changes Crisis of imprisonment can heighten reception to and support behavioral change Crisis of imprisonment can heighten reception to and support behavioral change Reconcile dependence of prisoner status with empowerment of helping relationships Reconcile dependence of prisoner status with empowerment of helping relationships  Resources crucial in prison and during reentry  Transition to reentry is critical

20 NIDA meeting aim #3: “Review theory-based prevention interventions” What theoretical lenses have been useful to our programs? Choosing the Parenting Self Choosing the Parenting Self Identification Identification Integration Integration Nourishment Nourishment Attachment Theory Attachment Theory Interrupting cross-generational insecure cycle Interrupting cross-generational insecure cycle


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