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Protecting children: the current context Dr Liz Davies, Reader in Child Protection: London Metropolitan University

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1 Protecting children: the current context Dr Liz Davies, Reader in Child Protection: London Metropolitan University

2 Child protection is political Children silenced Adult survivors silenced Professionals, the voice for children and survivors are silenced Effective child protection must include seeking justice through targeting perpetrators. When you enter this world it is one of cover –up and intrigue It’s a secret world and when we investigate we mirror the hidden world of the abusers.

3 NSPCC SCR’s 2011-2012 74 SCRs 23 included parental or child substance/alcohol misuse 18 parental mental health problems of which half also had substance misuse problems. Again and again conclusions stated non- implementation of child protection procedures

4 Bearing witness to injustice Friere described the role of the ‘critical witness’ as involved in an ongoing process which is not static but active. Friere P (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed p144 ------------------------------------------------------- Power over Also power with and power to (Thorpe in Okitikpi)


6 CHILDISM:Oppression of children CRAE (2012) The State of Children’s Rights in Britain ‘Most children who died from abuse had not had child protection procedures to keep them safe’. ‘Social work managers spoke of rising referrals, cuts in funding and cuts in staff affecting services to support families’.

7 Tom Watson MP The evidence file – used to convict paedophile Peter Righton – if it still exists, contains clear intelligence of a widespread paedophile ring. One of it’s members boasts of his links to a senior aide of a former Prime minister, who says he could smuggle indecent images of children from abroad. The leads were not followed up, but if the files still exist, I want to ensure that the Metropolitan Police secure the evidence, re- examine it, and investigate clear intelligence suggesting a powerful paedophile network linked to Parliament and Number 10 October 2012

8 Peter Righton: Social work academic, school governor (New Barns school,Gloucester) convicted 1992 for possession of abusive images of children. Lived on Baron Henniker Estate in Suffolk where Islington children went for holidays. Died 2007.Investigations in Islington and Hereford and Worcester closed. Contributed to Perspectives on Paedophilia (Taylor 1981) and member of PIE. Charles Napier, friend, co author and PIE member, convictions - found in Devon. Unmonitored. The Minister being referred to? Still unnamed.

9 Elm Guest House,Rocks Lane.South London:ExaroNews, Independent Murun Buchstansangur (Twitter) Tom Watson MP (website/Twitter) Mark Williams Thomas (Twitter )

10 ‘Paedophilia bringing dark desires to light’ Jon Henley;Guardian 03.01.2013. The Editor wrote:‘an intelligent, calm and informative piece about this disturbing area of life’ Tom O’Carroll, founder of PIE and author of radical Case for paedophilia 1989, convicted for distributing indecent images of children, launches his website in confidence.

11 Graham Ovenden: artist 70 yrs; convicted after 20 years 6 charges of indecency and one of indecent assault. Rachael Cooke Guardian ‘images of children now revealed to be porn not art.. But some images not even naked.. But even if they were naked I wouldn’t feel any differently’ AA Gill: ‘How dare the Tate hide the works of Graham Ovenden after his conviction for indecency?’ We have regressed to being 17thC witchfinders. The fear of and fury against paedophilia know no proportion’. Sunday Times 14.04.2013

12 Demise of child protection systems Since the mid-90s government policy has led to a demise of child protection systems and children are now less well protected. This agenda was deliberate and well organised with extensive support from academics The global industry of child abuse has been safeguarded but not the child victims

13 A global crime requires a global protective response sexual exploitation trafficking international adoption trade organised, institutional and ritual abuse networks online abuse trade in abusive images of children forced marriage sex tourism bonded labour/ child sex slavery illegal organ trade

14 Children increasingly unprotected Substantial reduction in children protected by statutory protocols since mid 90s, accelerated since 2003 This does not reflect known prevalence rates or the vast extent of global industry of child abuse as even now being exposed. Resources do not match the need.Operation Fernbridge/ Fairbank : few struggling officers. Should be multi agency, multi professional team. The most vulnerable children remain unprotected The most powerful and well organised criminals avoid detection, prosecution and conviction The government planned for a public response to an increase in child deaths from abuse

