Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Exploring Child Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1: Exploring Child Development Theories about Child DevelopmentBy Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook)
2Theories about Child Development What is a Theory?A theory is an explanation of how facts fit together, allowing us to understand and predict behavior.Why are Theories Useful?Summarize the facts as currently knownAllow prediction of future behavior and eventsProvide guidanceStimulate new research and discoveriesAct as filters for identifying relevant info, observations, and relationships
3Theories Psychoanalytic Behavioral & Social Learning Cognitive BiologicalSystems
4Psychoanalytic Theories Theories that focus on the structure of personality and on how the conscious and unconscious portions of the self influence behavior and development.Prominent TheoristsSigmund FreudErik Erikson
6Psychoanalytic Theories: Freud Freud ( ) focused on structure of personality; how conscious and unconscious shaped development3 levels of conscious awarenessId – primitive sexual and aggressive instinctsEgo – rational branch of personalitiesSuperego – moral branch of personalities
9Psychoanalytic Theories: Erikson Erickson ( ) focused on ego and healthy child developmentPsychosocial stages of developmentTrust v. Mistrust (age 0-1)Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (age 2-3)Initiative v Guilt (age 4-5)Industry v. Inferiority (age 6-12)Identity v. Role Confusion (adolescence)Intimacy v. Isolation (early adulthood)Generativity v. Stagnation (middle adulthood)Integrity v. Despair (later adulthood)
11Behavioral Learning Theories Behaviorism – An American movement to develop a psychology that was objective and scientific focusing on the principles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning.Watson ( ) – Father of American Behaviorism; focus on observable conditions in environment and how they are related to overt behaviors
14Behavioral Learning Theories Classical conditioning – Process where neutral stimuli are paired with unconditioned stimuli until they come to evoke conditioned responses.Pavlov’s dogWatson applied classical conditioning work of Pavlov to childrenLittle Albert
16Behavioral Learning Theories Operant Conditioning – Process where reinforcing or punishing consequences of actions affect behaviors.Skinner stressed importance of consequences of behavior for learning and development.E.g., praise for cleaning room or grounding for missing curfew.
18Social Learning Theories Social Learning – Process where children learn by observing and imitating the behaviors of other people.Bandura studied how children learn by observing and imitating others.E.g., girl learns to smile at visitors after watching her father smile at visitors
20Cognitive Theories: Piaget Piaget ( ) created the Cognitive Development Theory which focused on how children actively adjust their own understandings as they learn about the world.Schemes – mental representationsE.g., how to grasp a ball
21Cognitive Theories: Piaget Assimilation – the process of bringing new objects or information into a scheme that already exists. If the assimilation is not successful, the scheme needs to be accommodated. E.g., infant drops the ball.Accommodation – the process of adjusting or adapting a scheme so it fits the new experience. E.g., infant learns to hold ball with 2 hands.
22Cognitive Theorists: Piaget Four Stages of DevelopmentSensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete operationalFormal operationalCurrent information processing approach to studying cognition built on Piaget’s foundationA theoretical approach focusing on how children perceive, store, and retrieve information, and on the strategies they use to solve problems.
24Cognitive Theorists: Vygotsky Vygotsky ( ) created the Sociocultural Theory which emphasized importance of language and culture in shaping cognition.Internalization of speech aids self-controlSocial speechPrivate speechInner speech
25Cognitive TheoristsInformation Processing Theory – A Theoretical approach focusing on how children perceive, store, and retrieve information, and on the strategies they use to solve problems.Emphasize roles of:Basic processing efficiencyChanges in the knowledge base
26Biological TheoriesEthology – Area of study focusing on the adaptive significance or survival value of behaviors.Strong influence from Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and natural selection concept.Behavior GeneticsNeuropsychology – An area of study that focuses on the study of the brain and nervous system; researchers often observe brain functions using technology such as CT scans, PET, and fMRI.
29Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory Focuses on the complex set of systems and interacting social layers that can affect a child’s development.Microsystem – interactions with people in immediate environmentMesosystem – larger social environmentExosystem – even larger social settings and networksMacrosystem – values, customs, laws and resources of culture at largeChronosystem – how the effects of the systems, and the interrelationships among them, change over time
31Dynamic Systems Theory Theories that use models from mathematics and physics to understand complex systems of development.Focus on how layers of systems interact with one another and change over time.
32Baby on Slide 1: from retrieved December 8, 2005Freud on Slide 5: from retrieved December 6, 2005Baby on Slide 7: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 10). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Erikson on Slide 8: from retrieved December 6, 2005Watson on Slide 10: from retrieved December 6, 2005Pavlov on Slide 12: from retrieved December 6, 2005Cartoon on Slide 13: from retrieved December 8, 2005Skinner on Slide 15: from retrieved December 6, 2005
33Bandura on Slide 17: from http://www. des. emory. edu/mfp/bandurabio Bandura on Slide 17: from retrieved December 6, 2005Piaget on Slide 19: from retrieved December 6, 2005Baby on Slide 21: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 14). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Vygotski on Slide 23: from retrieved December 6, 2005Scan on Slide 27: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 16). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Bronfenbrenner on Slide 28: from retrieved December 6, 2005System on Slide 30: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 18). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.