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Child and Adolescent Development: Cognitive development Week 2-1.

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1 Child and Adolescent Development: Cognitive development Week 2-1

2 Overview: Basic theoretical issues Cognitive-Developmental theory (Piaget) Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)

3 1.Basic theoretical issues Definition of development – Certain changes that occur in human beings between conception and death – Temporary change caused by a brief ill or drugs is not considered part of development – Can be divided into many different aspects,including physical development,personal development,social development, and cognitive development.

4 General principles of development People develop at different rates Development is relatively orderly Development takes place gradually Development is affected by both heredity and environment

5 2.Piaget ’ s Cognitive Theory Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896. In 1918, received his Doctorate in Science from the University of Neuchâtel. In 1952, he became a professor at the Sorbonne

6 Background of Cognitive Theory Student of biology and zoology Learned that survival requires adaptation Any individual organism, as well as an entire species, must adapt to constant changes in the environment Viewed development of human cognition/intelligence as the continual struggle of a very complex organism to adapt to complex environment

7 Piaget ’ s Cognitive Theory: Human development described in terms of functions and structures Functions: inborn biological mechanisms that are the same for everyone, remain unchanged during lifetime; help construct internal cognitive structures Structures: change repeatedly during development Schemes = cognitive structures

8 Schemes Fundamental aspect of theory Not something that a child has, is what a child does Relationships between two elements, an object in the environment and the child ’ s reaction to the object E.g., Ball - can push it, throw it, mouth it Psychological structure, reflects child ’ s underlying knowledge that guides interactions with the world.

9 Schemes It is the nature and organization of schemes that define a child ’ s intelligence at a given time. Schemes are flexible, typically have a broad scope, change over time

10 Example 3.5 years child reading the map of China Shandong to Shanghai Shandong to Beijing How will we go from shanghai to beijing to call on someone? Conclusion: The child merges two schemes into a unit

11 Functions Two major functions: 1) Organization: Cognitive structures are related and fitted into the existing system. – Involves integration, not just adding on. 2) Adaptation: Tendency of the child to fit with its environment in ways that promote survival. (Sub-processes are assimilation and accommodation.)

12 Piaget ’ s Cognitive Theory: Constructivism Children ’ s knowledge of events in the environment are not an exact reproduction of those events. Not like a photograph. Children shape what they learn from their environments and shape it to fit with existing schemes.

13 Stages (periods) of development Sensorimotor (0-24 months) Preoperational period (Ages 2 to 6 years) Concrete operational period (6 - 11 years) Formal operations period (11 years - adulthood)

14 Sensorimotor stage (0 to 24 months): Six substages Reflexes graduate to more flexible action patterns Show increasing levels of intentional and goal directed behavior Begin to understand object permanence Mental representation develops Deferred imitation, make-believe play

15 Preoperational stage (24 months to 7 years) Make-believe play becomes more complex, evolves to socio-dramatic play Dual representation develops (realize that photos represent things in the world) Helps preschoolers understand others ’ perspectives Still quite egocentric Animistic thinking Conservation and hierarchical classification still difficult

16 Teaching preoperational child Use concrete and visual aids Short instruction with actions and words Pay attention to the inconsistent perspectives More hands-on practice When learning concepts and language,provide a wide range of experiences

17 Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11 years) Thought becomes more logical and organized Conservation develops: Shows that kids can de-centre and reverse their thinking Seriation and inference develops Cognitive maps develop Cultural practices and education have a profound effect at this stage

18 Teaching the concrete-operational students Use concrete props and visual aids Give students chances to manipulate and test objects Presentation and readings should be brief and well- organized Use familiar examples to explain complex ideals Give opportunities to classify and group objects and ideals on increasingly complex levels Present questions the need logical,analytical thinking

19 Formal Operational stage (11 years +): Abstract thinking appears Deductive reasoning emerges Even many university students only think in abstract ways on topics with which they have extensive experience.

20 Teaching formal operational students Continue to use concrete-operational teaching strategies and materials Give students the opportunity to explore many hypothetical questions Give students opportunities to solve problems and reason scientifically If possible, teach broad concepts, not just facts,using materials relevant to the real life

21 Educational implications Children is not “ small adults ” Understanding students ’ thinking Teaching based on the developmental levels of students ’ thinking Learning is a constructive process

22 Limitations of Piaget ’ s Theory The trouble with stages(lack of consistency in children ’ s thinking) Underestimating children ’ s abilities Children ’ s trouble with Piagetian tasks can be explained by information processing theory (neo-Piagetian theories ) Can ’ t explain youth ’ s thinking(post-formal operation) Overlooking the effects of culture and social group

23 3.Vygotsky ’ s Sociocultural theory Born on November 5, 1896 in Byelorussia (Soviet Union) He was first educated as lawyer and a philologist He began his career as a psychologist in1917 and only pursued this career for 17 years before his death from tuberculosis in 1934.

24 Basic viewpoints Emphasized the way that values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a culture/social group influence children Focused on dialogues between children and more experienced members of society Language leads to self-talk and the development of cognition, and later metacognition (errors in text p44)

25 Vygotsky ’ s theories Cultural tools theory Private/self speech theory Theory of zone of proximal development

26 Cultural tools theory Social interaction is the origin of individual thinking Cultural tools,including real tools and symbolic tools play very important roles in cognitive development Higher-order metal processes are mediated by psychological tools

27 Private speech theory Children speak to themselves for self-guidance Start doing this openly, then to self (you may see their lips move) Language forms the foundation for all higher cognitive processes Children with learning difficulties show more private speech over a longer period

28 Private speech and self-regulation First, behavior is regulated by others Next, using the same language to regulated others ’ behavior Third, using private speech to regulate ones own behavior Finally, regulated his/her behavior by silent inner speech

29 Theory of zone of proximal development A: The area where child can solve a problem alone B: Problems beyond the children ’ s capabilities C: Zone of proximal development: the area where the child can ’ t solve a problem alone,but can be successful under adult guidance or in collaboration with a more advanced peer Instruction should be given in the ZPD

30 Implications of Vygotsgy ’ s theory for teachers Assisted learning – Scaffolding – From heteronomous to autonomous The zone of proximal development – Assessment of learning potential – Guide students by explanations,demonstrations,and with other students

31 Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky ’ s theories PiagetVygotsky Background Course of Development Agents of Development Implications

32 Pause and Discussion What makes the differences between Piaget ’ s and Vygotsky ’ s theories?

33 Application and Generation Analyse the reasons why your English study are relatively ineffective. Design a suitable project for enhancing your English performance.

34 The End


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