15 Reduction in protective action 1995 2009 2010 2012 Physical abuse 12,300 4,400 4,700 4690 Sexual abuse 7,200 2,000 2,200 2220 11,721,722 children in England in 2010 42.850 in 2012 subject to CP Plans (Majority neglect and emotional harm)

16 NSPCC research 2011: prevalence rates One in four young adults (25.3%) had been severely maltreated during childhood. One in seven young adults (14.5%) had been severely maltreated by a parent or guardian during childhood. One in nine young adults (11.5%) had experienced severe physical violence during childhood at the hands of an adult. One in nine young adults (11.3%) had experienced contact sexual abuse during childhood. Almost one in 10 young adults (9%) had been severely neglected by parents or guardians during childhood. NSPCC (2011) Child abuse and neglect in the UK today.

17 Demise of child protection systems since mid 90s Abolition of child protection register Undermining of police / probation / social work joint investigation Social workers assessing child and family need / police investigating crime/probation working with perpetrators lack of protocols for risk analysis Loss of specialist child protection social work teams and joint social work/police teams

18 Political agendas: From the welfare state to the security state Privatisation: profit motives above the welfare of children. Undermining professionalism and deskilling the workforce makes it ripe for privatisation (e.g. Suffolk). Narrow down statutory work to a minimum. Government funding services £448 million to 150,000 multi- disadvantaged /hard to reach families because of the ‘corrosive element’ and preventing social unrest. Families defined as - poor housing, unemployed, poor education, can’t afford food & clothing. Criminalisation of children as suspects not victims: pre-emptive criminalisation e.g. ASBOs Population surveillance and control. Extensive insecure databases of information about children and families

19 Don’t forget Sedgemoor Venture Capital company ECI bought Sedgemoor in 2005. Sedgemoor was one of the largest providers of residential care for children. In 2007 facing losses 45 children’s homes (caring for 75 children) went into liquidation. 5 days consultation with Ofsted and relevant LAs. Within 48 hours 15 homes were sold on. Children in the remaining homes had to be found new placements.’ One council said, ‘the children were very angry, understandably’ These firms tend to operate on a 3-5 year investment model. ‘Is this compatible with the long term care needs of the most vulnerable members of society?’ (Louise Tickle Guardian 05.02.08)

20 WYETH – 2003 ECM Wyeth pharmaceutical company – a multi national specialising in vaccinations, behaviour modifying medication, children’s antibiotics, babymilk etc. It was planned for this company to launch Every Child Matters Green Paper with the DfES. Don’t assume your in-house providers are the best option …a scope of current and potential markets for providing children’s services … to create a successful business model’. DfES (2004:30)ECM Next Steps Followed Climbié

21 Privatising statutory child protection Suffolk tried to privatise all children’s services. Public outcry. services

22 Tim Loughton MP I am going to rip up the guidance (Community Care Live presentation May 2012)

23 We know how to protect children - the knowledge base exists The language of child protection has been stolen from us The systems of child protection have been stolen from us.

24 Analysis of academic texts The texts were analysed with respect to five terms; joint investigation police child abuse investigation team/unit Section 47 (Children Act 1989) strategy meeting child protection register/child protection plan

25 Analysis of 42 child protection/safeguarding academic texts between 2000 and 2009 Number of texts out of a total of 42 in which term included joint investigation3 police child abuse investigation team/unit3 Section 47 (Children Act 1989)5 strategy meeting4 child protection register/ child protection plan 10

26 Reviews that restrict themselves to abuse within the family and ignore the global industry. Laming ‘The Protection of children in England’ 2009: ‘Just do it’ DO WHAT? Munro ‘Review of child protection – a child centred system’ 2011 (HELPING CHILDREN’ ‘THE CHILD’S JOURNEY’ ETC Neither mention key aspects of child protection systems: S47, strategy meetings, child protection conferences, CAITs

27 Munro Review of child protection 2011 Focus only on abuse within family – early intervention/help Omitted focus on perpetrators and organised crime: CAIT/Probation not mentioned Focus on bureaucracy - used to promote downsizing of guidance Working Together: practice guidance to be locally written (DfE 2010): Parallel developments in Probation reducing national standards to three pages Decided against the need for a National Signposting system Omitted child protection procedures, S47, strategy meetings, child protection conferences No mention of children known to be at high risk of harm (eg. disabled children, children in custody, unaccompanied minors)

28 Working Together 2013: implemented 15 th April Reduction from 700 pages to just 97 Not a transparent process. No summary of the consultation process. Allan Norman ‘ Human Rights eliminated from the guidance. Keep 2010 version at your elbow’. ECPAT ‘ the repercussions could be catastrophic Thresholds and protocols to be decided locally yet Edward Timpson spoke of too much variation in child protection across the country.

