Presentation on theme: "Child and Adolescent Development: Cognitive development"— Presentation transcript:
1Child and Adolescent Development: Cognitive development Week 2-1
2Overview: Basic theoretical issues Cognitive-Developmental theory (Piaget)Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)
31.Basic theoretical issues Definition of developmentCertain changes that occur in human beings between conception and deathTemporary change caused by a brief ill or drugs is not considered part of developmentCan be divided into many different aspects,including physical development,personal development,social development, and cognitive development.
4General principles of development People develop at different ratesDevelopment is relatively orderlyDevelopment takes place graduallyDevelopment is affected by both heredity and environment
52.Piaget’s Cognitive Theory Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896. In 1918, received his Doctorate in Science from the University of Neuchâtel. In 1952, he became a professor at the Sorbonne
6Background of Cognitive Theory Student of biology and zoologyLearned that survival requires adaptationAny individual organism, as well as an entire species, must adapt to constant changes in the environmentViewed development of human cognition/intelligence as the continual struggle of a very complex organism to adapt to complex environment
7Piaget’s Cognitive Theory: Human development described in terms of functions and structuresFunctions: inborn biological mechanisms that are the same for everyone, remain unchanged during lifetime; help construct internal cognitive structuresStructures: change repeatedly during developmentSchemes = cognitive structures
8Schemes Fundamental aspect of theory Not something that a child has, is what a child doesRelationships between two elements, an object in the environment and the child’s reaction to the objectE.g., Ball - can push it, throw it, mouth itPsychological structure, reflects child’s underlying knowledge that guides interactions with the world.
9SchemesIt is the nature and organization of schemes that define a child’s intelligence at a given time.Schemes are flexible, typically have a broad scope, change over time
10Example 3.5 years child reading the map of China Shandong to Shanghai Shandong to BeijingHow will we go from shanghai to beijing to call on someone?Conclusion: The child merges two schemes into a unit
11Functions Two major functions: 1) Organization: Cognitive structures are related and fitted into the existing system.Involves integration, not just adding on.2) Adaptation: Tendency of the child to fit with its environment in ways that promote survival. (Sub-processes are assimilation and accommodation.)
12Piaget’s Cognitive Theory: Constructivism Children’s knowledge of events in the environment are not an exact reproduction of those events. Not like a photograph.Children shape what they learn from their environments and shape it to fit with existing schemes.
13Stages (periods) of development Sensorimotor (0-24 months)Preoperational period (Ages 2 to 6 years)Concrete operational period ( years)Formal operations period (11 years - adulthood)
14Sensorimotor stage (0 to 24 months): Six substagesReflexes graduate to more flexible action patternsShow increasing levels of intentional and goal directed behaviorBegin to understand object permanenceMental representation developsDeferred imitation, make-believe play
15Preoperational stage (24 months to 7 years) Make-believe play becomes more complex, evolves to socio-dramatic playDual representation develops (realize that photos represent things in the world)Helps preschoolers understand others’ perspectivesStill quite egocentricAnimistic thinkingConservation and hierarchical classification still difficult
16Teaching preoperational child Use concrete and visual aidsShort instruction with actions and wordsPay attention to the inconsistent perspectivesMore hands-on practiceWhen learning concepts and language,provide a wide range of experiences
17Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11 years) Thought becomes more logical and organizedConservation develops: Shows that kids can de-centre and reverse their thinkingSeriation and inference developsCognitive maps developCultural practices and education have a profound effect at this stage
18Teaching the concrete-operational students Use concrete props and visual aidsGive students chances to manipulate and test objectsPresentation and readings should be brief and well-organizedUse familiar examples to explain complex idealsGive opportunities to classify and group objects and ideals on increasingly complex levelsPresent questions the need logical,analytical thinking
19Formal Operational stage (11 years +): Abstract thinking appearsDeductive reasoning emergesEven many university students only think in abstract ways on topics with which they have extensive experience.
20Teaching formal operational students Continue to use concrete-operational teaching strategies and materialsGive students the opportunity to explore many hypothetical questionsGive students opportunities to solve problems and reason scientificallyIf possible, teach broad concepts, not just facts,using materials relevant to the real life
21Educational implications Children is not “small adults”Understanding students’ thinkingTeaching based on the developmental levels of students’ thinkingLearning is a constructive process
22Limitations of Piaget’s Theory The trouble with stages(lack of consistency in children’s thinking)Underestimating children’s abilitiesChildren’s trouble with Piagetian tasks can be explained by information processing theory(neo-Piagetian theories )Can’t explain youth’s thinking(post-formal operation)Overlooking the effects of culture and social group
233.Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory Born on November 5, 1896 in Byelorussia (Soviet Union)He was first educated as lawyer and a philologistHe began his career as a psychologist in1917 and only pursued this career for 17 years before his death from tuberculosis in 1934.
24Basic viewpointsEmphasized the way that values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a culture/social group influence childrenFocused on dialogues between children and more experienced members of societyLanguage leads to self-talk and the development of cognition, and later metacognition(errors in text p44)
25Vygotsky’s theories Cultural tools theory Private/self speech theory Theory of zone of proximal development
26Cultural tools theorySocial interaction is the origin of individual thinkingCultural tools,including real tools and symbolic tools play very important roles in cognitive developmentHigher-order metal processes are mediated by psychological tools
27Private speech theory Children speak to themselves for self-guidance Start doing this openly, then to self (you may see their lips move)Language forms the foundation for all higher cognitive processesChildren with learning difficulties show more private speech over a longer period
28Private speech and self-regulation First, behavior is regulated by othersNext, using the same language to regulated others’ behaviorThird , using private speech to regulate ones own behaviorFinally, regulated his/her behavior by silent inner speech
29Theory of zone of proximal development A: The area where child can solve a problem aloneB: Problems beyond the children’s capabilitiesC: Zone of proximal development: the area where the child can’t solve a problem alone,but can be successful under adult guidance or in collaboration with a more advanced peerInstruction should be given in the ZPD
30Implications of Vygotsgy’s theory for teachers Assisted learningScaffoldingFrom heteronomous to autonomousThe zone of proximal developmentAssessment of learning potentialGuide students by explanations,demonstrations,and with other students
31Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories BackgroundCourse of DevelopmentAgents of DevelopmentImplications
32Pause and DiscussionWhat makes the differences between Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories?
33Application and Generation Analyse the reasons why your English study are relatively ineffective.Design a suitable project for enhancing your English performance.