Presentation on theme: "Child, Family, School, and Community Socialization and Support 6 th ed. Chapter Five ECOLOGY OF CHILDCARE."— Presentation transcript:
Child, Family, School, and Community Socialization and Support 6 th ed. Chapter Five ECOLOGY OF CHILDCARE
The National Day Care Study has found three predictors of positive classroom dynamics and child outcomes: Size of the overall group Caregiver-child ratios Specialized training of caregivers in child development or early childhood education CHILDCARE What is quality care?
CHILDCARE What is quality care? Advocacy for quality care National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) has its own accreditation standards to promote developmentally appropriate practice. A federal child-care bill was passed in 1990, which include a Childcare and Development Block Grant. The Family and Medical Leave Act was passed in 1993.
CHILDCARE What is quality care? Accreditation of child care programs Voluntary systems exist nationally to establish higher- quality standards than are required by law. The standard criteria addresses staff qualifications and training, administration and staffing patterns, the physical environment, health and safety issues, and nutrition and food service. In 1998, the National Association for Family Day Care (now the National Association for Family Child Care) began a program for voluntary accreditation for in-home childcare services.
CHILDCARE Macrosystem influences on child care Generally child care and educational practices have been affected by four distinct macrosystems: Political Ideology Culture/Ethnicity Economics Science/Technology
CHILDCARE Macrosystem influences on child care (cont’d) The first day nurseries were established to cope with the children of masses of immigrants to the United States during the mid-nineteenth century. The first cooperative nursery school was inaugurated at the University of Chicago in 1915.
CHILDCARE Macrosystem influences on child care (cont’d) In 1964, the Economic Opportunity Act was passed to provide educational and social opportunities for children from low-income families. The political activism in the 1960s provided part of the rationale for early intervention. President George Bush outlined his plan for educational reform in his “No Child Left Behind” Act.
CHILDCARE Chronosystem influences on child care Nineteenth century Industrialization and a flood of immigrants led to the need for childcare. Mrs. Joseph Hale opened the first day nursery for children of seamen’s working wives and widows.
CHILDCARE Chronosystem influences on child care Twentieth century Most childcare could be classified as custodial. President Franklin Roosevelt made public funds available for childcare as part of the Works Project Administration (WPA). These funds were stopped when the WPA was no longer in force.
CHILDCARE Chronosystem influences on child care (cont’d) Twentieth century Federal funds, made available through the Lantham Act of 1942, made child care available to women working in the war effort. After the Lantham Act was discontinued, childcare facilities continued to exist as many women continued to work.
CHILDCARE Chronosystem influences on child care (cont’d) Twentieth century Philosophy of childcare changed from a support service for needy families to a developmental service for all children. The 1971 White House Conference announces the need for quality care as the most serious problem for families.
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and psychological development Rene Spitz compared: Infants raised by caregivers Infants raised by their mothers exhibited normal development whereas the other infants were delayed developmentally. Infants raised by their incarcerated mothers. TO
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and psychological development (cont’d) John Bowlby: ANY break in the early mother-child relationship could have detrimental effects for the child.
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and psychological development (cont’d) Harold Skeels: the degree and nurturance received (NOT the caregiver) is the most important determinant of children’s development. infants who are initially deprived can grow up normally IF intervention provided by a caring, nurturing person.
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and psychological development (cont’d) Researchers say : Children form can SECONDARY attachments to caregivers if caregiver provides care for a substantial amount of time.
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and psychological development (cont’d) Jay Belsky says: Infants under age 1 receiving non-maternal care 20+ hours a week are at a greater risk of developing insecure relationships with their mothers. Phillips and Clarke-Stewart says : Children in full-time day care may have different coping styles and traditional assessments of attachment may not be adequate for children reared in diverse environments.
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and psychological development (cont’d) Michael Lamb: Day care does not affect mother-child attachment. Adverse effects = poor-quality day care + insensitive and unresponsive maternal behavior.
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and social development Numerous studies show children experienced in childcare programs are more socially competent than children not experienced. Non-childcare children are typically more aggressive and hostile toward others.
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD CARE Child care and cognitive development Research shows: A positive relationship between attendance in quality day care and cognitive development. Child care effects on cognitive development depend on many factors (i.e. home life)
MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON CHILDCARE Child Care and the School and Community Ways to Increase Childcare Options: Extend services in elementary school to children under age 5 and to extend the class hours. Cooperative community ventures with urban public school districts and the YMCA.
MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON CHILDCARE Child care and the school and community (cont’d) Childcare affects not only children and families, but communities as well. The quality of family life in communities is often elevated by the provision of childcare. Childcare affects the economics of communities in that it enables adults to work.
MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON CHILDCARE Child care and the government business Current U.S. policy: government pays for disadvantaged families’ childcare and grants tax credits to other families. Perry Preschool research: children who attended a quality preschool significantly out-performed those who did not.
MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON CHILDCARE Child care and the government business (cont’d) The federal government plans to expand existing programs (Head Start). Some businesses provide child care assistance for employees: parental leaves flexible scheduling community resources on-site child care start-up costs to community childcare centers financial assistance to pay for child care
CHILD CARE AND SOCIALIZATION There are different types of childcare: In-home care Family day care Center-based care
CHILD CARE AND SOCIALIZATION Socialization effects of different preschool programs Cognitively-oriented curriculum: translates Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development into an educational program learner-directed
CHILD CARE AND SOCIALIZATION Socialization effects of different preschool programs (cont’d) Direct-instruction curriculum: based on B.F. Skinner’s philosophy aims to enhance disadvantaged children’s learning experiences through behavior modification and controlled skill learning teacher-directed
CHILD CARE AND SOCIALIZATION Socialization effects of different preschool programs (cont’d) Montessori curriculum: child should be treated as an individual children naturally absorb knowledge during “sensitive periods.” learner-directed
CHILD CARE AND SOCIALIZATION Socialization effects of different preschool programs (cont’d) Developmental interaction curriculum: focuses on the development of self-confidence and productivity individualized in relation to each child’s stage of development. learning organized around child’s own experiences learner-directed
CHILD CARE AND SOCIALIZATION Socialization effects of child care ideologies Cultural and economic background influences child care beliefs People employ caregivers outside the family whose child care ideologies generally match theirs
DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE CAREGIVING Collaborative Caregiving Professionals who care for infants and children MUST collaborate with families regarding ideologies and socialization goals. Diversity in socialization can be observed in communication styles with infants.
DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE CAREGIVING Collaborative Caregiving Experts suggest: Parents and non-parental caregivers set-aside “transition time” when children enter a childcare center.
DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE CAREGIVING Caregivers and child protection Caregivers MUST report suspected maltreatment under the law, Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act There are physical and behavioral indicators of maltreatment