29 The change in language Key definitions and terminology open to misinterpretation Joint investigation/investigation completely gone (only refers to criminal investigation Protect replaced by help / support /concern ‘Anyone working with children should see and speak to the child’. Phrases that mean little or nothing Initial conferences; no mention of categories (in glossary) no mention of significant harm.

30 Conflation of assessment and investigation. Need both as distinct protocols Assessment of child’s needs – partnership with family, open approach, consent needed to interview child Section 47: medical and forensic evidence, intelligence gathering, profile abusers, venues/associates, do not need parental consent for interview of child or to make checks with other agencies. May need to challenge and confront parents/carers. The new version of WT has abolished initial assessment and blurred the boundary between child welfare and child protection concerns (Norman 2013) 45 days assessment. Risks delay in protective response (Pilots only reviews timescales not impact of statutory intervention) A linear approach from assessing need to assessing harm instead of two distinct processes. Leads to over intrusion into family life at level of ‘concern’ – state power over the ‘goodenough’ family. Under intrusion when child in need approach replaces child protection

31 Police role No mention of Police CAITs. Strategy meetings to be attended by police representatives (unclear) ‘All police forces should have officers trained in child abuse investigation’

32 Chapter 6 The Supplements Organised and complex abuse Female Genital Mutilation Spirit possession Fabricated and Induced Illness Disabled children Forced marriage Sexual exploitation Children affected by Gang activity Allegations against staff

33 Other Chapters that have gone Chapter 4: Training and development Chapters 9 and 10: Lessons from Research Chapter 11: Particularly vulnerable children Chapter 12: Managing individuals who pose a risk of harm to children

34 Organised abuse The definition of organised abuse has been removed. The means of investigating organised abuse has been removed. DfE response: Organised abuse guidance is in ACPO manual (2009). A police manual. One page refers back to WT 2010 and Home Office Guidance 2002 as recommended in WT 2010.

35 WT 2013: Lack of Caveats: If to do so is in the child’s best interests If to do so will not place the child at risk of harm ‘It is the responsibility of the social worker to make clear to children and families how the assessment will be carried out and when they can expect a decision on next steps’(p24) ‘Response to a referral: the child and family must be informed of the action to be taken’ (p26) ‘Social worker to see the child’ (p36)

36 30 major police operations (plus) There are currently over 30 police operations regarding child sexual abuse across England and Wales. These include historic (non-recent) abuse cases and cases such as Elm Guest House in Barnes. Yewtree: Numbers of enquiries: hospitals, BBC, police Savile, Savile and others and others. No national coordination or National Multi - agency team. The people who join the jots are journalists!

37 The media as an ally The media is an effective way of protecting children. It works. Often it is all we have A free press is essential to a democratic society: it is currently under attack. Supportive, brave journalists are frightened to investigate child abuse. It has become dangerous for everyone involved. Look beyond usual media sources Work with trusted journalists

38 Social Media Exaro news

39 Focus on single issues Individual cases of survivors (Teresa Cooper, Phil Frampton), professional whistleblowers (Nevres Kemal) Government policy: reduction of statutory guidance, databases, minimisation of police role, deprofessionalisation, deregulation, privatisation etc. Exposure of child abuse scandals (Islington, Jersey) Exposing global industry of organised crime against children(illegal adoption trade, missing children, trafficking, abusive images etc) Challenge and critique of government reviews of child protection (Laming, Munro, Savile) Exposing the role of business interests in the world of children (pharmaceutical companies (GSK), private children’s homes (Sedgemoor). Children’s services

40 Islington:extensive abuse of children in care homes From 1992 - over 150 newsprint articles on the abuse of children within the Islington care system: Each of 13 inquiries followed disclosure in the media. Survivors were involved throughout alongside whistleblowing social workers

41 Islington Inquiry report 1995 -a social worker identified 61 young people – victims of abuse but police said there was no evidence of a network -No evidence of ritual abuse ‘ an extraordinary and horrifying story’ Ken Loach, film director. Savile Inquiry Report: ‘no clear evidence he operated in a paedophile ring’ 214 crimes, 34 of rape from 1955-2009.

