Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Exploring Child Development Theories about Child Development By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook)"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1: Exploring Child Development Theories about Child Development By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook)
Theories about Child Development What is a Theory? A theory is an explanation of how facts fit together, allowing us to understand and predict behavior. Why are Theories Useful? Summarize the facts as currently known Allow prediction of future behavior and events Provide guidance Stimulate new research and discoveries Act as filters for identifying relevant info, observations, and relationships
Theories Psychoanalytic Behavioral & Social Learning Cognitive Biological Systems
Psychoanalytic Theories Theories that focus on the structure of personality and on how the conscious and unconscious portions of the self influence behavior and development. Prominent Theorists Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson
Psychoanalytic Theories: Freud Freud ( ) focused on structure of personality; how conscious and unconscious shaped development 3 levels of conscious awareness Id – primitive sexual and aggressive instincts Ego – rational branch of personalities Superego – moral branch of personalities
Psychoanalytic Theories: Erikson Erickson ( ) focused on ego and healthy child development Psychosocial stages of development Trust v. Mistrust (age 0-1) Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (age 2-3) Initiative v Guilt (age 4-5) Industry v. Inferiority (age 6-12) Identity v. Role Confusion (adolescence) Intimacy v. Isolation (early adulthood) Generativity v. Stagnation (middle adulthood) Integrity v. Despair (later adulthood)
John B. Watson
Behavioral Learning Theories Behaviorism – An American movement to develop a psychology that was objective and scientific focusing on the principles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Watson ( ) – Father of American Behaviorism; focus on observable conditions in environment and how they are related to overt behaviors
Behavioral Learning Theories Classical conditioning – Process where neutral stimuli are paired with unconditioned stimuli until they come to evoke conditioned responses. Pavlov’s dog Watson applied classical conditioning work of Pavlov to children Little Albert
B. F. Skinner
Behavioral Learning Theories Operant Conditioning – Process where reinforcing or punishing consequences of actions affect behaviors. Skinner stressed importance of consequences of behavior for learning and development. E.g., praise for cleaning room or grounding for missing curfew.
Social Learning Theories Social Learning – Process where children learn by observing and imitating the behaviors of other people. Bandura studied how children learn by observing and imitating others. E.g., girl learns to smile at visitors after watching her father smile at visitors
Cognitive Theories: Piaget Piaget ( ) created the Cognitive Development Theory which focused on how children actively adjust their own understandings as they learn about the world. Schemes – mental representations E.g., how to grasp a ball
Cognitive Theories: Piaget Assimilation – the process of bringing new objects or information into a scheme that already exists. If the assimilation is not successful, the scheme needs to be accommodated. E.g., infant drops the ball. Accommodation – the process of adjusting or adapting a scheme so it fits the new experience. E.g., infant learns to hold ball with 2 hands.
Cognitive Theorists: Piaget Four Stages of Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational Current information processing approach to studying cognition built on Piaget’s foundation A theoretical approach focusing on how children perceive, store, and retrieve information, and on the strategies they use to solve problems.
Cognitive Theorists: Vygotsky Vygotsky ( ) created the Sociocultural Theory which emphasized importance of language and culture in shaping cognition. Internalization of speech aids self-control Social speech Private speech Inner speech
Cognitive Theorists Information Processing Theory – A Theoretical approach focusing on how children perceive, store, and retrieve information, and on the strategies they use to solve problems. Emphasize roles of: Basic processing efficiency Changes in the knowledge base
Biological Theories Ethology – Area of study focusing on the adaptive significance or survival value of behaviors. Strong influence from Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and natural selection concept. Behavior Genetics Neuropsychology – An area of study that focuses on the study of the brain and nervous system; researchers often observe brain functions using technology such as CT scans, PET, and fMRI.
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory Focuses on the complex set of systems and interacting social layers that can affect a child’s development. Microsystem – interactions with people in immediate environment Mesosystem – larger social environment Exosystem – even larger social settings and networks Macrosystem – values, customs, laws and resources of culture at large Chronosystem – how the effects of the systems, and the interrelationships among them, change over time
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
Dynamic Systems Theory Theories that use models from mathematics and physics to understand complex systems of development. Focus on how layers of systems interact with one another and change over time.
Baby on Slide 1: from retrieved December 8, 2005http://www.learnonyourown.com/imagesnew/i_photo.jpg Freud on Slide 5: from retrieved December 6, 2005http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/freud/images/vc jpg Baby on Slide 7: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 10). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Erikson on Slide 8: from retrieved December 6, 2005http://www.austenriggs.org/research.html Watson on Slide 10: from retrieved December 6, 2005http://rcswww.urz.tu-dresden.de/~dornhoef/pioneers3.htm Pavlov on Slide 12: from bio.html, retrieved December 6, 2005http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov- bio.html Cartoon on Slide 13: from retrieved December 8, 2005http://evolution.massey.ac.nz/assign2/KR/ClassCond.jpg Skinner on Slide 15: from retrieved December 6, 2005
Bandura on Slide 17: from retrieved December 6, 2005http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/bandurabio.html Piaget on Slide 19: from retrieved December 6, 2005http://www.facade.com/celebrity/Jean_Piaget/ Baby on Slide 21: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 14). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Vygotski on Slide 23: from retrieved December 6, Scan on Slide 27: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 16). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Bronfenbrenner on Slide 28: from retrieved December 6, System on Slide 30: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 18). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.