42 Demetrious Panton: in ‘care’ of Islington council from age 10 years. Minister for Children, Margaret Hodge, described him as ‘disturbed’. Now Steve Meesham(North Wales Bryn Alyn) being vilified as having unreliable evidence with regard to the unnamed ‘Government Minister’.

43 Connections 'I have known about Jersey paedophiles for 15 years,' says award-winning journalist Eileen Fairweather 02.03.2008 Baby P relative implicated in child sex ring 14.12.2008 Sunday Times Baby P’s close relative linked to a big paedophile network. 15.11.2008 Daily Mail Tabloids and Broadsheets: Nick Davies ‘ Flat Earth News’ Churnalism: ‘If you can sell it we tell it’

44 JERSEY 14 x 8 km Population only 91,000

45 Haut de la Garenne - Jersey children’s home until 1986. 1000 children lived there between the 50s and 80s. Police investigation found remains of 5 children, over 100 children’s bones and 4 punishment rooms. 169 adult survivors informed homicide (but not child protection) investigation. Political suppression, imprisonment of key supportive politician. Redress Board.

46 Gorey Bay and castle

47 Jersey care leavers: 160 stories untold: media provided a voice UK children sent to Jersey But No UK based child protection investigation

48 The stone bath : police dug into the cellar and found this as survivors had described.(Similar in Whitby re Savile. Similar in other places in London)

49 The bunker

50 Jersey Opera House

51 Police investigator : Lenny Harper: I can quite clearly say that the investigation is being held up. There are people on the island who just don't want us going down the route of this inquiry"

52 Stuart Syvret: imprisoned Jersey Careleavers: facebook

53 Savile at Haut de la Garenne

54 NEVRES KEMAL : Because we're good people, and we do a very good job, and someone has to do it Social worker prevented from investigating case of sexual abuse of 7 young children She gained a voice in the media but has no work If they had listened to my concerns and taken measures to rectify them Baby Peter might never have died. I’ve had four years of hell and disbelief, words cannot express what I have been through but it’s all irrelevant – a boy has died.

55 ‘A passion to help improve the lives of children and learners’ Trustee : Paul Blackburn : Glaxo Smith Kline vice president Phil Frampton - research Liz Davies: Comment piece: ‘Real experience should have been reflected in Ofsted appointments’ Guardian:12.06.08 Eileen Fairweather in Mail 1034578/Ofsted-tells-Glaxo-executive- quit-board-clash-interest.html Link with vaccine contracts to schools Resignation in 2 weeks. Financial Times comment re corporate appointments.

56 MASH: Multi agency safeguarding hubs: Working Together at point of intake. Probation omitted and criminal justice system represented by YOT only. Child Abuse Investigation Teams also omitted whose focus is child victims.

57 SCANDANAVIA:BARNAHUS: Children’s House A children’s rights model under one roof: proactive child protection Iceland 1998,22 in Sweden, 1 in Denmark, 7 in Norway. Development in Finland and Greenland Multi agency child protection system involving police, social workers, health and education professionals, prosecutors and therapists. Focus on justice as well as the protection of children Children do not have to present in court The system applies also to children under age 15 who have offended






63 Survivor accounts Cooper T (2008) Trust No One. London. Orion Frampton P (2004) The Golly in the Cupboard. Manchester. Tamic Margaret Humphreys (2011) Oranges and Sunshine. Empty Cradles. London. Corgi (now a movie) O’Gorman C (2010) Beyond belief. Hodder Whelan D (2010) No more silence. London. Harper Element Keeble H (2010) Baby X. London Pocket Books Keeble H (2011) Little Victim. London Simon and Schuster

64 Recent links!v=1115764 Use of babies in ireland for drugs trials Child protection ‚ family support‘ policy in the US and consequences Against child trafficking: Roelie Post ( 2007) The untold story of the romanian orphanages.Eurocomment. Many dvds on this website including ‚‘the secret life of paedophiles‘ The Peter Righton story News website covering current organised abuse issues

65 Davies L and Duckett N (2009)


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